Read: Guidance for Bahai Radio


GUIDANCE FOR BAHA'I RADIO
FROM THE BAHA'I WORLD CENTRE
>From May, 1980 to December, 1989

Compiled by
Donald R. Witzel
May, 1990


<pi>

"Proclaim with both pen and tongue My Cause. Cry out and summon
the people to Him Who is the Sovereign Lord of all worlds, with
such zeal and fervor that all men may be set on fire by thee."

Baha'u'llah, "Gleanings from the Writings of ...", p. 310


"When a speaker's brow shineth with the radiance of the love of
God that the heat thereof may be manifest in all your veins, your
limbs and members of your body, and the people of the world may
be ignited by this heat and turn to the horizon of the Beloved."

'Abdu'l-Baha, "Promulgation of Universal Peace", pp. 273-274


"In connection with the radio work ... he would suggest that the
main consideration is to bring to the attention of the public the
fact that the Faith exists, and its teachings.
Every kind of broadcast, whether of passages from the
Writings, or on typical subjects, or lectures, should be used.
The people need to hear the word 'Baha'i' so that they can, if
receptive, respond and seek the Cause out. The primary duty of
the
friends everywhere in the world is to let the people know such a
Revelation is in existence; their next duty is to teach it."

Shoghi Effendi, from letter dated July 24, 1943, written on his
behalf to an individual believer



IBAVC, Cat. No. 90254

<pii>
First Edition, May 1990
Cover: Susan L. McLaren

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Special thanks to Miss Audrey Montero P. for her help in typing
and
correction of the manuscript. Also to IBAVC Distribution for
layout
and general editing.

All Rights Reserved
this compilation (c)
1990 Donald R. Witzel
Apdo. 1794
Maracaibo, Venezuela
4001-A
Approved and printed
by the Media Promotion
and Training Division,
International Baha'i
Audio-Visual Centre

<piii>
TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. Administration............................................. 1

Introduction

1. Goals...................................................... 1

2. Mandate of C.I.R.B.A.L. ................................... 2

3. Management by Radio Commission ............................ 4

4. Management Problems ....................................... 6

5. Personnel, Labor Laws and Labor Relations and Human
Relations Among Staff Members ............................ 10

A. Managerial Practices to Agree With Law ................ 13

6. Radio Personnel Contracts and Terms of Service ........... 13

7. Personnel Contracts ...................................... 14

8. Personnel Volunteers ..................................... 16

9. Cultural Association ..................................... 17

10. Development Projects, Non-Baha'i Agencies ................ 18

11. Reports .................................................. 19

12. Evaluation, C.I.D.A., Share Reports ...................... 20

13. Frequency, Application ................................... 20

14. Baha'i Holy Days ......................................... 20


II. Programming, Training and Production ..................... 22

1. Training ................................................. 22

2. United Nations, Collaboration ............................ 25

3. Baha'i Programming, Training and Broadcasting ............ 25

4. Non-Baha'i Religious Groups Which Request Radio
Announcements of Meetings or Have Volunteered Their
Choirs for Programs ...................................... 28
<piv>
5. Sharing Programming With Other Radio Stations;
Broadcasting Policies and Schedules ...................... 29

6. Radio Baha'i Seminar ..................................... 30

7. Educational Programming .................................. 31

8. Shortwave Radio Programming .............................. 32

9. Baha'i Programming Increase .............................. 35

10. Baha'i News Releases and Comuniques ...................... 36

11. Musical Programmes ....................................... 37

12. Teamwork in Disaster Relief Services ..................... 37

13. Production Schedule ...................................... 38

14. Frequent Field Recordings ................................ 38

15. Audience Participation ................................... 38

16. Development Project Programming .......................... 39


III. Budget, Finances, Reports ............................... 40

Introduction

1. Budgets and Funds ........................................ 40

2. Donations, Letters of, Collaboration ..................... 44

3. Vehicles Adequate Insurance and Careful Management ....... 45

4. Accounting and Earmarked Funds ........................... 47

5. Ministry of Education - Literacy by Air .................. 47

6. Management of Funds and Voluntary Non-Baha'i Contributions 48

A. Non-Voluntary Programs ................................ 49

7. Self-support of Radio Stations, Strict Economy
and Efficiency in Work ................................... 49

A. Additional Sources of Support to Reduce Burden to the
Baha'i International Fund ............................. 49
<pv>
B. Special Letter on Additional Sources of Support ....... 51

8. Development Projects and Baha'i Projects in their
relations with all non-Baha'i Fund-Granting Agencies ..... 55

IV. Technical Matters ........................................ 57

Introduction

1. Technical Personnel ...................................... 57

2. Role of Consultants ...................................... 57

3. Construction and Design .................................. 60

4. Equipment Purchasing ..................................... 61

5. Power Sources ............................................ 64

6. Shortwave Engineering .................................... 65

7. Safety ................................................... 65

8. Survey of FM listenership (Audience) ..................... 66

9. Commercial Radio Stations ................................ 67
<pvi>
GUIDANCE FOR BAHA'I RADIO
From the Baha'i World Centre
Correspondence from May, 1980 to December, 1989

Introduction

This is a selection from the guidance received from the Baha'i
World Centre on Baha'i Radio from May, 1980 to December, 1989.
The
most appropriate letters and quotations have been chosen by the
compiler to guide the present radio stations in their ongoing
development. For the most part the guidance takes the form of
extracts from letters sent to C.I.R.B.A.L. (Baha'i Mass Media
Centre), International Baha'i Audio-Visual Centre (I.B.A.V.C.),
National Spiritual Assemblies or individual Baha'is.

The contents of this work have been divided into four major
themes: Administration; Programming, Training and Production;
Finance and Technical Matters. Each major topic has subtitles
according to necessity.

The guidance of the World Centre was received from three
sources: the Department of the Secretariat, the Audio-Visual
Department and the Office of Social and Economic Development.

Although general guidance can be applied to all Baha'i Radio
Stations, sometimes the guidance destined for one particular
station does not fit the distinct circumstances and situation of
another radio station.

Also to be understood is that the guidance has been given in an
evolutionary form according to the growth and development of
each Baha'i Radio Station.

This compilation has been prepared to help in the
development of a network of Baha'i Radio Stations which to a
great
extent share a common experience in their early development,
growth
and progress. The guidance given for their similar problems,
difficulties to be overcome, and success and
recognition in their communities is hereby made available and
shared for the benefit of all Baha'i Radio Stations and all
others interested in this area of development.

The Compiler
Donald R. Witzel
<p1>
ADMINISTRATION-- Goals 1


I. Administration

"The effective utilization of the radio and the continued
improvement of its operation should always receive the careful
attention of the Assembly."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Peru, dated 18/08/85

1. Goals

"The Assembly is reminded that the station's primary goal is to
deepen the Baha'is of the area, while expansion of the Faith and
upliftment of the people are further goals."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 17/11/82


"The evaluation points to many things to be done, but
particularly confirms the soundness of the concepts of
broadcasting introduced by Counsellor Raul Pavon, along with his
perception of how to meet the ideological and community needs of
the campesinos, including the legion of Indian Baha'is. The
apparent success of the radio project thus far only underlines
the obligations of your Assembly to continue this excellent
endeavor, even improving the programming in both AM and
shortwave, while remembering the primary goal of deepening the
Baha'is themselves, not only via radio but via the associated
teaching work."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 01/03/84

"You are urged to take all steps to realize the great teaching,
proclamation and consolidation possibilities in Otavalo, so that
you may successfully reach both the Indian and non-Indian
populations of the region. The House of Justice will. pray for
your guidance in discharging Your vital duties in the development
of both station and institute."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 01/03/84

"In the management of an institution like the radio station,
and
another like the Guaymi Cultural Centre, there is much to be
learned. You have done well in your awareness of the <p2>
limited funds available; but you should consult fully on the
Baha'i positions of justice and equality. The House of Justice
will offer its prayers at the Holy Threshold for your guidance as
you bring this new instrument of proclamation and teaching to
efficiency and popularity among the peoples of western Panama."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Panama, dated 19/08/87

2. Mandate of C.I.R.B.A.L.

"The House of Justice is happy to see the Executive Committee
taking the initiatives called for in developing the radio and
media work in Latin America, and urges Your continuing attention
to the many facets of radio development now afoot."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated
02/06/82

"The promotion of inter-Assembly cooperation of those National
Assemblies having radio goals is a function of C.I.R.B.A.L.,
for Radio Baha'i Otavalo and Radio Baha'i Titicaca, cooperation
between them and subsequent stations, as each becomes
operational, is anticipated as a normal development and will no
doubt include shortwave links and the sharing of programs
produced by Radio Baha'i Otavalo with the other stations."

"Radio-trained personnel from other lands should be encouraged to
pioneer to the countries where stations are established.

Department of the Secretariat to K. Dean Stephens, dated 02/06/82

"Kindly continue to submit each annual draft budget or
supplemental budget to C.I.R.B.A.L. for its analysis and
consultation, for C.I.R.B.A.L.'s mandate is, among other
functions, to assist the House of Justice and your Assembly in
budgetary estimates, and also to oversee coordinative efforts,
required among the group of Baha'i stations now being developed
in equipment, operating methods, etc."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 17/06/82
<p3>
ADMINISTRATION -- Mandate of CIRBAL 3


"It is important that, during this continuing development period
of Radio Baha'i, the Commission of Radio and the station staff
keep in close touch with C.I.R.B.A.L. members, hereby gaining
that helpful collaboration which thus far has been a source of
great satisfaction to the House of Justice in this milestone
Baha'i endeavor."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 13/02/83

"The allocation of two additional frequencies for stations is a
triumph, but will require great exertions to bring the stations
to operating efficiency, in which efforts C.I.R.B.A.L. should
play a strong role."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L. Broadcast
Division dated 02/03/83

C.I.R.B.A.L. is a field agency of the Universal House of
Justice, its small staff chosen for their professional skill in
radio and television. While C.I.R.B.A.L. has a purely advisory
role, the proven expertise of its members has won the confidence
of the House of Justice. C.I.R.B.A.L. guidance in technical
matters should, in general, be positively received with the
understanding, of course, that modifications may sometimes become
necessary through consultation with those concerned and
conformable with local considerations."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Bolivia, dated 23/11/83

"In responding to your letter of 7 August 1984, we would suggest
that you prepare a short statement of what C.I.R.B.L. does,
indicating that, as an international agency for the promotion of
radio and media activity, it is concerned with Identifying
experienced manpower for service in radio stations either on a
short or long-term basis. Since appointment of radio personnel is
the prerogative of a National Spiritual Assembly, care should be
taken in the wording of the notice so that it is clear that
C.I.R.B.A.L. is not recruiting people for service in
media-related
projects, but that it is seeking to aid National. Spiritual
Assemblies in their work in media."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L.,
dated 09/09/84
<p4>
ADMINISTRATION -- Management by Radio Commission 4

C.I.R.B.A.L. Executive Committee members and its consultants are
very busy individuals; their planned visits and schedules are
made long in advance and mostly during times when they can be
away from their regular occupational pursuits, and in all cases
at great sacrifices to comfort, family and vacation. It would be
gracious of the Assembly to accede to their timing and welcome
their offers of service.

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Peru dated 18/08/85


3. Management by Radio Commission

"The Commission now has many tasks which in aggregate are of
serious magnitude, and this work will extend for many years into
the future. Your Assembly should therefore not only review its
appointments to the Commission, seeking the best qualified
persons available, but should also give to the Commission a
relative autonomy of action under the National Spiritual Assembly
policies established for it. The Assembly should neither be
burdened with the details of establishment and operation of the
station nor seek to manage the station development once general
policy has been established. Overall supervision of this
educational institution of the Faith is, of course, fully the
responsibility of the National Assembly."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Bolivia, dated 14/02/83


When an Assembly appoints a committee to carry out any of its
operations, it should leave that committee free to act, albeit
monitoring its work and giving direction as to policy. If the
Assembly intervenes unduly in the work of its committees, they
may function poorly or fail entirely."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Bolivia, dated 23/11/83

"It appears that the responsibilities of your National Radio
Committee are limited to programming for the Caracollo
station. Having chosen the Committee -- which need not have
National
Assembly members or other busy administrators named
to it -- your Assembly should permit it to carry out your
defined radio policies, assigning to the manager or
executive director the day-to-day operational
responsibilities of the station. you could well benefit from
the experiences of Radio Baha'i Ecuador, which are easily <p5>
available to you through Mr. Quinteros, manager of the station in
Otavalo. C.I.R.B.A.L. advisers can assist in defining the
functions of the groups involved, including those of the manager
and his staff."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Bolivia, dated 23/11/83


"At present the radio committees are not well informed nor
properly oriented to radio and its utilization; every effort
should be made to train them and made them aware of their
responsibilities and familiar with their functions so that they
may contribute effectively to the success of the radio stations
and the fulfillment of their aims and objectives. However, at
this time of the continuous evolution of our nascent
institutions it is not wise to abolish these committees, as it
would impose an additional burden upon the National Assembly."

"Radio committees need not necessarily have authority over
the manager; they are appointed to assist the National Assembly
in an area of vital importance, and their limits of authority can
readily be defined. The persons mentioned in your letter as
possible members of a support group could well be recommended to
the National Assembly for appointment to the radio committee.
Their appointment would be
positive contribution to the creation of a coordinated plan of
operation involving radio committees, teaching committees and
institute administration."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.l.R.B A.L,
dated 13/09/84

"In reply to your letter of 11 July to the Universal House of
Justice concerning the management of Radio Baha'i we are
instructed to send the following comments."

