Read: New History of Mirza Ali-Muhammed Bab, The





First published Cambridge 1893
Reprinted 1975
with a biographical note by Michael Browne,
by arrangement with
Cambridge University Press, London
ISBN 90 6022 315 2




Edward Granville Browne was born in Glouces-1,
tershire in 1862 and passed his -youth in New-
castle-upon-Tyne. He was educated at _Et , on,
(where he found the classical curriculum then.
in force boring and impossible), ~ Glenalmond
and Pembroke College Cambridge. His interest
in Oriental matters was first aroused -by the
Russo-Turkish war of 1877 and at Cambridge
he read Oriental languages as well as% medicine.
His father, a successful engineer.. insisted t a
Oriental languages was . too hazardous i as a
profession and that he must qualify as a doctor;
this he did between going down from Cambridge
in 1884 and undertaking his only long visit to
Persia in 1887-8.
It is this visit which was the subject of A Year
amongst the Persians and, as appears from that
book, one of his main purposes was to make
contact with the Bdbis and to obtain any of their
books which he could; the present volume is one
of those he obtained.
He returned to Cambridge to take up a fellow-
ship at Pembroke and, except for comparatively
short visits to Turkey, Egypt and North Africa,
never left Cambridge again.

However, he remained in very close touch with
Persia through a host of friends and correspon-
dents, and not only produced the Literary History
of Persia but was also closely concerned in the
events following the Persian revolution of 1905.
There was a real threat that Persia might be
partitioned between Great Britain and Russia,
and it was widely believed that his Persia Com-
mittee was the decisive factor in the preserva-
tion of Persian independence. His private fortune
enabled him to help many Persian and other
political exiles.
He married in 1906 and died in 1926, leaving
two sons. His memory is still green in Persia,
and within the last decade one of his grand-
daughters who spent a year there received much
kindness, not only from his old friends and
pupils, but also from strangers who felt for him
the same kind of affection that the Greeks feel
(or till recently felt) for Lord Byron. His statue
in Teheran is said to have been the only statue
of a European which was spared during the rule
of Dr Mossadeg.

London 1974.


APPENDIX L  Abridgement of omitted digressions
APPENDIX II. Hhji Mirzh Jhni's History
APPENDIX III. Translation of Subh-i-Ezel'B Narrative
APPENDIX IV. Texts and Translations of Original Documents
published in fac-simile
N. H.
Portrait of Subh-i-Ezel  FroWispiece.
Plans and Sketches of the Castle of Sheykh Tabarsi  56
North Gate of Zanjhn 146

Fac-simile of Letter from the 136b to MulIA Sheykh
'Ali 424
Nomination of Subh-i-Ezel as the B~b's successor
(fac-simile of Subh-i-Ezel's transcript) 426
Fac-simile of Letter from Seyyid Huseyn of Yezd
to Hhji Seyyid 'Ali 427
Fac-simile of Letter from Kurratu'l-'Ayn to MullA
Sheykh 'Ali .

HALF a century has not yet elapsed since MÕrzà 'Ali
Muhammad, the young Seer of Shfrdz, first began' to preach
the religion which now counts its martyrs by hundreds and
its adherents by hundreds of thousands'; which seemed at,
one time to menace the supremacy alike of the- KAjAr
dynasty and of the Muhammadan faith in Persia, and may
still not improbably prove an important factor in the history
of Western Asia; and which, within the memory of, men
not yet arrived at an age in any way unusual, has passed-
successively through the Prophetic and Apostolic periods,
and entered on that phase of intestinal dissensioii and
political opportunism whither, sooner or later, every religion
(be the Idea which gave life and strength to the teaching
of its Founder never so pure and lofty, and the devotion,
self-abnegation, and brotherly concord subsistingg amongst
his early disci ples never so perfect) inevitably comes. . Thus
it is that, quite apart from the political significance whichg-
it may acquire in the future, and the influence which it
may exert over the destinies of Persia and the neighbouring
states, the BAbi movement cannot fail to attract the atten-'
See Curzon's Persia, vol. i, p. 499. The lowest estimate
says he, 11 places the present number of BàbÕs in Persia at half a
million. I am disposed to think, from conversations with persons
well qualified to judge, that the total number is nearer one
m i oil.
b 2