"Your reasons for not appointing an organizing committee at this
time are noted, and in any case your Assembly has the final
responsibility for supervising the development of the radio
station and the institute, including direct liaison with the
manager and director respectively if it chooses. Ordinarily,
however, it is not desirable for an Assembly to seek to manage
major institutions of the Faith from a distance, and it is
assumed that before long more satisfactory arrangements will be
established."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 05/08/85 <p6>


4. Management Problems

"The problems of the station's first years should be considered
as healthy experience. Always be mindful of the benefits the
station will bring to the Faith and to the people of the Lake
Titicaca area as it matures and develops as an instrument of
teaching and service."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Peru, dated 19/03/84

"The House of Justice is also most appreciative of your
understanding and assistance with the personal problems inherent
in projects of this size. As the Baha'i world becomes more
familiar with radio and other development activities, National
Assemblies will learn to manage the complex problems they
inevitably bring along with their merits."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., Broadcast
Division dated 04/04/84


"Whilst the Baha'i World Centre prefers to leave the choice of
administrative structure of the Baha'i radio stations to the
National Spiritual Assemblies, suggestions of various methods of
approach may be put forward to those Institutions. It would not
be appropriate, however, to give emphasis to any one method at
the outset, nor to suggest a uniform pattern to every National
Assembly that has a radio station under its jurisdiction. It must
be borne in mind that our Baha'i radio stations differ in concept
and operational methods from governmental and commercial radio
stations. The Baha'is have to apply spiritual principles and
exercise the art of consultation. Ideas such as those you have
outlined may be put forward to National Assemblies as specific
examples of how the basic managerial and technical
responsibilities of maintaining a radio station may be met."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated
08/10/85

"Patient re-orientation in all such matters is needed and it is
hoped that the proposed off-campus courses of the Amoz
Gibson Training Institute will assist in bringing about better
understanding of roles and functions and thus leading to more
fruitful and efficient performance by the radio
stations in the service of the Faith."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated
08/10/85
<p7>
ADMINISTRATION -- Management Problems 7

"Since the issues related to the administration of a Baha'i
radio station are part of the ongoing process of development of
both the National Spiritual Assembly and the radio station, and
because of the differences between various Baha'i communities,
continuous consideration should be given to the problems in this
area ... Patient re-orientation in all such matters is needed
and it is hoped that the proposed off-campus courses of the Amoz
Gibson Training Institute will assist in bringing about better
understanding of roles and functions and thus leading to more
fruitful and efficient performance by the radio stations in the
service of the Faith."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated
08/10/85


"The problems of cash flow and technical maintenance are
management issues on which helpful suggestions from C.I.R.B.A.L.
have been sent to you in the past; and these issues can be dealt
with at the workshops and seminar planned by C.I.R.B.A.L. for the
radio station personnel, the National Assembly members, and your
Radio Coordinating Committee. It is hoped that through
consultation a workable solution to the difficulties, both those
that are unique to Radio Baha'i and those that are common to any
radio station, can be found. Also, a clear understanding of the
areas of responsibility, both individual and collaborative, of
the radio Manager and the National Assembly need to be reviewed
and revised according to current requirements."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National
Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 29/10/85

"Re his study. of management practices of (3) Baha'i radio
stations: 'The goal is to establish principles of good management
for the stations, each maintaining its special characteristics.
However, the formulation of enlightened concepts of personnel
recruitment and management of remuneration scales, training, and
advancement policies, will be shaped in the context of the Baha'i
spirit of sacrifice and service implicit in undertakings
supported by limited resources of the Baha'i funds.'"

Office of Social and Economic Development to an
individual believer, dated 16/12/85

"Other management practices involved in station operations
will, of course, also be studied and recommendations made in
connection with supplies; travel; public relations; support
<p8>

ADMINISTRATION -- Management Problems 8


of Baha'i events and projects; in-service training of employees;
employment and use of non-nationals (pioneers); part-time
personnel (including consultants); and volunteers; and measures
to ensure that Baha'i ethical principles shall be incorporated
into all management practices."

Office of Social and Economic Development to an individual
believer, dated 16/12/85


"The administrative structure of Radio Baha'i should be decided
by your community, and it is hoped it will result from the
process of consultation. You may find that a structure that is
different from other Baha'i radio stations functions well, or you
many need to try various possibilities until you discover what
fits your needs. Each community is unique and the organization of
an enterprise such as a radio station should be a reflection of
the spiritual condition of the community and an example of unity
in the Cause of God."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National
Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 17/07/86


"While it is true that a National Assembly has jurisdiction over
all Baha'i affairs within its national boundaries, with
obligation to monitor budgets and finances in order to safeguard
the fiscal integrity of its institutions, it is usually not
practical for the Assembly itself to seek; to administer either
the operations or the finances of an institution such as a school
or a radio station. Indeed, National Assembly administration is
likely to slow down the functioning of its subsidiaries, and
therefore, a level of autonomy is desirable for such
institutions, in this case the radio station."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Liberia, dated 24/07/88


"As for station management, the National Assembly should
delegate responsibility primarily to the coordinator to
carry out the general program which he has prepared and
presented,
and which the Assembly has approved. The Assembly
<p9>

ADMINISTRATION -- Management Problems 9

should not seek to administer the affairs of the station, but
rather to monitor its progress through written an oral reports.
This is the common practice of the other National Assemblies with
their radio stations."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Liberia, dated 24/07/88


"The Liberian station has a very great role to play in the
intensive teaching of the Faith to Liberians, and more widely to
the people of Sierra Leone and Cote d'Ivoire. Without question
your opportunities are limitless, and the House of Justice hopes
to learn of your great advances as all resources are mobilized to
bring about that long-awaited entry by troops. Its prayers and
admonitions will guide you as you devote your energies to
widespread teaching campaigns augmented and often spearheaded by
Radio Baha'i."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Liberia, dated 24/07/88


"Re suggestions...related to the linkage between the Cultural
Centre, the radio station, and the teaching and consolidation
work of the Baha'i community."

"In general and for future development, the linkages between a
radio station and Baha'i teaching, and the consolidation combined
with cultural pursuits and social and economic development, need
to be addressed in a very detailed and comprehensive manner and
their merits clearly stated so that National Assemblies may then
devise a pattern for the management of their radio stations to
suit their special circumstances."

Office of Social and Economic Development to I.B.A.V.C.,
dated 07/10/86

"The International Baha'i Audio-Visual Centre will send a copy of
this report with recommendations to your National Spiritual
Assembly. It is our hope that you will give these recommendations
your very careful consideration. We were particularly pleased to
note that among the recommendations presented to your National
Assembly is one which closely links the radio station to Baha'i
teaching and consolidation, and to cultural, social, and economic
development. We suggest that the National Assembly study the
linkage to determine how the integration of these activities can
be coordinated to serve the best interests of the Baha'i
<p10>
ADMINISTRATION -- Personnel, Labor Laws, Human Relations 10

community and the entire region covered by the radio broadcasts."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National
Spiritual Assembly of Panama, dated 09/10/86

5. Personnel, Labor Laws and Labor Relations and Human Relations
Among Staff Members

"Your payment of full social security on the basis of the minimum
salary is satisfactory for the protection of the workers. Income
tax provisions may be significant in the agreements for part-time
employees who are also part-time volunteers, and your counsel
will inform you of the issues of the law. The law seems clear on
the matter of incremental annual increases in salaries; these in
any event may scarcely cover inflationary rises in the national
economy."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 30/07/81

"A question: Where are the participant women, so important in
the work and development of Radio Baha'i in Otavalo? There were
some capable young women pioneering for the Faith in Puno; where
are they now? None are listed on the Radio Commission."

The Audio-Visual Department to K. Dean Stephens, dated
03/11/81

"You speak of "nativization" and its development in the
stations. Somehow an intelligent and non-frictional system of
utilizing pioneers of skill and zeal must be devised. We must
avoid the fear of pioneers, of outlanders and foreigners, and of
outside cultures while encouraging and developing the local
personnel. It is a challenging frontier of human relationships
within the Faith."

The Audio-Visual Department to K. Dean Stephens, dated
16/11/81


"The House of Justice does not view the proposed solution to
your salary problem as evasive, but feels it is based on
fact, for service with Radio Baha'i by the Baha'i employee
is not a purely commercial arrangement of working for an
economic livelihood, but does contain a large component of
service freely, and possibly sacrificially, given. This does
not mean, on the other hand, that employees of Radio Baha'i
should be paid below their true need as determined by
consultation. The management of Radio Baha'i -- ultimately
<p11>
ADMINISTRATION -- Personnel, Labor Laws, Human Relations 11


the National Spiritual Assembly itself -- will constantly
face the problems of escalating personnel numbers and costs,
to meet which there will continually be fund problems."

"Here, as in other areas of its development, Radio Baha'i must
explore solutions which may well assist their fellow
stations, this time in equitable payment scales compatible
with the resources of the Faith."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 23/11/81

" . . . it is hoped that personnel management can be of true
Baha'i quality; clear policies for employees and volunteers
need to be enunciated and made known to all concerned. No
mention is made of volunteer personnel, although the work
situation of those mentioned is not specifically given.
Despite the problems inherent in volunteer service it should
be encouraged and developed in order to maintain that Baha'i
spirit which otherwise may diminish."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 17/11/82

"The phased program of production, which has as one of its goals
the accumulation of many tapes in readiness for the initiation
of regular broadcasting, should be pursued without
respite, in accordance with the plans agreed upon.
The need for able and experienced personnel willing to live
and work in Caracollo is an urgent issue, and the Commission
for Radio must actively seek to discover and recruit both
native Bolivians and pioneers. This challenge of adequate
staffing should be discussed with the Counsellors for their
assistance."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Bolivia, dated 14/02/83

"Re your report on the Baha'i Radio international meeting
in Bolivia 12/09. 'The House of Justice was pleased to note the
the possibility of more frequent personnel meetings as these
would serve to solve any broadcasting problems, to bring a unity
of purpose to the station staffs and an understanding of
each other's special concerns, and to create a mechanism
for sharing programs.'"

Department of the Secretariat C.I.R.B.A.L., to F.
Schiantarelli, dated 01/12/83 <p12>

"The detailed and lengthy internal regulations proposed for Radio
Baha'i in Otavalo.... While the labor laws of Ecuador appear to
require regulations which meet their specifications, and while
the six years of station experience have shown the need to
specify regulations for the manager and staff, the Counsellors
and C.I.R.B.A.L. members may be helpful."

"It is hoped that the regulations will not inhibit the creative
activity of the staff, but rather will form a disciplinary
framework for station operations, providing guidance to manager
and staff alike while giving ample leeway for positive judgments
by the manager and the committee.

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 13/02/84

"... the advice of the Universal House of Justice on the
important matters of the employment of radio personnel. Some
elements for you and your lawyer to consider ...: 1. that you may
well have a number of persons who are volunteers, whose financial
support does not come from or through the station and/or the
Assembly, and those persons must be adequately described and
accounted for; 2. that a number of part-time workers, who give
scheduled time segments which are remunerated; 3. that the full-
time personnel may include apprentices, trainees, and a wide
spectrum of grades of employees These persons receive no
remuneration for Baha'i services as, for example, work with the
Teaching Institute."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Bolivia, dated 23/02/84


"Naturally, the labor laws constitute the guide for the station's
work regulations. However, it will be well for your Assembly to
consult with Manager Marcelo Quinteros in Otavalo, in order to
ascertain the personnel practices of that station. Some excerpts
from letters concerning Radio Baha'i Ecuador may be helpful and
are attached although they are not necessarily completely
relevant to Bolivia."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Bolivia, dated 23/02/84

"Re your letter of 26 November 1984 giving suggestions about
personnel for the proposed radio station in Liberia. A
letter was sent to the National Spiritual Assembly of Liberia
conveying some comments in respect of some of their <p13>
plans and advising them to begin the process of identifying
people from Liberia for staffing and managing the radio station.
Recruitment of personnel from external sources must be considered
when the National Assembly is satisfied that no local person
possessing the required abilities is available. It may be
necessary to conduct several training sessions when selected.
The National Assembly seems to have thoughtfully considered the
many issues involved."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L.,
Broadcast Division, dated 18/01/85


"It is hoped that the radio station staff will make every effort
to maintain the enthusiasm of the youth."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L.,
Broadcast Division, dated 17/06/85


"The sacrifices of the personnel at the radio station who are
labouring in the service of the Faith of Baha'u'llah in Peru
under
such difficult conditions is a testimony to their devotion and
commitment, and will greatly contribute to the strengthening of
the
foundation of the Baha'i community. The Supreme Body assures you
of
its continued prayers at the Holy Shrines for the growth and
development of this important endeavour."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Peru, dated 08/12/86

A. Managerial Practices to Agree With Law

"With reference to improved management procedures, and
particularly considerations of salaries, benefits, security,
etc., your lawyer should make recommendations on managerial
practices which agree with Ecuadorean law."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 23/02/87

6. Radio Personnel Contracts and Terms of Service

"...the advice of the Universal House of Justice on the
important matters of the employment of radio personnel.
your Assembly has apparently not consulted with
C.I.R.B.A.L. or with the already-operating stations for
advice in establishing acceptable labor relations for the <p14>
workers at the new station in Caracollo. While recognizing that
Bolivia has its labor laws which must be adhered to, your
Assembly should immediately become familiar with the problems of
management of a functioning institution having the unique
characteristics of a religious cultural agency such as the Baha'i
radio station soon to become operational.'"

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Bolivia, dated 23/02/84


7. Personnel Contracts

"An initial probationary period of approximately six months
should be offered to each new employee; if satisfactory a
formal contract for a specific or an indefinite period of time
can be offered. Such contracts should also contain the basic
terms of service, and should be drawn up in accordance with the
current labour laws of Bolivia."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National
Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 28/08/84

"The World Centre will be asking the three Assemblies having
radio stations to comment on employees' contracts and terms of
service, the administrative procedures adopted, the devolution of
responsibilities, and the organizational structure for their
management. When specific answers are received from the National
Assemblies, these will be sent to you for your evaluation and
comments. Eventually, detailed guidelines should be formulated
by C.I.R.B.A.L. for approval by the World Centre and these
guidelines would become standard for all Baha'i-managed radio
stations."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L.,
Broadcast Division, dated 09/09/84


"Baha'is accept the principle that persons should be paid a fair
wage for honest work performed. The payment of allowances,
stipends or salaries to Baha'i engaged in Baha'i work
on a part or full-time basis requires certain
clarification concerning that remuneration, since such work
calls for a high degree of dedication and understanding on
the part of both the Baha'i employer and the employee. Two
fundamental principles should be understood at the outset."

"1. Service to humanity is a primary motivation for those
employed by Baha'i institutions. In addition, the attitude <p15>
that work is a form of worship is one of Baha'u'llah's
healing remedies for mankind which should permeate Baha'i
institutions."