tion and awaken the curiosity of every student of the Comparative History of Religions.
Now the study of the origin and evolution of any religion, ancient or modern, especially of one which aiiihis at
effecting a great change in the thought, life, or political organisation of the people amongst whom it arises, is,
though invested with a singular charm, fraught with peculiar difficulties. For, at the outset, such religion finds
arrayed against itself every vested interest and every deep-rooted prejudice of the dominant dynasty and hierarchy,
as well as of all who are, whether by conviction, habit, or considerations of personal advantage, attached to these;
and, whether or no it be called upon to face the sword of a tyrant, the sentence of an inquisition, or the rack, the
stake, and the axe of the headsman, it is certain to be exposed to the misrepresentations of court-chroniclers and
ecclesiastical historians, who will spare no effort to pourtray it under the most sombre and lurid colours with which
their imaginations can invest it. Facts will be suppressed or distorted; vague rumours and unfounded slanders will
be recorded as assured and indisputable facts; charges of communism, anarchy, free-love, and worse, will be
hurled against the innovators. and while, on the one side, occasional excesses and casual acts of violence are
represented as the natural and logical outcome of doctrineas subversive alike of morality and humanity, on the
other, deeds of treachery and cruelty are passed over in silence, elevated to the dignity of righteous reprisals for
inexpiable iniquities, or condoned as measures which, though harsh indeed, were rendered not Only excusable but
inevitable by the exigencies of the time. Should the nasceut faith lack strength to outlive this stormy period of
probation and persecution, the name of its founder and his adherents will almost certainly be branded with a stigma
of infamy froin which oblivion alone will free
them. How different a complexion might the life of Moseylima or the teaching of Mazdak wear if we could but hear
the case for the defence, or learn aught about them save that which their triumphaint opponegnts have recorded!
But even should the young religion survive this fiery ordeal, and secure for itself a permanent footing amongst the
theological systems of the world, new dangers and new sources of misrepresentation of a yet more subtle kind than
any to which it has been heretofore exposed spring into being. Hithe'rto these have been wholly or chiefly from
without. That whole-hearted devotion to the founder which alone could induce his early disciples to disregard wealth,
position, ease, family ties, and even life itself for
sake, and that unquestioning faith in his teachings and unhesitating obedience to his commands which is the
natural and necessary outcome of this devotion, maintain the community, at least during his lifetime, in concord,
harmony, and- fraternal love. Persecution from withoutl the sense of common danger, and the still fresh
remembrance of the beloved Master's words and wishes, expressed or implied, may combine to prolong this period
for a time, even for a consideraW time, after his death; but, sooner or later, dissensions, schisms, and internecine
strifes are sure to arise. A cessation or abatement of the persecutions which have hitherto compelled the members
of the community tocombine all their powers in resisting the common foe, and to present a united front towards their
oppressors, now at length gives them leisure to examine more, minutely and critically the doctrines bequeathed to
them ; attempts are made to weld these doctrines into a logical and coherent system ; differences of temperament,
training, and aspira-, tion, hitherto latent, become manifest; ambitions, hithertQ held in check, burst forth; rival
claimants arise to contest the supremacy; new circumstances and altered relations