"2. Baha'i efforts are carried forward by sacrifice, since the
financial resources of the Faith are minuscule by international
standards. The Baha'i community consists principally of rural
poor
people and the Baha'i International Fund comes in part from their
sacrificial gifts. Therefore the Baha'i s must seek to extend the
value of Baha'i funds through their careful and sacrificial
expenditure. At the present time Baha'i institutions offer
remuneration usually calculated to meet the living expenses of
staff
members. Baha'i pay scales do not, therefore, necessarily reflect
the pay scales of the society at large."

"Each staff member will receive remuneration that will permit him
(or her) to meet his living expenses and those of his family;
;thus
a man or woman with children doing the same work as a single
person
may receive more income that this fellow. Some staff members may
be
self-supporting, or are deputized, working entirely as volunteers
without cost to the institution which they serve; many pioneers
fall
into this category. Others may receive reduced pay for full-time
work, in effect volunteering a portion of their time. Still
others
will be paid the wages required by law for the positions held.
Legally acceptable contracts are usually called for to protect
those
involved in the work agreement over the time period of
employment;
such contracts should adhere to whatever government regulations
may
obtain, but take into account the spirit of Baha'i service."

"The administration of such a system of remuneration calls for
loving concern on the part of the Assembly; and the sacrifices of
those who serve in Baha'i institutions merit warm appreciation.
Great care must be taken to make clear to each worker precisely
what
is expected of him or her but making no distinction among workers
receiving different type of remuneration, while establishing
appropriate methods to assure fair dealing between the
responsible
administrators and the workers, and to meet contingencies. All
staff
members as a group should know the conditions of Baha'i
employment
and service, so that the National Assembly, its committees or its
managers will not be felt to be unjust in their dealings with
staff
members."

"Non-Baha'i s may be employed in Baha'i institutions, and it
cannot
be assumed that they will undertake conditions of Baha'i
employment
which may call for service beyond the ordinary. Each non-Baha'i
should know clearly in advance

<p16>

ADMINISTRATION -- Personnel, Contracts/Volunteers 16

the terms of his/her service in the institution and is free to
accept or reject them.

Summation from the World Centre, to I.B.A.V.C., dated
05/09/88

ln a letter dated 26/07/88 about a commentary on: the Vision of
Radio Baha'i, the Audio-Visual Department of the House of Justice
writes:

"In section 3 the principle of volunteer services is
expressed well beyond what appear to be any practical limits
for a full-time institution of the Faith living under the
duress which is an inevitable product of radio services. It
seems plain that the spirit of the workers should be that of
persons
devoted to the Faith and its purposes, who strongly
wish to serve the Faith through radio, and who "volunteer"
for that service. However, since radio is also a
professional skill and radio scheduling makes very great
demands upon the workers, it seems that a structure
is called for which allows for 1) a professional cadre of
full-time workers with a coordinator or managerial
committee, 2) part-time workers who are paid for the time
they need for those services, and finally, 3) a group of
volunteers
who are able to give part-time, possibly
specialized assistance. These volunteers should also be
considered
as being possible recruits for part-time and
full-time services at the station. We are afraid that a
volunteer worker system will rapidly be transformed in any event
into one of three tiers: full-time workers, part-time
workers, and volunteers. If it is possible to indoctrinate
the coordinators and managerial committees sufficiently well
in the Baha'i principles, then the concept of volunteer
service will permeate the station, as doubtless you intend."

The Audio-Visual Department to I.B.A.V.C., dated 26/07/88

8. Personnel Volunteers

"The House of Justice is very pleased with the large
component of enthusiastic volunteer labour, which speaks so
well for the future of the project and for the zeal with
which the local believers are greeting this development."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Panama, dated 21/11/83

"You have stated that teams of volunteers 'have hindered
development.' A way must be found to integrate volunteers
<p17>
ADMINISTRATION -- Volunteers/Cultural Associations 17

into the daily schedule of broadcasting demands without their
being seen as a threat to those receiving pay for their work.
Certainly, too, some way of employing part-time workers needs to
be devised, where their tasks are clearly specified in relation
to the overall work load of the station. "In all cases, employees
should be persuaded see the merit and the rare privilege of
working for Radio Baha'i as a service to the people of the
region;
and for the Baha'i staff members it should be felt to be a
service
to the Faith."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 16/02/87

"The use of volunteers is appropriate at this point, but we hope
that a good team of staff workers can be assembled who will
continue on a full-time basis, while other volunteers continue
to support the work of the station and provide a sizeable
proportion of the programmes."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Bolivia, dated 30/11/87

"With reference to the conclusion of the UNICEF project, it is
our hope that these materials will be made available to all the
other Radio Baha'i stations in Latin America."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Bolivia, dated 30/11/87

9. Cultural Association

"The 'New Era Cultural Association' was formed in Peru to act
for the National Spiritual Assembly in handling public relations
concerned with the radio activities there. It has signed an
agreement with the Ministry of Education to promote literacy
programs, but it is not known at present how far the advance
programming has progressed."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Panama, dated 09/01/84

"As for the telecommunications law which requires that only
Chileans may be the sponsors of the radio station, the
alternative of establishing a non-profit corporation or
association, or trust seems to be the correct path to take. The
National Spiritual Assembly of Peru resolved a similar
<p18>
ADMINISTRATION -- Volunteers/Cultural Associations 18

problem by establishing the New Era Cultural Association, a copy
of whose articles are enclosed for your ready reference.
you may wish to communicate with that Assembly should questions
arise during your efforts to form the trust or association."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Chile, dated 16/11/83

10. Development Projects, Non-Baha'i Agencies

"4. Care must be taken to ensure that Radio Baha'i personnel are
not overburdened with additional ambitious undertakings and,
therefore, their involvement must be confined to professional
advice, programming and production."

"5. If additional specialized staff personnel are needed, they
usually should be Baha'is recruited by Baha'i institutions and
trained by either the Assembly or the non-Baha'i agency."

"1. Collaboration with non-Baha'i agencies must based on the
compatibility of their project with our aims and objectives or
that our Baha'i project will correspond with their aims and
objectives."

"3. The National Assemblies must not feel that they are under
pressure to undertake these arrangements."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L.,
dated 05/06/84

"Re the agreement between Radio Baha'i and the Regional
Department of Health in Puno. It is hoped that the comments of
Mr. Schiantarelli will be given your thoughtful consideration so
that this endeavor can be carried forward to the prestige of
the Baha'i community and the benefit of the peoples of Peru."

"The addition of this project to the other activities of Radio
Baha'i, such as the literacy project with the Ministry of
Education, the work at the Muhajir Teaching Institute and the
continuing growth and development of the radio station will
require a great deal of effort and
<p19>
ADMINISTRATION -- Development Projects, Non-Baha'i/Reports 19

attention. In order not to dissipate the energy and resources of
the community, careful consideration should be given before
taking on any further projects."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Peru, dated 01/04/85

"Re Agreement between UNICEF and Radio Baha'i. You are commended
for your readiness to take on this project, which has the
potential to be a valuable service to, the people of Bolivia and
gain good will for the Baha'i community. Enclosed are some
guidelines relating to the implementation and evaluation of
projects that may be helpful to you. As you are no doubt aware,
in a joint undertaking such as this with agencies outside the
Faith the importance of accurate and prompt record-keeping cannot
be overstressed."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National
Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 25/03/85

11. Reports

"A copy of the report submitted by the Manager of Radio Baha'i
del Lago Titicaca was received at the World Centre and forwarded
to this Office for acknowledgement and comment.

"It is suggested that the Manager, in consultation with the Radio
Commission of Peru should design a report form and thus repeated
reporting could be made under four main headings; Administration,
Programming, Engineering and Finance. This type of reporting will
provide easy access to relevant information."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National
Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 26/08/84

"The House of Justice anticipates the development of a systematic
reporting routine by the radio station staff and the Committee
which will permit your own surveillance of the project as it
unfolds, and also will allow the World Centre to share news of
your progress."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Bolivia, dated 31/05/83
<p20>
ADMINISTRATION -- Frequency, Application/Holy Days 20


12 . Evaluation, C.I.D.A., Share Reports

"The further evaluation of the C.I.D.A.-assisted programs is
awaited with keen interest. The House of Justice suggests that
reports on the project be shared with the staff of Radio Baha'i
del Lago Titicaca , with the Radio commission in Chile, and the
committees in Bolivia and Panama for their information,
stimulation and later guidance when they develop and broadcast
similar programs."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 29/08/82

13. Frequency, Application

"The application for a radio frequency is fraught with
difficulties in Bolivia, but the House of Justice applauds your
resiliency in determining to press forward with a new approach.
Consultation with Counsellors Costas and Khamsi, and with
C.I.R.B.A.L. staff members Stephens and Schiantarelli, is
suggested in order to initiate the new application when timely,
if possible using well-placed Bolivian representatives for the
steps of presentation. The success of the first two radio
applications in Ecuador and Peru owed much to the strong and
persistent representations by indigenous believers of those
countries. The C.I.R.B.A.L. staff should be requested to aid
in preparing the required technical documentation."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Bolivia, dated 28/07/85

"The copy of a story on your achievement of the radio frequency
after two difficult years, sent to 'Baha'i News' in the United
States, suggests that your public relations committee should
consider the World Centre as a primary recipient of such news
items which then can be considered for 'Baha'i International
News Services'."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Bolivia, dated 02/03/83

14. Baha'i Holy Days

"Your query of 24 June to the Universal House of Justice
concerning the closing of Radio Baha'i del Lago Titicaca on
Baha'i Holy Days has been received, and we are asked to convey
its counsel." <p21>


"The communication laws of Peru applicable to radio station
operations are not known to the House of Justice. However, if the
government of Peru does not require that the station be on the
air on some inclusive daily basis, then your Assembly should not
broadcast on the nine Holy Days of the Faith. The station is
wholly owned by and operated as an institution of the Faith,
hence you are obligated to fulfill the law requiring abstinence
from work on the Holy days. It may be well to point out that each
Holy Day of the Faith runs from sunset the first day to sunset
of the second, thus significant portions of both calendar days
are available for broadcasting. The station will, of course,
inform its listening audience in good time of the meaning of
each of the Holy Days and the reasons for the air silences."

"Rather than creating problems, it is felt that this confirmation
of the religious character of the station will be a channel of
teaching, a source of encouragement to the believers and a model
for their emulation."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Peru, dated 25/07/83


"As you are well aware, not only should Baha'is refrain from work
on the nine Holy days, but the shops and establishments owned by
Baha'is should also be closed on these Days. If government
regulations do not require the station to be on the air on a
mandatory daily basis, Radio Baha'i should not engage in regular
broadcasts on the nine Holy Days. However, to aid the Baha'i
Community in its observance of any one of these Days, the station
may offer at a particular time a special program suited to such
observance. Those wishing to be involved in the production and
airing of the program would be rendering a special service."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Chile, dated 06/07/86


"The House of Justice feels that this confirmation of the
religious character of the station would be a means of teaching,
a source of encouragement to the believers and a model for their
emulation."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Chile, dated 06/07/86
<p22>

PROGRAMMING, TRAINING AND PRODUCTION -- Training 22


II. Programming, Training and Production

1. Training

"Your 'Television Broadcast Engineering' course for the
Ecuadorian Frequency Office engineers was an excellent service
and, it is hoped, such efforts added to your earlier course on
radio advances will strengthen the position of Radio Baha'i
Otavalo through the generation of good will and cooperation."

Department of the Secretariat to K. Dean Stephens, dated
05/08/80


"The expansion of the training centre in Arecibo is a favorable
development, and it is hoped that it can be used intensively for
the radio committees, for the staffs of the new stations, and for
the volunteers for the radio work in Latin America."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated
06/04/83


"The work of the station is an important landmark of the Faith's
progress in Ecuador and Latin America in general, and the House
of Justice is happy with the evidences of growth."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 18/05/83


"The technical training program for prospective staff in Puerto
Rico should be very helpful in augmenting the very positive steps
of program preparation already afoot. By this time you should
have received the letter of the House of Justice concerning its
help towards the expenses of participants in this training. you
are encouraged to write to Mr. Schiantarelli of C.l.R.B.A.L. in
Lima to conduct the necessary workshops with your new staff and
all volunteers on programs and programming. Mrs. A. Jorgensen
...very great help...your impressive human resources should go
far toward assuring a happy initiation and operation of the
station. With C.I.R.B.A.L. consultation and assistance the
recruiting of outside specialized personnel should be considered,
scheduled, put into action."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Panama, dated 10/10/83 <p23>

"The recent training session with the Committee members in
Cochabamba should have provided abundant opportunity to assist
them to incorporate tetter programming concepts into their work,
and also to provide the committee with vital details of audio
production which can only come from experience. The plan itself
showed much serious work and useful program ideas, and was a
favorable reflection upon the Committee."

"Your attention to the critical programming needs of Radio
Bolivia in these early days when the personality and character of
the station will be established, and during the subsequent early
months of its operation, is of the utmost importance."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., F.
Schiantarelli, dated 24/10/83


"Mr. Michael Snook's offer to assist with the training of radio
personnel is warmly appreciated. It is suggested that if he can
spend 2-3 months in each of the broadcasting stations working and
training the staff, this would be more beneficial than setting up
a training establishment where only a few can be brought in at
any given time. His presence at a station would have the added
advantage of his working constantly with the staff under normal
working conditions, advising and guiding them in every aspect of
programming, broadcasting and management. Language competence in
Spanish is desirable."

"A similar project can be worked out for an engineering
specialist when such a resource person is available."


Department of the Secretariat to C.l.R.B.A.L.,
dated 17/06/84


"Training sessions for National Radio Committees are badly
needed. In addition, constant information for the National
Assemblies about radio and its role appear to be imperative.
Both are basic to the fostering of good relationships and the
creation of an atmosphere of appreciation and understanding of
the
use of radio in the minds and hearts of the responsible
administrative institutions. you should consider drawing up
programmes specifically directed towards National Spiritual
Assemblies and Radio Committees. Such programmes might include
the
topics listed on the attached memorandum."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.l.R.B.A.L.,
dated 09/09/84 <p24>

"It is important for the radio staff training facilitators to
remember the difficulties of startup and operations in each case
and to focus on improvements in the context of each radio
station, as well as on the unique capacities and maturity of each
particular Baha'i community, both its institutions and the
character of the believers in which each radio station
operates."