I  t
to the environment suggest to the bolder and more active spirits modifications and developments of the primitive
doctrine, of which, perhaps, the founder never dreamed; and an energy and tenacity of purpose which were
developed by the need of uniting the young church against a common foe are expended in dividing it against itself.
Now, alas! the golden age of the new religion is past, or all but past ; the heaven-inspired proplict, the loving,
untiring, undoubting apostle, and the pale martyr, who, with the smile of victory on his lips, and widely opened eyes
fixed on the far distance, as though to discern through the lurid flames of the bale-fire some glimpse of the
promised Utopia, fade from the page of its history, which henceforth is filled with pitiful tales of dissension and
disruption; of anathemas and accusations of heresy and apostasy reiterated and reciprocated with increasing
bitterness; of suppressions of unwelcome records and corruptions of inconvenient textas ; of fratricidal
assassinations and persecutions.
Of this golden age of faith the records are usually scanty, but, in their primitive forin, simple, truthful, and worthy of
credence in the main, though not improbably 01le-sided, exaggerated, coiifua-,ed, and rude in style. The eneiiiies
of a new religion do not corrupt its records, they destroy them; and what escapeas destruction at their hands, and
subsequent corruption at the hands of partisans, may be trusted to give a tolerably faithful narrative of its early
history. For the earliest historians of a religion are, as a rule, so full of faith, so lacking in critical or sceptical habits,
so ready to accept whatever new ideals may be set before them, so prone to discover a hidden wisdom in every
act, not only the most trivial, but the inoast questionable, which emanates from their Master and his immediate
disciples, that they will chronicle with scrupulous fidelity inci
idelity inci
dents which a later and more critical generation of believers would be strongly tempted to suppress or to
transfigure. When Ibn HishAm came to re-write Ibn Is-h6k ) s biography of the Prophet Muhammad, he judged it
expedient to omit certain details which appeared to him unedifying and likely to cause scandal to the faithful; and -
when a modern MusulmAn, like Syed Ameer Ali, composes a history of Islim for English readers, he is tempted to
touch very lightly on certain matters which Ibn HishAm saw no cause to include in this category. To take another
instance h alto_ gether, might not a modern Buddhist, especially if he were an European, feel disposed to allow the
fact that Buddha's death was accelerated by eating pork to sink into oblivion, although this fact casts no reflection
on the life of that great and virtuous teacher, but only contravenes our ideas of what is graceful and artisti6 ?
" But," it will be asked, " does it often happen that these earliest records of a religious movement, supposing them to
be written witgh this perfect candour, and to escape destruction at the hands of foes, retain for long their primitive
form ? If the doctrines of the teacher whoseh lifel deeds, and words they chronicle prevail, and so the records
survive, what guarantee can we have that they have not wliiidergone mutilation or received embellishment at the
hands of his later followers, from whom almost necessarily we must receive them?" Generally, from the very,nature
of the case, such assurance is difficult to obtain, ~and, indeed, can only be obtained in its most satisfactory form
when the early records pass within a short time, after their compilation into the hands of strangers, who, while
interested in their preservation, have no desire to alter them for better or worse. That this should happen at all
obviously requires a very unusual combination of circumstances. 9 So far as my knowledge goes, it never has
happened save in

the case of the Bibf religion; and this is one of the facts which invest the history of this religion with so special an
Fifty years ago Persia be ' longed to all intents and,purposes (as, indeed, she still belongs, notwithstanding the
attempts recently made, to the huge delight of certain nostrum-mongers and vendors of universal panaceas, to
overlay the court and capital of her present rulers with a thin veneer of tawdry European civilisation) to the ancient
world. There hardly anything is impossible, and not very many things even grossly improbable. That a young
visionary should arise proclaiming a new religion designed to replace and supersede all existing creeds; that many
persons of learning, virtue, and position should eagerly embrace and boldly proclaim his doctrines that gorgeous
but unsubstantial visions of a New Creation wherein there should be neither injustice nor discord, of a Reign of
God's Saints on earth, and of a Universal Theocracy conformed in every detail to a mystical Theosophy (wherein
are blended, under the guise of an ultra-Shi'ite nationalism, theories of numbers more fantastic than those of
Pythagoras or Plotinus, with theories of the Divine Names and Attributes more intangible than those of the Cabbala
or of Spinoza) should exercise so powerful an influence, not only over philosophers and scholars, but over peasants
and artisans, as to make them ready and eager to meet death in its most terrible forms not by scores, but by
hundreds; that this new faith, set forth, for the most part, not in the language of the people, but in Arabic treatises of
interminable length, at once florid and incorrect in style, teeming with grammatical errors the nioa-,t glaring,
iterations the most wearisome, and words the rarest and most incomprehensible, should have power to inspire its
votaries with a courage so stubborn as to threaten for several years the very existence
of the es ' tablished religion and the reigning dynasty, and should stir up an iiisurrectioihi which all the armed forces
of the Persian king, all the anathemas of the Muhammadan clergy, all the tortures which an Asiatic tyrant could
devise or his myrmidons execute ' could, by dint of ruthless and repeated massacres, only check for a while, but
not permanently subdue - all this, however strange it may seem to an European, is in the history of the East not
much more remarkable than is the accession of a new dynasty, the partition of a principality, or the annexation of a
province in the history of the West. The doctrines of the BAb, it is true, formed together a system bold, original,
and, to the Persian mind, singularly attractive; but, taken separately, there was hardly one of which he could claim
to be the author, and not very many which did not remount to a remote antiquity. The title of Ba'b ("Gate") had been
already assumed, not only by the four intimates of the Twelfth ImAngi, but by a heresiarch who was put to death in
the tenth century of our era by the Caliph er-RAdhf Bi'llAh. The theories advanced by Mirzi 'Ali Mul ' iammad
concerning the successive incarnations of the Universal Reason, thb allegorical interpretation of Scripture, and the
symbolism of every ritual form and every natural phenomenon, differ in no essential particular from those hel& by
the Isma'flfs. Even the virtues of the number nineteen, the mysterious " Number of the Unity," had been already
signalized, and that, probably, not for -the first time, by Sheykh Muhiyyu 'd-Din ibnu'l-'Arabf, a renowned Sftff
teacher who flourished in tghe twelfth century of our era!. The personal influence of the BAb ; the extraordinary
steadfastness and devotion of his followers under perse
See Traveller's iYarrative, vol. ii, p. 229. See J. R. A. S. for 1889, pp. 909, n. 2, and 919-920.

cution of a severity almost unparalleled in modern times ;
the dramatic circumstances attending the earlier history of
the sect, from its foundation in A.D. 1844 till the martyrdom
of its Founder in A.D. 1850, and of all but a very few of
his original apostles in A.D. 1852, were indeed exceptional;
yet, notwithstanding all this, it might easily have happened
that the materials for a continuous and authentic history
of the movement should have been wanting, in which case
we should have had to trust the inaccurate and garbled
accounts of the court-historians, LiS621117-14fulk and Rizi-
Kulf KhAn', till such time as the scarcely more impartial
.Traveller's Narrative%" written anonymously (as I have
learned only since its publication) by the son of one aspirant
to the supreme authority in the now divided Church to
discredit the perfectly legitimate claims and to disparage
the perfectly blameless character of his less successful rival,
came to increase our mystification and plunge us into
further uncertainties-
Fortunately for science a happy combination of circum-
stances averted a too probable, but none the less deplorable,
contingency. Amongst the early disciples of the Bdb was
a certain merchant of KAshAn, HAjf MÕrzà Jdnf by name,
who, together with two of his three brothers, HAjf MÕrzà
IsmAT and HAjf MÕrzà Ahmad', was remarkable for his
enthusiastic devotion to the new religion. When, in the
year 1847, the BAb passed by KAshdn on the way to his
prison at MAk* ' MÕrzà JAnf bribed the escort to allow their
illustrious captive to be a guest in his house for two days
I Cf. Traveller's Narrative, vol. ii, pp. 173-4, 186-8, and 192.
2 Presented to me by the author during my visit to Acre in
April 1890; published in fac-simile, with EDglish translation,
Introduction, and Notes, by the Cambridge University Press
in 1891.
3 See Traveller's Narrative, vol. ii, p. 332.
and nights'. While the MizandarAn insurrection 'was in
progress (A.D. 1848-9), he, in company with BehAV114h,
Subh-i-Ezel, and several other prominent BàbÕs', at-
tempted, but failed, to join the garrison of Sheykh Tabarsf,
fell into the hands of the enemy, and was imprisoned for
some while at A'mul. We find him, always impelled, as it
would appear, by religious zeal, now at BArfurAsh, now at
Mash-had, now at TeherAn. He appears to have been
personally acquainted not only with the BAb, Subh-i-Ezel,
and BehA'u'llAh, but with HAjf SuleymAn KhAn, MullA
Muhammad 'Alf of Zauj An, Seyyid YahyaA of DArAb, MullA
Sheykh 'Alf " Jena'b-i-'Az11'M," Kurratu'l-,Ayii, " ffa;rat-i-

Kudd,(ts," and almost all the early apostles of the BàbÕ
religion. Finally, in company with twenty-seven -of his
co-religionists, he suffered martyrdom for the faith at
TeherAii on September 15th, 18521. He was therefore
heart and soul a BàbÕ ; lie had the best possible oppor-
tunities for obtaining detailed and accurate - information
about every event connected with the movement during
the first eight years of its existence (A.D. 1844-1852);
and lie enjoyed a high reputation for truthfulness, intelli-
gence, and integrity4. Most fortunately, also, he occupied
his leisure moments during the two years which elapsed
between the martyrdom of his Master (July 9th, 1850) and
his own death (Sept. 15th, 1852) in composing a voluminous
work, to which, from considerations of a mystical and not
very comprehensible character, lie gave the rather fanciful
name of Nuktatu'l-Kdf ("The Point of KAf," i.e., as it
would appear, "of KAshAn")1, on the doctrines and hiastory
I See pp. 213-216 infra, and footnotes.
2 Cf. pp. 64-5 and 378-9 infra.
3 See Traveller's Narrative, vol. ii, pp. 323-334.
4 Of. pp. xxxix and 57 infra.
6 See n. I on p. 391 infra. The passage in which the title of