Office of Social and Economic Development to I.B.A.V.C.,
Kepner's report from telex, dated 01/07/86


"Improvement will come in small increments over time, sometimes
in very specific ways such as the technical operation of each
station's functions. The development of broader issues,
however, such as the questions of the goals of such station, its
management, its integration into the Baha'i community and its
relationship to the Institutions of the Faith are built on a
spiritual and cultural foundation that is part of a larger,
ongoing process requiring great patience. The World Centre has
not specified a standard management structure in order to allow
for local flexibility and organic growth."

Office of Social and Economic Development to I.B.A.V.C.,
Kepner's report from telex, dated 01/07/86


"Training is another issue which the International Baha'i
Audio-Visual Centre is currently addressing on your behalf. There
is
no question, however, that a primary issue is the lack of Baha'i
training of the staff, so that the special services offered by
the
radio station are known and appreciated by the employees, and
they
may see their work as far more than a mere job enabling them to
meet
their economic needs."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 16/02/87


"In all cases, employees should be persuaded to see the merit
and the rare privilege of working for Radio Baha'i as a service
to the people of the region; and for the Baha'i staff members it
should be felt to be a service to the Faith."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 16/02/87

<p25>
PROGRAMMING, TRAINING AND PRODUCTION -- Training 25

"It is gratifying to note that the Cultural Department is
training the general staff in the preparation
and utilization of teaching materials. The training function is
a valuable, even essential, element of the operation of
Radio Baha'i, one which should be methodically developed."
"The active training programme for the volunteers using guest
professionals should produce more effective programmes; such
training, plus the experience in actual preparation and delivery
of programmes, should enable the coordinator to discover the
permanent full-time staff which will give the station its
long-term stability. The social service activities of the
station are praiseworthy, and it seems that the station-
institute complex could readily become a community centre if not
carefully controlled; in any event, the flow of visitors is a
favourable thing for which a public relations staff person may be
needed, as before.

Audio-Visual Department to the National Spiritual Assembly
of Bolivia, dated 17/0/88


2. United Nations, Collaboration

C.I.R.B.A.L. will undoubtedly become more acquainted with the
functioning of United Nations agencies as time goes_ by and, it
is hoped, be able to develop a valuable collaborative
relationship through the Baha'i International Community and
through or on behalf of the radio stations..."

The House of Justice is pleased that C.I.R.B.A.L., through its
knowledge of United Nations programs, will be able to aid the
radio stations in using United Nations materials and in
supporting United Nations activities, and encouraged the
steps that are being taken to achieve this. It
appreciate a progress report from time to time, and meanwhile
commends C.I.R.B.A.L. members for their devoted services in
this new aspect of the radio work."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L.,
dated 11/10/83

3. Baha'i Programming, Training and Broadcasting

"As for his strong feeling that the Baha'i components of the
Radio Baha'i programs are too limited, this is an important
commentary which deserves your consideration, for the first
objective of the station is to assist in deepening the
Baha'is of the area. It would be helpful for the manager to
provide
you with a daily broadcast log, if feasible, which
should show how many Baha'i 'cu¤as', for example, are being <p26>


used with the music, and how many hours per month, analyzed by
content, the Baha'i Faith is served by the radio."

(Note: Refers to letter dated 18 Feb 1982 from Eng. Parviz
Mahdi.)

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 12/04/82


"The House of Justice has noted that two hours each day are
devoted to broadcasting specifically to the Guaymies,
and considers it advisable for more time to be allotted to
these peoples for whom, in a sense, the station was established.
Please keep this in mind for near future programming. It is also
suggested that you share your programme with other radio
stations, not only those in South America, but with WLGI in
South Carolina and ELRB in Liberia, whose addresses are given
below . "

Department of the Secretariat to Radio Baha'i of Panama,
dated 20/01/87


"The idea of a National Radio and Audio-Visual Conference is
a good one, and each conference or meeting should have
thorough planning, good display materials, and representation
which should be identified, i.e., Station staff, members of the
International Baha'i Audio-Visual Centre, particularly Baha'i
teachers, members of National Spiritual Assemblies known to be
interested and concerned, etc. This should be an item for the
International Baha'i Audio-Visual Centre's consultation."

Department of the Secretariat to Mr. Donald Witzel, dated
02/09/87


"It is good that we are finally homing in on Baha'i
programming in a methodical way. This had always been a
major goal of each station, but the line between evangelical
preaching and discreet and sensible Baha'i messages of
upliftment will need to be understood."

Department of the Secretariat to Mr. Donald Witzel, dated
02/09/87
<p27>
PROGRAMMING ... -- Baha'i Programming 27

"Your journey was most helpful, and we hope that you will be able
to undertake, with your colleagues at the IBAVC, a regular
training program which will bring all the stations to a
progressively higher performance level."

Department of the Secretariat to Mr. Donald Witzel, dated
02/09/87

"The activation of the radio sub-unit at Boca de Soloy at the
Guaymi cultural Centre is a favorable step provided
there is tight planning and efficient use of the personnel in
realizing the goal of teaching the Guaymi people in their own
tongue and according to their special needs. Future reports of
progress in this very vital area of the radio functions will
be watched with keen interest."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Panama, dated 24/08/87


"The participation of the radio staff in the government seminar
on "Production of Radio Programs" was excellent, not only for the
substance of the seminar, but also for its contacts with
others in the radio broadcasting field in western
Panama with whom links need be established. Our mandatory
national network broadcasting at declared times of national
crisis or emergency is fully understood, and is a condition
accepted by all the Latin American stations "

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Panama, dated 24/08/87


"The training Institute for Guaymi women, and the program you
were preparing on family education, are exemplary and
should be expanded into many areas where the Guaymi people have
need. The Institute on Radio held in Soloy confirms that the
radio staff is mindful of its goal to uplift the Guaymi es, and
that there should be wide and continuous conversion of
these receptive people who should become the primary
recipients of the radio broadcasts."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Panama, dated 24/08/87


"The programming reflects the mission of the station to
deepen the Baha'is of the area, in particular the Mapuche
believers, and to educate them in the principles and
activities of the Baha'i community, including programmes on <p28>

Holy Days, Feasts and Baha'i elections. We are delighted to note
the extent of your Baha'i teaching programmes in to the Spanish
and
Mapuche."

Audiovisual Department to the National Spiritual Assembly of
Chile, dated 17/01/88


4. Baha'i Religious Groups Which Request Radio Announcements
of Meetings, or Have Volunteered Their Choirs for Programs

"It is assumed that already the station is clearly and
unequivocally known as a Baha'i radio facility, its identifying
name being repeatedly mentioned, and that there is no confusion
of the Faith with any Christian denomination. As for
announcements of meetings and other events, this is a public
service offered for many kinds of information useful to your
listeners, and in general there is no harm in accepting such
announcements for non-Baha'i religious groups; indeed, such
acceptance may dispel rumours of Baha'i opposition to, negation
of, or prejudice against Christianity. In addition, the station
is free to use quotations from Christian, Jewish, and other
Scriptures in its programs as it sees fit, with clear ascriptions
to precise sources; particularly, it may wish to use passages
which fortify the great truths of the ages and confirm the
concept of the unity of religion. In any event, the station
should reserve the right to accept or refuse any item."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Chile, dated 30/04/87


"With reference to the use of Christian choirs, the same
principle of acceptance holds, with the following caveats.
These musical programs should not be unbefitting to the Baha'i
Faith; however, although the contents may not be known, they are
necessarily evanescent in character, and there is little hazard
provided that such programs are not regularly repeated and do not
become a permanent part of the programming. What is important is
that presentations neither reflect on the Faith nor suggest to
the listener that the Baha'i Faith is an unfamiliar branch of
Christianity. Moreover, the announcers will in any event,
clearly provide the identities of the choirs and the titles of
the numbers sung, along, with station identifications;
explanatory announcements may also be made, and if necessary
clarifications of Baha'i positions."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Chile, dated 30/04/87 <p29>


"In all such associations with other religious groups your
Assembly can feel confident in obeying the injunction to
consort with other religious in loving fellowship and harmony,
making clear the Baha'i conviction of the oneness of religion."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Chile, dated 30/04/87


5. Sharing Programming With Other Radio Stations; Broadcasting
Policies and Schedules

"Radio Baha'i personnel from other lands should be
encouraged to pioneer to the countries where stations are
established."

Department of the Secretariat to K. Dean Stephens,
dated 05/08/80


"The decision to permit the broadcasting of information supplied
by Radio San Gabriel rests with the National Spiritual Assembly.
The Assembly should formulate guidelines for radio station
personnel, and set out in clear, concise terms the parameters
governing the collaboration between the radio station and other
radio stations in Bolivia."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Bolivia, dated 16/11/86


"Radio Baha'i at Caracollo has its own broadcasting schedule and
programme priorities, and if the information offered by Radio San
Gabriel is compatible with Radio Baha'i programmes, there would
be no objection to broadcasting these programmes at an
appropriate and suitable time. Radio Baha'i may also wish to
share its own programmes with Radio San Gabriel and other radio
stations, as appropriate, and on a reciprocal basis."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National
Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 16/11/86

"The Baha'i radio station should adhere to the principles
enshrined in our Faith and firmly decline to broadcast
any programmes which can in any way be considered as
politically motivated and oriented. Such action on the
<p30>
PROGRAMMING ... -- Radio Baha'i Seminar 30


part of the radio station will enhance its standing in the
community and add to its protection."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National
Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 16/11/86


"The promotion of inter-Assembly cooperation of those National
Assemblies having radio goals is a function, of C.I.R.B.A.L. As
for Radio Baha'i Otavalo and Radio Baha'i Titicaca, cooperation
between them and subsequent stations, as each becomes
operational, is anticipated as a normal development and will no
doubt include shortwave links and the sharing of programs
produced by Radio Baha'i Otavalo with the other stations."

"Nevertheless, it is also true that it is time for an intensive
sharing of programs among the Latin American Baha'i stations, and
this has been given as an assignment to the International Baha'i
Audio-Visual Centre."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 23/02/87


6. Radio Baha'i Seminar

"Whilst visiting the countries in Central and South America
having radio stations, Mr. Sabri mentioned to the National
Spiritual Assemblies the possibility of the Seminar and
requested Assemblies to support it. The International Baha'i
Audio-Visual Centre may now extend invitations requesting that
each National Spiritual Assembly send two people, one of whom
must be the coordinator of the radio station; it should establish
general criteria for the selection of the second person who ought
to be closely connected to the radio station either in the
programming or administrative functions."

Office of Social and Economic Development to I.B.A.V.C.,
dated 26/03/87


"Your report by E-mail of 8 September 1987 to the Universal House
of Justice on the Baha'i Radio seminar in Puerto Tejada, Colombia
17-29 August, has been received, and we are asked to convey its
response."

"The House of Justice is deeply pleased at the result of the
seminar, and hopes that the newly perceived communication of the
stations' potentials, combined with an understanding of <p31>
proper Baha'i process in the administration of the work, will
result in steadily improving sound quality and message content
of the broadcasts, to the point where each station can be
considered a model within its country, and each a unit in an
integrated Baha'i radio network."

Department of the Secretariat to Dr. Kurt Hein, dated
28/09/87

"The idea of national teaching conferences in the seven
countries having radio stations, the programming training session
in March for coordinators, and the initiation of station
newsletters are all positive products of the seminar."

Department of the Secretariat to Dr Kurt Hein, dated
28/09/87

"The recognition of common needs and problems, of common learning
objectives and deficiencies, and the sharing of experiences,
provided a beneficial and intense period of mutual education.
The analyses of the stations and their current situations are
particularly helpful, pointing as they do to specific steps to be
taken in the long process of developing a unique and productive
Baha'i mode of communication and programme content. Many of the
specific insights will now require various actions by the
International Baha'i Audio-Visual Centre, by the Counsellors in
some cases, and in other cases by the World Centre after
consultation."

Department of the Secretariat to Dr. Kurt Hein, dated
28/09/87

"The report is highly informative, and deserves commendation, a
praise which should be extended to all participants in this
seminar which appears to have exceeded the best hopes of the
organizers. The House of Justice assures you and the I.B.A.V.C.
of its prayers at the Holy Threshold for your devoted endeavors
in the path of the Blessed Beauty."

Department of the Secretariat to Dr. Kurt Hein, dated
28/09/87


7. Educational Programming

"With reference to your letter of 29 July 1987 regarding service
fees, we hope that there was a fruitful consultation on this
general subject at the Cali Conference. Although the immediate
subject of the discussion with representatives of the Ministry of
Education was, apparently, literacy courses <p32>
supported by radio, the larger subject not discussed was the
long-ago proposal of the Ministry to involve Radio Baha'i
Otavalo in classroom education for the campesino schools,
perhaps some project will emerge from it. Radio Baha'i should
become distinguished ac a service agency, sought after for its
coverage, popularity with the campesinos, and for its workmanly
cooperation in projects of many kinds."

Audio-Visual Department to Mr. Donald Witzel, dated 21/08/87

5. Shortwave Radio Programming

"While it is clear that your Assembly must continue to seek to
improve the shortwave frequency now allocated to you in order
to make the broadcasts worthwhile for the Faith, it seems that
you have not considered fully the difficulties inherent in the
operation of an international shortwave broadcasting unit.
Granted that Lake Cuicocha seems to be an ideal site for such a
station's transmission and gives prospect that at 10 KW it could
place a strong signal widely in South and Central America and
the Caribbean, yet the initial cost of equipment, the added power
needs and the necessity for international programming, as
different from local contents, pose daunting problems for which
your Assembly has not indicated ... prospective solutions."

"It seems likely that an entirely different program plan may be
called for and, if so, this would suggest the need for a second
staff for the shortwave operation. Doubtless, too,
this would call for predominantly Spanish language materials
selected for international acceptability. Further,
statistics available on shortwave receivers do not suggest either
the size or the specific nature of the audience which you may
hope to reach. Not the least problem is that funds for such an
expansion of Radio Baha'i are not available at this time. In
short, the House of Justice shares your excitement at this
extraordinary tribute to your operation and human relations
successes with Radio Baha'i, but regrettably feels the step to
be untimely...."