of the religion for which, probably only a few months after
the completion of his labours, he shlifrered death.
It is superfluous to say that MÕrzà JAni's work never
existed save in manuscript,, and that any copies which
passed into the hands of the royalist or orthodox party
were without doubt at once destroyed. For there was
nothing of caution, compromise or concealment about the
honest KAshAnf merchant. The BàbÕs of his time looked
rather for an immediate triumph over all existing powers,
culminating in the universal establishment of the True
Faith and the Reign of God's Saints on Earth, than for
the book is given occurs near the beginning of the work and runs
as follows:-

a Heaven of Glory, a far-distant Millennium, or " the Most
Great Peace" on which BehA and his followers love. to
dilate'. They did not make any profession of loyalty to,
or love for, the reigning dynasty; nor did they attempt to
exonerate the ShAh from the responsibility of the perse-
cutions -which they suffered at the expense of his ministers
or tghe MusnImAn divines, as later BàbÕ historians have
doDe'. They hated the Muhammadan clergy, it is true,
with an intense and bitter hatred, and MÕrzà JAnf antici-
pates with exultation a day whereon the KA'im, or Messiah,
of the Family of Muhammad shall behead seventy thou-
sand mull4s "like clogs"; but they entertained for the
KAjAr rulers an equal hatred, which MÕrzà JAnf is at no
pains to disguise. To N6siru'd-Din, the present ShAh,
and to his father, Muhammad ShAh, such terms as "tyrant"",.
L&JU), "scoundrel" unrightful king"'
(J.61y :)Uo.U), and "progeny of Abfi SofyAn (,~j I J I
are freely applied. Teherin is compared- to.-
Daulaasevis, the capital of the wicked Mu'iviya and his yet
more wicked son Yazid; while Mul1A Huseyn is likened to
the martyred ImAm Huseyn, Sheykh Tabarsf to the immortal
plain of KerbelA, and BArfurAsh, whither the BàbÕ captives,
were brought after the conclusion of the siege, to I(Afa.
The battle-cry of the royalist soldiers, " Y6 N6siru'd-Dlhi

Sh'A i described as " a foul watch-word
a 8
the death of Muhammad ShAh is noted in the
words when Muhammad Sh6h went to hell3"; and the
unbelievers are flouted with scorn because they suppose
that the Promised Deliverer whom they expect will confirm
I Cf. Traveller's Narrative, Vol. ii, pp. A
2 Cf. Traveller's Narrative, Vol. ii, pp. xlv-xlvi; and, amongst
many other similar passages in this book, pp. 172, 180-182,
189-190, 278-279, 291-293, and 315-316.
3 See n. I on p. 291 infra.