Audio-Visual Department to the National Spiritual Assembly
of Ecuador, dated 02/12/81


"...However, before the National Spiritual Assembly of
Ecuador and the Faith should consider embarking on the
expensive and exacting step of initiating a new
international shortwave station, presumably broadcasting <p33>
primarily in Spanish, there needs to be far deeper consideration
of the two non-technical fundamentals: audiences and program
contents."

Audio-Visual Department to K. Dean Stephens, dated 02/12/81

"The question of C.I.R.B.A.L. as operator of a future
international shortwave station is intriguing, but of course
National Assemblies can be delegated to operate international
facilities, and a country such as Ecuador might well undertake a
mission on behalf of its Latin American fellow Assemblies."

Audio-Visual Department to K. Dean Stephens, dated 27/01/82

"It is granted that we can build an international station of
sufficient quality and power to reach far and wide, in Latin
America and beyond. Whether we can afford the initial upgrading
costs from 1 KW to 10 KW, and thereafter can profitably feed the
hungry air hours with good programs listened to by audiences we
want to reach requires far more analysis than thus far seems
clear. Having an international class station sounds exciting, but
it is an empty achievement unless we can be reasonably sure that
we can produce the kind of programs the shortwave listening
public will tune to, and whether what they will tune to is what
we want to produce on behalf of the proclamation, teaching and
deepening objectives of the Faith. Therefore we submit these
questions for your response."

"1. Why should we seek more than Latin American penetration,
i.e., South and Central America and some few Caribbean islands?"

"2. More narrowly, why should we seek more than immediately
adjacent areas: all of Ecuador, Peru to the South (if accessible
in view of the mountains), Colombia, Panama to the North?"

"3. Can we get along on a single language: Spanish?"

"4. Would it be a music, news and specials station. in terms of
program content, i.e., high order entertainment with education,
including Baha'i education?"

"5. As for the music, what would be appealing: a mixture of the
best of sundry Latin American and other musical stocks?"
<p34>
PROGRAMMING ... -- Shortwave Radio Programming 34


"6. As for the news, can we consider a "good news" program of
what
is being done in the world, especially in Latin America, which is
good and positive, not violent, negative, political?"

"7. As for specials, what would be their range: brief reports of
interest to Latin Americans, such as on "Green Revolution"
agricultural headquarters in Mexico, the growth of literacy and
other educational programs (chance to tout Radio Sutatenza, Radio
Baha'i itself, et al), all special topics fitting the Baha'i
principles?"

Audio-Visual Department to K. Dean Stephens, dated 27/01/82

"What is needed now, in addition, is the formulation of the usual
phased activation plan, and also the submission u+ a tentative
budget showing capitalization costs as well as operational
expenses prior to initiation of broadcasting, and for the first
operational year thereafter".

Audio-Visual Department to K. Dean Stephens, dated 27/01/82

"The program recommendations are those of a veteran production
person and should be seriously considered by the Committee which,
however, should design its own program plan following
consultation. What seems necessary is to firmly establish the
objectives of the shortwave broadcasts. for these programs do not
have the local and area character of the medium wave broadcasts.
Shortwave audience must be defined by means of surveys of
shortwave reception in Ecuador, the availability of shortwave
receivers, the habits of listeners, and the ability of the
station to reach hoped-for audiences as, for example, Baha'is of
the
coast near Esmeraldas. Reception in nearby Colombia should be a
subject of study and consultation with the National Spiritual
Assembly of Colombia."

"With reference to the reporting of news, this is a special and
difficult subject because of frequent political sensitivities
associated with news items. Your National Spiritual Assembly
will have to determine what kinds of news should be covered and
spell out the categories. For example, such national Ecuadorean
events of significance to the general welfare of the population
as an epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in the cattle, a rabies
problem in wild animals and other subjects of non-political
cultural nature, could be considered for purposes of
dissemination by broadcast via the shortwave programs."<p35>

"It is important to achieve optimal overlapping with the medium
wave broadcast in the interests of economy and efficiency.
For the immediate future the shortwave programming
should not become a primary concern until it has been shown to
have a worthwhile audience for programs fulfilling Baha'i
objectives "

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Educador, dated 23/08/83

9 . Baha'i Programming Increase

"The format of the report is helpful and lends itself to
ready analysis. Notable is the increase in specifically
Baha'i programmes, to 25 hours for the month. The percentage
of programmes in Quechua appears to be rising, while the
musical programmes are radically decreasing. Recalling
original premises of station programming which called for
far higher percentages of music purportedly for creating
listenerships, it would be helpful to know of your current
planning in this segment of the station's programs."

"Noting that the shortwave broadcasting programme averages
3.3 hours per day, the House of Justice is interested in
receiving the overall plan for shortwave transmissions."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 20/10/83

"You are urged to take all steps to realize the great
teaching, proclamation and consolidation possibilities in
Otavalo, so that you may successfully reach both the Indian and
non-Indian populations of the region ."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 05/08/85

"Nevertheless, it is also true that it is time for an intensive
sharing of programs among the Latin American Baha'i
stations, and this has been given as an assignment to the
International Baha'i Audio-Visual Centre."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 23/12/87


"The report is lengthy and detailed, and shows the great
energy being poured into the restoration of satisfactory
station activity through the efforts of many volunteers
<p36>
PROGRAMMING ... -- Baha'i Programming Increase/News Releases 36

under the coordination of Mr. Sabino Ortega. The array of
programmes being broadcast, or in the planning and
production stage, is excellent, and reveals the proper attention
paid to the Baha'i teaching and deepening work.
May this flood of Baha'i messages have a palpable effect very
soon ."

Audio-Visual Department to the National Spiritual Assembly
Bolivia, dated 17/01/88

"The wide-ranging activities of the radio station
demonstrate an increasing energy in production and
broadcasting along with many community activities which
serve the entire region and its institutions. The airing
of a greater number of Baha'i programmes is a very good sign,
but a judicious combination of musical and cultural programmes
with those which are strictly of Baha'i interest
may well be necessary to retain a high level of listenership.
Indeed some form of evaluation is encouraged, for the tastes
of listeners and their will to listen to the station's offerings
can be usefully sampled at regular intervals as a guide to
programme planning."

Audio-Visual Department to the National Spiritual Assembly
of
Ecuador, dated 20/01/88

10 . Baha'i News Releases and Comuniques

"The inflow of communiques from people and agencies desiring
announcements appears to be of commendable volume .
Indeed, this service and its popularity can well be the
index of listenership and station reputation, just as personal
items are the strength of local newspapers. The organization
of this service is of great importance "

Audio-Visual Department to the National Spiritual Assembly
of
Peru, dated 07/07/87

"The public service programmes, both broadcast and in the
community
will, regularly require much work and imagination, and realize
other
aspects of your goals; but we wonder about the propriety of
reading
news from a daily newspaper, even if cultural in nature, without
obtaining permission from the newspaper, although this might not
be noted if delivered in the Mapuche language, and perhaps this
is
the custom with rural radio stations."

Audio-Visual Department to the National Spiritual Assembly
of
Chile, dated 17/01/88 <p37>


"However, since these stations are also, and primarily,
established in order to consolidate the local communities and
individuals of the Otavalo area, and therefore to inform them
of the Faith itself in its many aspects, there is no reason why
Baha'i International News Service items, suitably edited for
local purposes, would not fit into the programmes even more
appropriately than local news."

Audio-Visual Department to the I.B.A.V.C., dated 09/08/88

(Note:See 8.Shortwave Radio Programming: "Regarding the reporting
of
news...")

11. Musical Programmes

"You have indicated the nature of the musical programmes, which
we assume are the bulk of the demanding ten-hour-a-day schedule,
but, know that judiciously chosen music can be both a key source
of popularity with your listeners, and also educational.
It is hoped that a goodly group of enthusiastic volunteers will
be recruited to increase the stations ability to undertake
programmes of special interest, among other services which they
can render."

Audio-Visual Department to the National Spiritual Assembly
of
Chile, dated 17/01/88

12. Teamwork in Disaster Relief Services

"Your letter of 10 June 1989 to the Universal House of Justice
regarding the plight of the Pehuenches of the Mapuche zone has
been received, and we are asked to convey its response to this
volcano-produced local disaster."

"What your staff at Radio Baha'i has suggested appears
beneficial, and you are urged to undertake all such actions as
may help to relieve the situation; indeed, it is hoped that the
station has long since been enlisted in publicizing the needs of
the sufferers. However, as you suggest, it is better to offer
teamwork with government of private relief agencies than to seek
to gather funds or deliver supplies yourselves. Thus far this is
the first Baha'i radio station to offer such a specific program
of
relief services, but it is a logical role for an institution of
public service."

"Kindly keep the World Centre informed of the changing
situation and of your own activities in this important
opportunity for significant assistance to the stricken
community of mountain people, including members
of the Baha'i community. It may be that the World Centre
itself may be able to offer some form of help or suggest ways. PROGRAMMING ...-- Prod. Schedule/Field Record./Audience Part. 38

further aid the beleaguered Indian peoples. The House of Justice
will offer prayers for your guidance."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Chile, dated 14/07/89

13. Production Schedule

"The phased program of production, which has as one of the goals
the accumulation of many tapes in readiness for the initiation of
regular broadcasting, should be pursued without respite, in
accordance with the plans agreed upon."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Bolivia, dated 14/02/83

14. Frequent Field Recordings

"While it is true that the radio personnel have been able to
establish only a sporadic contact with the people of the village
communities, even those close to Otavalo and certainly those at a
distance from it, such contact appears to have been primarily a
matter of organization and not of substance. It should be
possible for the radio staff, using the station vehicle, to visit
the communities regularly, recording agricultural, health and
cultural presentations with the local, perhaps indigenous,
people. Thus, it is not essential that there be a development
project to create the links which the radio station needs, but
rather a more methodical programme which taps the resources and
knowledge of the rural people. This comment does not negate the
project concept, but rather encourages return to frequent field
recordings."

"...In short, we are simply concerned that this most useful and
imaginative programme, with whose objectives we entirely agree,
is not allowed to burden the radio station beyond its ability to
carry forward its important work."

Audio-Visual Department to the National Spiritual Assembly
of
Ecuador, dated 30/11/87

15. Audience Participation

"The Yapuchiti programme is commendable and the station is
urged to increase this type of participation by the listeners so
that they may readily identify with 'Radio

<p39>
PROGRAMMING -- Development Projects 39


Baha'i. This can be extended into other areas of programming such
as health, agriculture and culture."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National
Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 26/08/84


16. Development Project Programming

"You are commended especially on your originality in teaching the
Faith to the campesinos by using varied 'Thought of the Week'
messages shown in pictures in the rural newspapers, and on the
personal contact being made with radio audiences through the
responsive meetings in the Syntony (listening) Centres."

"In undertaking so assiduously the several aspects of a
development project, 'Caminando Juntos' is strengthening its
foundations and preparing to become a potent force in he Otavalo
area, helping the rural communities with their social and
agricultural problems, and guiding them to the spiritual highway
of Baha'u'llah."

Department of the Secretariat to C. de Zuleta (Ecuador),
dated 02/06/83


"The programs in health, agriculture, home economics and
traditional culture which are being supported by C.I.D.A.,
always formed part of the broadcasting plans made by Radio
Baha'i Ecuador. C.I.D.A.'s relationship with the project is as a
fund-granting agency only, ... There is obviously an element of
prestige in such recognition by the Canadian government but its
contribution to this Baha'i project should not receive prominence
beyond its due."

"The House of Justice wishes the various development projects in
their communications to represent the spirit of the Faith working
in the world. While warmly and regularly acknowledging any
assistance given by non-Baha'i agencies, we must always regard
our Baha'i purposes as paramount and ensure they are never
compromised."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 21/09/83

<p40>
BUDGET -- Budgets and Funds 40


III. Budget, Finances, Reports

Introduction

"The study of the budget and financial reports should be regarded
as essential to the proper management of the radio station. They
are not meant to be immutable, but should rather be regarded as
guidelines for planning and evaluation of the activities of the
station. For management of the station the National Assembly must
use wisdom in the light of day-to-day requirements and make wise
and necessary financial decisions accordingly, referring to the
World Centre if necessary."

Office of Social and Economic Development, Memorandum to the
Universal House of Justice, dated 20/11/85


1.- Budgets and Funds

"The House of Justice is happy to note your Assembly's
expectation that about $8,000 will be contributed by the friends
in Peru during this second year when the station will be
increasing its hours of broadcasting and its proficiencies in all
aspects of its work and when the staff will be assisting in the
work of the institute and in the teaching and deepening in the
area served by the broadcast.

Office of Social and Economic Development, Memorandum to the
Universal House of Justice, dated 20/11/85

"Copies of your budget for Radio Baha'i del Lago Titicaca for the
year 1982-83 were promptly sent to C.I.R.B.A.L. consultants K.
Dean Stephens and Fernando Schiantarelli for their analyses and
comments....The House of Justice has requested C.I.R.B.A.L. to
provide guidance to you in such matters as budgets, and therefore
asks that in the future you provide to C.I.R.B.A.L. Executive
Committee members draft copies of budget submissions or of
requests for support of sundry expenditures as your needs arise,
in order that they may advise you and the World Centre."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Peru, dated 01/06/82

"In the future, however, we shall wish to have very prompt
analyses of the budgets for our assistance. Each budget,
moreover, should show whatever funds are being carried over at
the end of the fiscal year, subtracted then from, the

<p41>
BUDGET -- Budgets and Funds 41


total requested in the new budget. As for the World Centre's
holding funds for the yet-unfilled positions, deductions can be
made at the time of the last quarter's allocations if necessary
for personnel funds unspent."

Department of the Secretariat to F. Schiantarelli, dated
11/08/82


"Inasmuch as your Treasurer provides regular accounts of income
and expenditures, and emergencies may occur, any discrepancies
can be met at year's end when funds for carryover into the new
fiscal year will be shown. In future submissions of budgets, Mr.
Schiantarelli, Counsellor Khamsi or others can be helpful in
advising your Assembly on the radio budgets."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Peru, dated 11/08/82


"It may be that you will find it possible to consult with
engineers Mohebbi and Mahdi during your forthcoming journey to
South America... The program of intensive maintenance and new
construction as proposed by Engineer Mahdi in his letter seem
satisfactory, but a coordinated program for all four stations
needs to be developed. In this connection, C.I.R.B.A.L. is free
to authorize travel funds from its own budget for the two
engineers in the days before establishment of the Bolivian and
Chilean stations, although the stations themselves should pay the
costs of travel and services of engineers Mohebbi or Mahdi and
provide for these costs in their annual budgets."