the authority of the existing rulers and governors, aiid recognition and homage of the whole BàbÕ community'.
will subdue the world for the benefit of NAsiru'd-Dfn Till the catastrophe of September 1852, which proved fatal,
ShAh. not only to MÕrzà Jinf, but to nearly all the principal
Now if this were all, MÕrzà JAnf's history, though it apostles of the new faith -who bad survived the earlier
would certainly have been destroyed as far as possible by persecutions, he remained for the most part in the neigh-
rAn in the summer, and in the district of
the Muhammadans and the royalists, might well, with bourhood of Tehe
sundry emendations and expurgations, have been preserved NAr in MdzandarAn in the winter, actively occupied in
almost intact, like many other proscribed books, in the iDg, transcribing, and eirculg ing the BàbÕ books,
arrang at
bosom of the BA-bf Church. But it is not all. Events preaching and expohlinding the BàbÕ doctrine, and com-
which I have elsewhere discussed at length', and shall here, forting and edifying the BàbÕ Church'. It was during this
period, and, as internal evidence renders probable, during
for the benefit of the general reader, briefly recapitulate, 3
brought about the seemingly strange result that a lar(Te the year A.H. 1267 (Nov. 1850-Oct. 1851) that Mirzi
majority of the BAbias themselves carne to have a direct Jdn' composed his work, in which, as was only natural, he
interest in the suppression of this precious record. One inserted a long notice on Subh-i-Ezel4, whom he most
of the chief doctrines of the BAb, one which lie never certainly, and his contemporaries in the faith most probably,
wearies of repeating and emphasising, is that his revelation believed to be none other than " He whom God shall
is not final; that he is not the last of the Theophanies manifest'." The evidence that at this period, and for
which, at longer or shorter intervals shine- forth in the some considerable time afterwards, Subh-i-Ezel, now living
Phenomenal World for the guidance of mankind; and in almost solitary exile at Famagusta in Cyprus, a pensioner-
that after him a greater Revealer, whom lie calls Man
I Cf. Gobineau's Iteligions et Pljilosophies dans IAsie, Centrale,
yudli-Airulitt'1161i" ("He whom God shall nhianifest "), shall
pp. 277-8~
appear for the consolation of his followers. Now a year 2 See Traveller's Xarrativc, Vol. ii, p. 374.
before his martyrdonhi, on the fall of Sheykh Tabarsf and 3 The clearest allusion in Mfrzi idnif's work to the date of its-
the death of H4rat-i-Kuddits (July or August, 1849)1, composition is contained in the words (occurring on f. 48r of
the BAb nominated Mfrzi YahyA (then a lad of nineteen3)
Suppl. Pers. 1071, and f 335 2- of StTpl. Pers. 1070) 4-r=
to succeed him under the title of 8ubh-i-Ezel ("the Morn-
ing of Eternity"), or Ilazrat-i-Ezel ("His Holiness the
"To day, when one thousand two hundred and seventy-seven
Eternal"). The nomination was explicit and notorious,
years have elapsed since the  Mission
and, on the death of the Founder in July 1850, the youth- of God's Apostle  " The BàbÕs generally date not from the hijra
ful vicegerent at once received the almost unanimous
or Flight of the Prophet, but from his Call (ba'that), which they
place ten years earlier. Hence this date corresponds to A.H.
I Traveller's Yarrative, Vol. ii, pp. xv-xviii and 349 et seq. 1267.
4 See pp. .374-394 infra.
I See pp. 380-2 infra.
3 See Traveller's Narrative, Vol. ii, p. 373 and note. 5 See pp. 381-2 infra.

of the British Government, held undisputed and absolute
sway over the BàbÕ Church is absolutely conclusive.
Immediately after the great persecution and massacre
of 1852, Subh-i-Ezel fled to Baghdad, so as to be beyond
the reach of the Persian Government. Hither a few
months later (at the end of 1852 or beginning of 1853')
lie was followed by his half-brother, MirzA Huseyn 'Alf
BeWt'u'116h, who was thirteen years his senior, and -who,
arrested on suspicion of complicity in the attem t made
by the BàbÕs on the Sh6h's life .. had just been acquitted
and released from an imprisonment of four montlis' dura-
tion. At this time and for some years later (at any rate
till 1858) Behi'ii'lldh was, as liias own writings prove',
to all appearance as loyal a follower of Subh-i-Ezel as he
had previously been of the Bdb. The BàbÕ Church was
still, in spite of the attempts made by sundry ambitious
persons to advance claims to the supreme autliority3, united
tinder Subh-i-Ezel, and its members no doubt continued
to read with edification the pages of Mirz6 JAni's history.
About 1862 the Turkish Government, acting, as it
would appear, on the representations of the ShAh's minis-
ters, decided to transfer the BAbi exiles from Baghdad to
Adrianople, whither, it would seem, they were actually
brought in December 1863 4. Here they remained till July
or August 1868, when signs of renewed -and increased
activity amongst them attracted the notice of the Ottoman
authorities, who, learning that a schism had divided them
1 See J. R. A. S. for 1892, pp. 304-6.
2 See J. R. A. S. for 1892, pp. 304-6 and 436-8.
3 See Tgi,az,elle?,'s Narrative, vol. ii, pp. 356-8 and 365.
4 The chronology of these events is less certain than that of
the earlier ones. I have done my best to reconcile and combine
the various and sometimes conflicting data at pp. 306-8 of the
.1. R. A. S. for 1892.
into two hostile sections, the one headed by Behi'u'lhih,
the other by ~ubh-i-Ezel, packed them off without more
ado, and probably without troubling to enquire much into
the rights and wrongs of the matter, the former to Acre,
the latter to Famagusta in Cyprus.
About the subsequent history of the Bdbfs, of which
full accounts will be found, by such as it may interest, in
the Traveller's Narrative, I do not propose to say any-
thing in this place. Concerning the schism itself, however,
a few words are necessary. A community like that which
had existed at Adrianople, consisting almost entirely of
actual exiles and potential martyrs, and in large part of
religious enthusiasts, revolutionary visionaries, and specu-
lative mystics, whose grestless activity, debarred from ex-