"The plan seems workable and, it is hoped, has been examined by
Mr. K.D. Stephens and Mr. F. Schiantarelli for its practicability
and cost. The summary of construction cost seem low, and there is
no mention of the costs of equipment, furnishings, and such vital
concerns as electric power. Moreover, we note an absence of
dormitory space in the institute complex, space which other
institutes find essential for housing the participants in courses
and programs. In short, before proceeding, the House of Justice
wishes to see a complete budget estimate which has been reviewed
by the Counsellors, and which contains all elements necessary to
establish and maintain a radio station."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Bolivia, dated 05/04/83

<p42>
BUDGET -- Budgets and Funds 42


"...your funds are limited and must be expended with the utmost
care, lest inflation, plus added and unpredicted charges cause a
serious overrun of your construction estimates. Moreover your
station should plan for an orderly growth in the conviction that
operational funds from outside Bolivia will not be sufficient for
your demands if ;.our scale of operations is too large. It is the
assumption, of the House of Justice that your transmission will
be 1KW to 3KW at the outset, stepping up to 5KW when your
station is fully operational and experienced in the personnel
sense."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Bolivia, dated 16/11/83


"Your care in budgetary management is greatly appreciated and it
is hoped that your increasing work load will not prevent you from
continuing this excellent care. In 1983-84 the operational costs
for three stations will be added to the international radio
budget, plus C.I.R.B.A.L. expenses, while available income is
shrinking. In your consultant services you will wish to emphasize
to the station staffs the need for careful and economical use of
scarce funds."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R B A.L., K. Dean
Stephens, dated 30/05/83


"Please supply a detailed budget for the next fiscal year well
before the end of July, indicating what funds remain from former
contributions, and clearly separating the costs of construction,
equipment and furnishings of the station and its associated
institute from anticipated operational costs. As your plans for
construction of the station mature, your Assembly and the
committee appointed to supervise the station should supply to the
World Centre a carefully estimated budget of construction costs.
Such a budget will allow you to husband the scarce resources and
will permit your anticipating some of the obstacles inherent in
developing an educational institution on the altiplano of inland
Bolivia."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Bolivia, dated 31/05/83

"As for funds, you will be happy to know that adequate
funding should be available for your purchase of land,
building and equipment although, as always, maximal
economies must be sought. your capital budget estimate is
within the resources available. The operating budget for the <p43>
first year holds to averages of other Baha'i stations; revised
figures should be submitted before activation o+ the station
takes place. Priming funds can now be made available if needed."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Panama, dated 16/11/83


"As soon as the National Spiritual Assembly has decided upon its
actions, the necessary plans should be prepared for the Cultural
Centre Complex, including the institute if possible, so that
construction can be expedited when the necessary steps have been
taken with the government authorities. Baha'i architects may be
called upon if necessary, for such plans. Budgets should be
submitted in time to assure a prompt start on the physical
aspects of the project, so that the procurement of all equipment
and materials can proceed expeditiously. Earmarked funds are in
hand for the full development of the Centre and its radio
station."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Panama, dated 11/10/83


"The general principle is that where regular servicing is
established, for example with Mr. Mahdi and Mr. Mohebbi, the
expenses should be written into the annual budgets as predictable
costs. As far as was known such an arrangement was not yet in
operation in Peru but is still only in the preparatory phase. The
Budget should show to whom the consultant travel funds would be
paid; this was not shown in the budget sent on September 13 ...
Unusual travel, even by persons named on the station budget,
could be paid by C.I.R.B.L. Your travel expenses on behalf
of C.I.R.B.A L., as well as those of . . . would . . . be paid
from the C.I.R.B.A.L. budget."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., F.
Schiantarelli, dated 01/12/83


"An estimated budget item for training of radio personnel should
be included. This would meet the cost of travel by specialists
to Bolivia or cost of travel of radio personnel to attend
training courses which may be held in another country."
Office of Social and Economic Development to National Spiritual
Assembly of Bolivia, dated 28/08/84

<p44>
BUDGET -- Donations 44

"Although the New Era Cultural Association is legally the
proprietor of the radio station, it is felt that its expenses
should normally be borne by the National Spiritual Assembly,
since the functions of the Association can be broader than that
of radio alone."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Peru, dated 06/11/84


"7. An estimated budget item for training of radio personnel
should be included. This would meet the cost of travel by
specialists to Bolivia or cost of travel of radio personnel to
attend training courses which may be held in another country."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National
Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 28/08/84


"B. The allocation for occasional part-time personnel is rather
high and it is suggested that you may wish to invite additional
voluntary participation from the members of the community for
your production and consultancy work."

"5. C.I.R.B.A.L. personnel travel expenses to Peru in fulfillment
of their assigned functions will be met from C.I.R.B.A.L.
resources. The station is free to pay travel expenses on a modest
scale to consultants of its choice and needs, including
C.I.R.B.A.L. personnel on special request."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Peru, dated 06/11/84


2. Donations, Letters of, Collaboration

"The Universal House of Justice has noted the letter from Mr.
Stephens in which he reports the generous gift of J. used radio
transmitter from a non-Baha'i station in Denver, Colorado and
asks about its disposition. We are asked to convey its views."

"Inasmuch as all Baha'i radio stations operate in the public
service, the House of Justice sees no objection to accepting the
gift."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated
17/01/82

"With respect to the contributions made or pledged by the Baha'i
community of ..., California, the House of Justice is <p45>
grateful for the generosity of the Baha'is and particularly of
... however, the commitment is a fully voluntary one. and the
House of Justice does not consider it appropriate to intervene in
this matter."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Chile, dated 28/04/82

"In the same report you have indicated the Commission's
rejection of the offer of free municipal land in Caracollo. For
your information in this matter of not accepting gifts from non-
Baha'is, there is no objection to accepting free plots of land
from the government or civic authorities if such land is used for
Baha'i cemeteries or for such institutions as are charitable or
humanitarian in nature, such as schools, medical facilities,
homes for the orphan or aged. The radio station is an
educational institution and a public servant, not solely for
Baha'is but also for non-Baha'is, hence it is permissible for you
to accept with gratitude land offered ... providing ... the land
is of the right character and in the right place to meet the
needs of the station complex."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Bolivia, dated 02/03/83


"In such matters as letters of donation, you are asked to request
these from the National Spiritual Assembly of the country of
equipment purchase, generally the United States. your experiences
in negotiating--purchases, obtaining documents of 'donation' will
allow you to expedite each such need. The sources of the funds
for the purchases are of course, international, but this should
make
no difference to the donor, the National Assembly of the United
States, the National Assembly of Canada, or other."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated
25/05/83


3. Vehicles - Adequate Insurance and Careful Management

"Recognizing that the station and institute have need of a tough
and long-lived vehicle . . and that extraordinary steps have been
taken to secure the Toyota at minimal total cost ... Funds are
being sent to your Assembly and to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Japan, as requested, recognizing that it is important
to complete the transaction while the special purchase and entry
conditions remain."
<p46>
BUDGET -- Vehicles 46


"It is hoped that the station will derive many years of service
from this vehicle, that this valuable piece of equipment will
be safeguarded through adequate insurance and careful management,
including protection against theft."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Peru, dated 21/02/84


"The insurance figure should be more specific and premiums
should be given in detail. All buildings and equipment should be
adequately insured and an all-risk insurance policy taken out.
The jeep should be similarly comprehensively insured. If
insurance coverage car, be obtained for hazards from natural
causes, this would be advisable."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National
Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia, dated 28/08/84


"Although Peruvian law does not require insurance, and
particularly second and third person liability insurance, which
is a mandatory requirement for all autos and driers in some
countries, it seems wise to insure for theft, accident and
liability, or for overall coverage, bearing in mind the state
of affairs in Puno and Cuzco districts and undertaking a proper
survey of insurance carriers, their rates and reliability in
meeting claims."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Peru, dated 23/08/89


"Not only are the users of the vehicles of the Faith under
serious
obligation to the Faith for care and discretion in all uses of
these cars, which are not their property, but they are also
responsible for mishaps, whether their own making or those of
others. The drivers are often liable to be involved in legal
action in accidents, particularly where there are injuries or
deaths. Baha'i employee-drivers may conceivably be required by
your Assembly to pay some part of the insurance, perhaps the
liability component, as a price for the privilege of vehicle use
and as a protection for themselves against predator suits. And
finally, it is a fair charge against the budget of the station to
insure its autos; it is also a fair thing to require all station

<p47>
BUDGET -- Vehicles/Accounting 47


drivers to obey regulations for station auto use, against
financial or other penalties for misuses established and clearly
understood by each authorized driver."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Peru, dated 23/08/89


"If you have not already done so, it is hoped that the National
Assembly will institute a program of control of all Baha'i
vehicles, and of insurance to protect its not inconsiderable
capital investment in automobiles of various kinds."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Peru, dated 23/08/89

4. Accounting and Earmarked Funds

"The continuation of the Mapuche language programs is indeed
essential to the maintenance of momentum in the teaching work now
afoot. It is not known whether you have non-earmarked funds which
will meet your needs for the radio station charges for the
Mapuche programs; if so, you are of course free to use them. If
you are limited by the terms of the funds given to you for the
station construction ani for the institute, the estimated $2,040
can be made available."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Chile, dated 26/10/83

Also see section 7A.


5. Ministry of Education - Literacy by Air
"This extract suggests that you should be in touch with Ecuador
about this program, encouraging them actively to develop the
relationship for repeat programs on literacy via radio. This is
precisely one of the missions given to the radio stations, and
whereas the response as indicated here was that they would only
broadcast the programs, there is much more that perhaps the
station should be doing, because literacy by radio usually
involves printed matter and other associated materials. Our own
concept of such literacy programs, when developed by Baha'i radio
stations, is to have much of the content concern itself with
sociological issues, such as the unity of mankind and the
equality
of women with men, etc. In short, while people are learning to
read
and write, they should also learn the principles of the
<p48>

BUDGET -- Funds and Contributions 48


modern world. This need not necessarily mean using Baha'i words,
but only Baha'i themes."

Audio-Visual Department to the International Baha'i Audio-
Visual Centre, dated 30/04/87


"In addition, it might be well to have the state seek to
to draw some service fee from the Ministry of Education as was
anticipated when, years ago, this same Ministry
approached them to be the first station to broadcast
programs for primary school classroom teaching. As we recall,
this program was never carried through for want of funds.
However, it could be rejuvenated as an idea to find out whether
it is now possible . Here again, some small income
might be gained from the Ministry of Education for the use of the
station facilities, not to mention the services of the
personnel involved. All this is consistent with our hope that
Baha'i stations will begin to have a respectable earning capacity
within their cultural and educational status."

Audio-Visual Department to the International Baha'i Audio-
Visual Centre, dated 30/04/87


6. Management of Funds and Voluntary non-Baha'i Contributions

"As for the management of these funds, it is preferred that you
request funds from time to time as you may need them for your
purposes of construction and later operation . You should
inform the World Centre of the proper route of transmission of
such monies from abroad, for their least troublesome and
hazardous receipt. You may wish each transmittal to be
handled through your account in the United States; if so,
please provide exact instructions for transfer of funds to that
account, giving the bank name, account number and any other
information required. On a cable request from your assembly,
transfer of funds can occur within forty-eight hours. "

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Bolivia, dated 09/02/83


"Your letter of 19 March 1985 enquiring if it would be
permissible for Radio Baha'i to receive voluntary
contributions from non-Baha'i listeners was received and we
have been asked to convey to you the following comments."
<p49>
BUDGET -- Self-Support 49


"The Universal House of Justice sees no objection to accepting
voluntary donations spontaneously contributed by non-Baha'is for
your radio activities. In a letter written to a National
Spiritual Assembly on the behalf of the House of Justice, the
following advice was given."

" ... A point to bear in mind is that a Baha'i radio station
should strictly uphold a standard for its operations that will
guard its programs against being confused in the public mind
with the radio programs sponsored by other religious groups. The
latter programs often involve fund-raising activities which, if
associated with Baha'i programs would eventually undermine the
prestige of the Faith and expose its institutions to certain
dangers."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 15/04/85

"The donations accepted from non-Baha'is must be used toward
providing services or programs which are not a direct Baha'i
teaching."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 15/04/85

A. Non-Voluntary Programs

"Reference was made to "non-voluntary programs" with a value set
upon such programs. It is assumed that this item refers to
broadcasts undertaken on behalf of some other agency. and perhaps
is a charge for time. If indeed the station is now undertaking to
earn some portion of its expenses through service charges, this
is excellent, but it would be helpful to know of your policies,
plans and procedures. Possibly the lapsed UNICEF relationships
could again be resumed, now that Caracollo is finalizing its
contract."

Audio-Visual Department to the National Spiritual Assembly
of
Peru, dated 07/07/87

7. Self-support of Radio Stations, Strict Economy and
Efficiency in Work

A. Additional Sources of Support to Reduce Burden to the
Baha'i International Fund

"It should be possible, on an increasing scale, to enlist the
support of the Ecuadorian Baha'i themselves in helping
<p50>
BUDGET -- Self-Support 50


to finance their radio station and you will continue to
strengthen your personnel resources through self-supporting
pioneers who will expand your potentials for effective radio-
broadcasting."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual

Assembly of Ecuador, dated 27/07/81


"In view of the comparatively large sums given in the budget
estimates of Mr. Eyford, it may be well to comment that the out-
of-pocket monies of the annual budget for Radio Baha'i are
augmented by a very considerable "invisible" budget, comprising
support funds for the unsalaried pioneers, the time value of
volunteer services of the local believers and also the value of
visitor-workers such as engineer K. Dean Stephens, not to mention
the work of the Radio Commission itself. All the volunteer
services manifest that spirit which makes the station financially
possible and financially viable. In the sense of a need to show a
comparison between C.I.D.A. funds and station support funds,
the "invisible" budget adds an important dimension, one which
C.I.D.A. grantors may wish to have."

From an Ad Hoc Committee summary of information currently
available at the World Centre on the situation and plans
of Radio Baha'i in Ecuador, dated 11/05/80

"The House of Justice anticipates receiving the detailed
accounting for funds expended and for funds in hand. There is
great need for your Assembly to husband its resources against
the initiation of the long-awaited station in Labranza. Where
funds are earmarked for a specific purpose they should be held
against the realization of that purpose, and in your accounting
you should clearly indicate any such donor earmarking."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Chile, dated 26/10/83


"Your Assembly should know that no earmarked capital funds for
Peru have existed for some time. Overall worldwide operational
funds available are not large, and must be shared with the
growing number of stations which are in various stages of
development, hence strict economy and efficiency in work is
called
for by each radio unit."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Peru, dated 21/02/84 <p51>

"1. It would be appreciated if you would segregate your
accounting, as possible into appropriate sections: land, studio,
transmitter, institute, miscellaneous (such as protective walls,
landscaping, etc.) "

"2. You should show all sources of income, including payments
from the World Centre by date and check number, plus other
income such as the monies transferred from Mr. Mas'ud Khamsi."

"3. Each person who received money for special purchases should
provide his own accounting to your Assembly."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Bolivia, dated 13/06/84

"The suggested adjustments have been guided not only by what is
hoped can be accomplished through the radio station, but also by
the critical state of the Baha'i International Fund. If there is
need for additional funds, the World Centre will be ready to
receive your request and justification. The sacrificial efforts
of those who are offering to work for the radio on a voluntary
basis and those who are accepting a lower remuneration than that
which might be expected from other employment are deeply
appreciated, and such economies are considered as a positive
contribution to the Funds of the Faith."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National
Spiritual Assembly of Panama, dated 01/04/86


"The Manager of the station and the National Assembly must use
wisdom in meeting day-to-day requirements, and make necessary
financial decisions accordingly. The suggested amounts in the
categories can be altered as necessary with the approval of
the National Assembly, provided serious consideration is given to
the maintenance of the proportional relationship which the
categories have to the budget as a whole."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National
Spiritual Assembly of Panama, dated 01/04/86

B. Special Letter on Additional Sources of Support

"The Baha'i Word Centre has asked us to encourage the Baha'i
radio
stations and their host National Spiritual Assemblies to search
for additional sources of support that might
<p52>

BUDGET -- Self-Support 52


reduce the burden to the Baha'i International Fund. Our purpose
in offering these observations is to clarify the responsibilities
of various Baha'i institutions in the support of a given station,
and to stimulate thinking toward discovery of new possibilities
for generating funds. The stations and their host National
Spiritual Assemblies must move from a passive stance, where, in
all cases save c,ne, total financial assistance from the Baha'i
International Fund is depended upon, to a proactive stance
through which possibilities for additional support are explored.

I. Role of National Spiritual Assemblies

"First, it is hoped that the National Spiritual Assemblies which
are blessed with the presence of a Baha'i radio station will
look upon the station as a national resource for proclamation,,
teaching and deepening. Considerable responsibility, however,
comes with the bounty of having a radio station in one's country.
We hope that all National Spiritual Assemblies will continue to
take an active role in the physical as well as the spiritual
support of their stations. We would also hope that in the case
where more than one nation enjoys the benefits of being within
range of a Baha'i radio station, that they too, will give funds
to support the operation of the station. Places where Baha'i
radio can be received across national boundaries are: Sierra
Leone and Ivory Coast who are within range of ELRB, parts of
Bolivia which are served by Radio Baha'i Peru, and the countries
which will in the future be able to receive shortwave broadcasts
from Ecuador."

II. Seeking support at the local level

"As Baha'is we want to conserve precious resources whenever
possible. Our effort to conserve money from the Fund must be
intensified, if we are to achieve all of the great tasks before
us, such as the construction of the terraces on Mt. Carmel and
the buildings on the Arc. Closer to home, there are many teaching
projects to support. It is for these reasons, then, that we
strongly encourage the Baha'i to look for new ways in which
Baha'i radio can become partially self-supporting. Any money, no
matter how small, any "in-kind" contribution results in a saving
of money that would otherwise have to come from the Baha'i Fund.
The sources of additional funds are, perhaps, more abundant than
people realize. Once the Baha'i are attuned to the principle of
stations being sustained by a number of different sources, large
and small, opportunities become evident. Indeed, the process of
seeking support, particularly at the grass roots level, can be an
<p53>
BUDGET -- Self-Support 53

exhilarating one, for it obliges us to pay close attention to
the needs and desires of those whom we serve."

III. Making direct appeals

"There is no reason why Local Spiritual Assemblies and
individual Baha'i who are listeners of a Baha'i radio station
should not feel free to contribute to the station to help to keep
it on the air. Even individuals who are not Baha'i should not be
prevented from making contributions to Baha'i radio. Listeners
need to be made aware of the costs of bringing useful,
stimulating and entertaining radio programs to them."

IV. Support from contractual agreements

"Another important source of financial support for a radio
station can come from contractual agreements with local,
national, and even international agencies whose interests fall
within the scope of Baha'i radio's mission. There have been many
examples of this kind of activity and we feel strongly that
National Spiritual Assemblies and their radio stations must
continue to actively pursue these relationships. We are reminded
of the arrangement between Radio Baha'i Ecuador and the Ministry
of Education of that country to present classes in mathematics in
the "School of the Air". Another example is the possible
Interactive Radio project to be sponsored by U.S.A.I.D. in
Ecuador."

V. The charging of fees

"In the matter of charges, a nominal rate structure is not
unfamiliar to most secular agencies. Either air time or labour
can be charged for services to other agencies and institutions.
The friends can also consider "in-kind" arrangements, in which
actual money does not change hands. An example of this is in
Liberia, where ELRB runs "ads" for the electric company, and
receives power credits in return. Another example of this kind of
relationship would be where an agency provides certain technical
improvements to a station to meet the needs of a program or
series, and which would benefit the entire radio station, and
would be utilized even after the project had been completed. The
Interactive Radio project proposes such a "fee". Some projects
like "School of the Air" have themselves sought additional
support, i.e. the Ministry of Education collected a nominal
registration fee from the students who enrolled in the math
course. While the funds collected from the students were
by no means sufficient to support the project, the
funds were a good supplement, which was passed on indirectly
to the ratio station. In addition, there is the
<p54>
BUDGET -- Self-Support 54


psychological effect of making the course more significant to
the students through their payment of at least nominal fees.
The statement, "Free has no value" has some basis in fact."


VI. Non-financial support from non-Baha'i sources

"Non-Baha'is should be encouraged to help the station, at every
opportunity. If they are allowed to contribute in some way toward
the station, it helps them to identify with the station. They can
provide the station with valuable information, too, such things
as comments about programs, people who might be interested in
learning more about the Baha'i Faith, etc.. There have been
several instances where people have become involved in helping
Baha'i radio stations, and have enrolled in the Faith shortly
afterward."

VII. Fund raising and the law

"Before engaging in any direct appeals for contributions,
however, we urge you to carefully investigate the laws of your
own country, as they apply to a station of your stated category
or description, i.e. as a cultural non-profit, charitable or
other station, and what sorts of income are allowed. While most
places will not prevent a radio station from making appeals for
contributions, it may be that such activity will change the
station's tax status. as non-profit Baha'i radio stations enjoy
tax advantages over their commercial cousins, it is wise for them
to protect such tax-exempt status."

VIII. Grants-in-aid

"Another source of funds are grants from various institutions and
private foundations. Grants differ from the contractual
relationships cited earlier, although many institutions offer
both
to their recipients. A grant implies that the organization giving
it does not receive any type of service or product in return, but
only demands careful reporting of how the support was utilized
with detailed accounting of money spent, and perhaps some
publicity, but that is all. There are several different types of
grants-in-aid: one of them is for "in-kind" assistance where
equipment, technical expertise, or supplies of some type are
given in place of money. Many grants require that the applicant
furnish certain things before the grant is given. This "in-kind"
matching could take the form of equipment, personnel, land, or
facilities. The grantor usually wants assurance that the
organization applying for the grant is substantial and
responsible."
<p55>

BUDGET -- Development Projects/Relation to Faith 55


IX. Assistance to obtain grants

"There are many sources of information about projects and grants
that are available to public service institutions. We urge
you to contact local libraries and experts in the field who may
be able to help you. Don't overlook other public service
organizations, especially the ones that appear to be successful
in locating sources of support. Ask them how they did it, who
they contacted, and for any suggestions or, how to formulate a
proposal that will receive attention. Also, don't be discouraged
if your first efforts do not meet with success. There is great
competition for support, particularly from the private sector,
as government funds become scarce. Learn from the unsuccessful
proposals. Ask for critiques. Soon you will discover that you
have mastered the fine art of locating sources that can
supplement precious monies for the Fund."

X. Conclusion

"The comments that have been made are only suggestions to
stimulate thinking about some ways in which additional support
can be found. The most important ingredient is an attitude that
a Baha'i radio station is made up of many sources of support --
large and small, permanent and temporary. Is such activity worth
the effort? There will be certain setbacks and frustrations as
the search for new ways to sustain a station continues. Do not
become discouraged. It takes time and effort to create a broad
base of support, but as you progress you will feel an
exhilaration which comes from the confidence that Baha'i radio
can actually be supported by the people it serves. The listeners,
in turn, will gain a new sense of respect for their "Radio
Baha'i"."

"We wish you great success, and we hope that you will share your
experiences with all of us."

International Baha'i Audio-Visual Centre to the National
Spiritual Assemblies and Radio Stations of Bolivia, Chile,
Ecuador, Liberia, Panama, Peru and the United States,
dated
07/09/89

8. Development Projects and Baha'i Projects in Their
Relations With all Non-Baha'i Fund-Granting Agencies

"We are asked to transmit certain comments, for the. are
fundamentally important to the conception of Baha'i projects in
their relations with all non-Baha'i fund-granting agencies."
<p56>

BUDGET -- Development Projects/Relation to Faith 56


"The programs in health, agriculture, home economics and
traditional culture which are being supported by C.I.D.A.,
always formed part of the broadcasting plans made by Radio Baha'i

Ecuador. C.I.D.A.'s relationship with the project is as a fund-
granting agency only, and an accounting will be made to them for
monies provided. There is obviously an element of prestige in
such recognition by the Canadian government but its contribution
to this Baha'i project should not receive prominence beyond its
due."

"The House of Justice wishes the various development projects in
their communications to represent the spirit of the Faith working
in the world. While warmly and regularly acknowledging any
assistance given by non-Baha'i agencies, we must always regard
our Baha'i purposes as paramount and ensure they are never
compromised."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated
21/08/83


"Re the agreement between Radio Baha'i and the Regional
Department of Health in Puno. 'It is hoped that the comments of
Mr. Schiantarelli will be given your thoughtful consideration so
that this endeavor can be carried forward to the prestige of the
Baha'i community and the benefit of the peoples of Peru.'"

"The addition of this project to the other activities of Radio
Baha'i, such as the literacy project with the Ministry of
Education, the work at the Muhajir Teaching Institute and the
continuing growth and development of the radio station will
require a great deal of effort and attention. In order not to
dissipate the energy and resources of the community, careful
consideration should be given before taking on any further
projects."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Peru, dated 01/04/85
<p57>

TECHNICAL MATTERS -- Personnel/Consultant 57


IV. Technical Matters

Introduction

"The technical problems of the stations need to be methodically
faced and resolved. Mr. K. Dean Stephens will take a journey in
the autumn to set afoot the most appropriate long-range
solutions to these nettling problems which require knowledgeable
maintenance personnel who also are willing to assume preventive
procedures to forestall certain kinds of breakdowns. We must
still
tolerate our of funds, and the personnel must understand the
inadequate nature of our financial resources when purchasing
original or replacement equipment."

Audio-Visual Department to Mr. Donald Witzel, dated 02/09/87


1. Technical Personnel

"...Judging by the experiences in Otavalo and Puno, we should
have a competent radio engineer on duty at an early date in the
development of the station in order to assure good installation
of the studio equipment as well as that of the transmitter, and
thereafter to monitor and maintain and upgrade the equipment.
Each new station will present a similar situation, and planning
must
now be done to forestall such difficulties as experienced in the
earl days at Chucuito, such as the damage and setbacks which
occurred .... The same problem will confront us in Bolivia unless
Mohebbi will be able to serve ..."

Audio-Visual Department to K. Dean Stephens, dated 03/02/82


2. Role of Consultants

"You are a member of the staff of Radio Baha'i in Otavalo and as
such are under the authority of the National Spiritual Assembly
of Ecuador, and in Otavalo under the direction of the Radio
Committee and the manager of the station. Such international
consultant service as you may be asked to do by C.I.R.B.A.L. is
with the permission of the National Spiritual Assembly of
Ecuador, at times when routine station duties permit your absence
from regular station responsibilities."

Department of the Secretariat to Mr. Parviz Mahdi, dated
20/05/83
<p58>

TECHNICAL MATTERS -- Personnel/Consultant 58


"Such services by Mr. Mahdi necessarily require permission
from those who are responsible for his work at Radio Baha'i
His role as consultant would seem to be practicable in view
of the presence of a radio technician at Radio Baha'i;
furthermore, Mr. Mahdi's challenging past experiences have
suggested that he with Mr. Zatiollah Mohebti, could provide
certain intermittent technical services to the radio network
now in formation. Furthermore it is in the best interests
of the Faith that Mr. Mahdi's skills be used at their highest
level whenever possible."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 22/05/83


"Mr. Mahdi is a member of the staff of Radio Baha'i and as such
is your employee and thus under the authority of the National
Spiritual Assembly, the Radio Committee and the manager ... Mr.
Mahdi's role as an expert consultant electronics engineer working
in collaboration with C.I.R.B.A.L. is an added responsibility
which,
it is hoped, he will be able to undertake at times when the
station
does not urgently require his ongoing maintenance or installation
services. Travel costs for services offered to the stations in
Peru, Bolivia and elsewhere must be supplied by C.I.R.B.A.L., or
by
the other stations themselves, and are not a part of your
obligations."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 22/05/83


"The consultant service on managerial functions offered to the
stations in Peru and Bolivia has doubtless been not only very
valuable to the staff of both countries, but also reveals Mr.
Quinteros' maturity in his responsibilities, as well as his
important cooperation with C.I.R.B.A.L.."

"The report of station staff collaboration with the Regional
Teaching Committee of the North gives high hope that the
station's Baha'i teaching record will soon equal its achievement
of service to the people of the Otavalo area. Again Mr. Quinteros
is to be commended for what appears to have been a key role in
the teaching program development and execution."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 16/11/83
<p59>
TECHNICAL MATTERS -- Personnel/Consultant 59

"The need for a capable and trained engineer--technician for the
radio station is very clear, and it is hoped that a person of
capacity and experience may be found to meet our ongoing needs
for maintenance, for improvement of the equipment, and for power
supplies such as the generator and the wind-power unit. The spare
parts issue will be handled, we presume, with C.I.R.B.A.L.'s
assistance."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Peru, dated 19/03/84

"It is hoped that improvements in the technical aspects of
routine broadcasting will take place as the staff becomes more
experienced. The technician in Oruro should be one resource
to be considered, even for possible regular work at the
station, if his proficiencies are adequate. An intensive search
should proceed for a maintenance engineer for the station, a
person of authentic skill and training."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated
04/04/84

"For other technical problems that cannot be solved b the radio
station staff, Mr. Stephens has recommended the establishment of
some kind of ongoing relationship with local radio experts to
be called upon by the Baha'is for assistance as in the case of
Engineer Cruz for Radio Baha'i Ecuador. There will be some kind
of consultants' fee required on a case by case basis, and such
costs will have to be planned for in each station's operating
budget."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated
16/05/85

"Your letter of 2 January 1986, with its financial update on
equipment purchases and the general financial picture of the
station under construction, has been received. Your efforts to
keep the World Centre informed of the current status of the
various radio projects and also of the work of the C.I.R.B.A.L.
Executive Committee are appreciated."
"Regarding the request for additional funds, a check for US$
11,000
is being sent for the following items $3,000 toward
equipment purchases in Panama; $3,000 for the alternate energy
system in Bolivia and $5,000 as a down payment for the 5KW
transmitter for Bolivia. The full amount for the transmitter
is not currently available. It is suggested that funds for
the alternate energy system for Ecuador be deferred to the
time when C.l.R.B.A.L. is relieved somewhat from the
many pressing needs of stations under construction and
when a resident engineer is in place <p60>
in Ecuador to oversee the installation and follow-up on
the solar power system."

Office of Social and Economic Development to Comunicaci¢n y
Radiodifusi¢n Baha'i para America Latina y el Caribe,
C.I.R.B.A.L., dated 06/02/83

3. Construction and Design

"The requested sum of $6,000 is being sent to you to pay for this
new building which is to become an essential feature of the
overall
plan to bring effective shortwave broadcasting into operation in
Ecuador."

"The land use plan to be draw up for Lake Cuicocha should take
into
account the need to preserve, and even augment, the great natural
beauty of this extraordinary site."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 16/01/83


"The revised drawing for a radio studio and transmitter building
shows many improvements, including much increased light
for the offices and of course twenty percent increase in space.
It would be well to show the possibilities for later expansion
of studio space, and give some suggestions regarding power,
heating, water and other services so important to efficient work
in parts of Latin America and elsewhere. As a basic model it
seems
workable, but perhaps the staff of Radio Baha'i del Lago Titicaca
should be consulted, if you have not already done so, on their
experience with the type of building in which they daily work and
live. The plan should, of course, immediately be transmitted to
Chile for its possible modification of construction now imminent
. . . "

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated
06/04/83

" . . .we are now asked by the Universal House of Justice to
confirm the urgency of having the building plan redrafted for
reasons of both efficiency and economy."
"The recent letter from Mr. K. Dean Stephens to the Universal
House of Justice regarding the design for a combined radio
station and institute in Caracollo., postulated very
well what is needed in redrafting a plan which will be within
your resources, and which also should be far more functional
overall than the existing design. . . .The cogency of these
opinions, and of those expressed
<p61>

TECHNICAL MATTERS -- Equipment Purchasing 61


earlier by Mr. Schiantarelli, point again to the need for your
Radio
Committee to consult freely and regularly with Mr. Schiantarelli
and
Mr. Stephens on the programming and technical aspects of your
work
giving heed to their advice."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Bolivia, dated 17/07/83


"It is important to consider whether the service of a Baha'i
architect would be helpful in the design and construction work,
both
for the Centre and the station at .... More detailed drawings
showing elevations will be very helpful and will give a better
presentation of the Centre, of which the Guaymi Baha'i should be
proud. A Baha'i architect could possibly be found who would
assist
you in this work."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Panama, dated 21/11/83


4. Equipment Purchasing

"However, the assistance and supervision of C.I.R.B.A.L. is
encouraged in overseeing equipment purchases of the future."

Department of the Secretariat to K. Dean Stephens, dated
12/05/82

"Re your letter of 16 September to the Universal House of
Justice:
... we are asked to convey it approval of the anticipated
purchasing
of 5KW components for the antenna system in Caracollo, Bolivia.
Such planning is most praiseworthy, for indeed the increase in
power
is a part of the three-year program of development which will add
greatly to station effectiveness in a later phase of
broadcasting."

"Under separate cover we are forwarding the additional $5,000 for
equipment and materials for Bolivia,... you to account for this
equipment with the National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia. You
should also inform the engineers of these purchases and, if
necessary, any special installation procedures required."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated
09/10/83

"Your point 1, the need to establish a small production studio,
should be further pursued. As you may know, earmarked funds exist
to
activate this project and these <p62>
should be called upon as soon as a place to use as a studio has
been
located and secured. A budget for this pre-station work should be
prepared and submitted to the World Centre. The recording
equipment
will of course be installed later in the station and be
incorporated
into regular operations."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L.,
F. Schiantarelli, dated 10/04/84


"The funds for purchase of equipment are approved. You have
already indicated that Mr. K. Dean Stephens will guide your
selection of equipment to assure compatibilities when you have
been
able to construct a radio station nearby, incorporating
these items into the studio array. The House of Justice is
delighted with your progress toward acquisition of land for the
transmitter and other facilities, and urges your intensive
concern with acquiring at the earliest date a favorable medium
wave frequency allocation for coverage of the Guaymi area."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Panama, dated 08/05/84


"Re your letter of 21 November 1984 in respect of the
difficulties with the transmitter at the radio station in Peru.
(1) The use of second-hand equipment must be considered as part
of an overall critical appraisal, weighing between initial
acquisition cost and potential problems that might arise,
particularly where relatively unskilled technical staff are
involved
in a stations."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L.,
dated 15/01/85


"Although purchasing second-hand equipment may present an
immediate
savings, it is recommended that a very careful study should be
made
in respect of serviceability of equipment and availability of
spare
parts in Liberia. As you will have observed, Liberia is not
favourably situated commercially and has to import all its
hardware
from foreign countries, especially the United States. To maintain

<p63>

TECHNICAL MATTERS -- Equipment Purchasing 63



adequate supplies of spare parts and to be able to meet
eventualities may be a difficult task for such a community. Every
effort should be made to lighten their burden."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L.,
dated 18/01/85


"In regard to the concept of establishing a Baha'i-run
clearinghouse
of spare parts in Latin America, the House of Justice would
prefer
to have this function undertaken by the individual radio stations
as
a part of their regular operating functions. It is important that
the stations should develop more self-reliance and reduce their
dependence upon C.I.R.B.A.L., whose role in this area of its
service
should be to expedite procurement of equipment and to respond to
major emergencies."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated
16/05/85


"(2) Availability of services and spare parts must be ascertained
in
the country where the equipment will be used. The Broadcast
Division
may identify a key agency or distributor that carries all spares
in
the U.S. or in the country where the equipment is installed, for
direct contact by the station engineer; and also the Division may
establish an agreed procedure for invoking the aid of
C.I.R.B.A.L.
when necessary."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L.,
dated 15/01/85


"(3) A system could be developed whereby some normally
short-lived
(fast-moving) spare parts are routinely acquired and stored, and
another for reordering of less frequently needed spare parts, to
be
periodically submitted to the National Assembly or the Radio
Committee for approval and prompt purchase. The main concern at
the
moment should be towards keeping all radio stations on the air in
accordance with their established schedule."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L.,
dated 15/01/85

<p64>

TECHNICAL MATTERS -- Power Sources 64


5. Power Sources

"Much obviously remains to be done, including the development of
power resources from wind and sun, aimed at achieving power
independence and economy."

Department of the Secretariat to C.I.R.B.A.L., dated
04/04/84


"The House of Justice is enthusiastic about the work being done
through Chucuito complex, but wished to have a report on the
progress toward wind energy supplementation of power needs."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Peru, dated 21/02/84


"We find the whole concept of solar power for emergency uses very
interesting and encouraging. However, it is difficult to make a
decision of the magnitude envisioned at this time, especially as
the
whole concept is still in the experimental stage and the required
additional outlay of financial resources is not yet justifiable.
We
shall, however, be interested to consider a single unit, perhaps
in
Panama where the concept can be included at the outset in
planning
and equipping the studio and transmitter."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L.,
dated 18/01/85


"It is suggested the up-grading of the Bolivian station be
tentatively projected for 1986, perhaps to coincide with the
second
anniversary of the launching of the station. Reaching and
penetrating La Paz should not be the prime consideration but
rather
expanded services to the Quechua and Aymara population."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L.,
dated 18/01/85


"Although you mention that it does not seem feasible to obtain
electricity, the projections for having access to electricity in
the
future should be investigated, perhaps

<p65>
TECHNICAL MATTERS -- Shortwave Engineering/Safety 65

for the next five to ten years. This is an important factor in
deciding whether or not to invest in a self-sufficient power
plant
for the radio station."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L.,
dated 18/01/85

"The issue of a new motor for the generator must be taken as
part of the overall consideration of power sources for the radio
station. It would be most helpful if would present to the
World Centre a review of energy sources used at the radio
station: the generator, the windpower unit and the solar power
system. This should include a brief outline of how the daily
operating power and the reserve/emergency systems are currently
functioning, and a projection for the future, with cost estimates
for different alternatives. Comparable costs for diesel and
petrol motors of adequate capacity together with specifications
should be supplied to the World Centre."

Office of Social and Economic Development to the National
Spiritual Assembly of Peru, dated 26/12/85


6. Shortwave Engineering

"The idea of world coverage with shortwave stations in three
sites is a good one, and we will keep it in mind. It is suggested
that we begin by upgrading Cuicocha, and linking it with Panama,
possibly eventually increasing power to cover the Americas."

Audio-Visual Department to K. Dean Stephens, dated
03/09/87


7. Safety

"The serious accident to a laborer provides a clear warning of
the care which must be exercised when inexperienced persons are
employed at the station, and also shows the need for adequate
insurance provisions for those undertaking hazardous tasks."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Ecuador, dated 17/11/82

"Re your letter dated 29 March 1985 regarding the hazards
of PCB present in certain radio equipment ... It is agreed that
this potential problem should be further investigated and
attended to at the various Baha'i radio stations. The
<p66>

TECHNICAL MATTERS -- Safety/Audience Surveys 66


guidance of C.I.R.B.A.L. in organizing information on this issue,
including estimated costs, and outlining steps to be taken by the
radio stations is most welcome. In this way the station will
be able to set up a procedure and time schedule for such a
project and each station can then budget the costs under
maintenance of equipment."

"... since this issue of PCB in radio equipment has come to
your attention, appropriate measures are being taken to ensure
that the equipment for the stations in Liberia and Panama will be
free from this hazard."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L.,
dated 16/05/85


"While pointing out that awareness for safety precautions is
most important, it is hoped that, as part of the process of
assisting the individual Baha'i radio stations to become
self-reliant in their functioning, they will be encouraged to,
find their own ways of getting assistance from the local
community, (e.g. from the local Red Cross or government health
agencies). This is not only important for the independence of
the stations but also as a means of strengthening community
ties."

Office of Social and Economic Development to C.I.R.B.A.L.,
dated 16/05/85

"... please emphasize to everyone there that the open circuit
voltage from the solar panels is lethal: unconnected to the
battery bank, it can soar to over 200 VDC at 2-3 amps. Similarly,
the combined battery potential may be lethal, at 120-130 VDC
available at over 20 amps. We must get everyone in a mode to
respect the alternate energy system, even though it contains
elements people are used to handling."

C.I.R.B.A.L. Broadcasting Division, Engineering to an
individual believer in Monrovia, Liberia, dated 02/04/86

8. Survey of FM listenership (Audience)

"The FM alternative should be explored with the help of your own
engineer and C.I.R.B.A.L.. A survey of FM listenership in Temuco
area would be helpful in strengthening your application, should
you
find that there are abundant FM receivers in the homes of the
prospective audience. In any
<p67>
TECHNICAL MATTERS -- Commercial Radio 67

event, the report of your study commission will be welcomed by
the House of Justice."

Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual
Assembly of Chile, dated 24/10/83

9. Commercial Radio Stations

"Baha'is are free, of course, to earn their livelihood in ways
which they choose, including operating such businesses as
commercial radio stations."

"There is no reason in principle why you should not own and
operate a station as you now are considering. What you must
confront directly are the sources of income of a commercial
station, for radio advertising as the main source of income may
present difficult decisions where principal advertisers are
selling alcohol or tobacco, or where partisan political campaigns
are waged by radio. As an instrument of education, culture and
public service, radio can be of the greatest value, and could
be a source of great gratification to you, if you are satisfied
that it can be financially viable."

"In making your primarily business choice of owning and running a
radio station, the question of a numerous Baha'i audience does
not
arise. As for a commercial and nominally non-Baha'i stations
meeting a Baha'i goal, it would not do so. If ultimately the
station might revert to the Faith at that time it might qualify
as the fulfillment of a goal."

"Regarding your question of the National Spiritual
Assembly's operating a commercial radio station, in these times
it seems unwise to undertake such an enterprise."

Department of the Secretariat to an individual believer,
dated
19/04/83

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