ternal action, is pent up within limits too narrow for its
free exercise, requires a firm hand to control and direct
its energies. Such firmness Subh-i-Ezel, a peace-loving,
contemplative, gentle soul, wh~olly'devoted to the memory
of his beloved Master, caring little for authority, and in-
capable of self-assertion, seems to have altogether lacked.
Even while at Baghdad he lived a life of almost complete
seclusion, leaving the direction of affairs in the bands of
his half-brother Behi'u'llAh', a man of much more resolute
and ambitious character, who thus gradually became the
most prominent figure and the moving spirit of the sect.
For a considerable time BehAVIIAh continued to do all
that he did in the name, and ostensibly by the instruc-
tions, of Subh-i-Ezel; but after a while, though at what
precise date is still uncertain, the idea seems to have
entered his mind that he might as well become actually,
as he already was virtually, the Pontiff of the Church
wlioa,3e destinies he controlled. It was not, however, till
1 See Traveller's Narrative, vol. ii, pp. 356-8.
N. If.

a  I
the BàbÕs had been for two or three years at Adrianople
that, most probably in the summer of 1866', lie threw off
all disguise, publicly proclaimed himself to be " Him whom
God shall manifest," and called upon Subli-i-Ezel and -all
the BàbÕ Churches throughout Persia, Turkey, Egypt and
Syria to acknowledge his supreme authority, and to accept
as God's Word the revelations which he forthwith began to
promulgate, and continued till his death on May 16th of
last year (1892) to publish.
Amongst the BàbÕs the effect of this announcement (for
which, no doubt, the way had been already prepared) ivaas
little short of stupendous. From Constantinople to KirmAn
and from Cairo to KhurAsAn the communities of the faith-,
ful were rent asunder by a schism which every subsequent
year has rendered wider and more permanent, and which
nothing short of the complete extinction of one of the two
rival factions can possibly heal. At Adrianople itself the
struggle was short and the triumph of BehA complete.
Subh-i-Ezel was so completely deserted that, as lie himself
informed me, he and his little boy had to go themselves to
the bazaar to buy their food. Elsewhere, though active
and astute emissaries' were at once despatched in all
directions by BeliA, the conflict, though its issue was from
the first hardly doubtful, was longer maintained. For the
question at issue was not merely whether one leader should
be replaced by another, whether certain doctrines should
be understood in this way or in that, or whether the ethics,
practices, or forms of worship of the sect should be re-
formed or modified (all of which things, as we well know,
have again and again in the history of religions proved
sufficient to create the fiercest enmities, the profoundeast
I See J. R. A. S. for 1892, p. 304.
2 Cf. J. R. A. 8. for 1892, pp. 311-312.
heart-searchings, and the bitterest dissensions), but~l whether
the doctrines and writings of the beloved Master, for which
his followers had been ready to suffer death or exile, were
to be regarded as abrogated and cancelled in favour of, a
new revelation; whether his chosen vicegerent, whom they
had so long regarded as their Supreme Pontiff and as the
incarnation of all purity, virtue, and heavenly wisdom,
was to be cast down from this high position, and branded
as " the First Letter of Denial " of the New Dispensation ;

and whether the BAb himself was henceforth to be looked
upon, not as the " Point of Revelation," a veritable Mani-
festation of the Divine, but as a mere harbinger and pre-
cursor of a more perfect Theophany. BàbÕs who remember
that time cannot easily be induced to speak of it ; -only
once, so far as I can remember, did I hear a follower of
Behi explicitly allude to it. " I was long torn with doubts,"
said he, "which were finally removed by this verse on
which one day I chanced in the Beyan: 'Thou takest
Divinity from whomsoever Tlwu pleasest, and givest Di-
villity to whomsoever Tliou pleasest: verily Thou art the
Almighty, the Wise."'
How long the contest was maintained by the Ezelfs, or
old Bibfs, against the innovators it is impossible to say,
for on no portion of the history of the sect is our infor-
mation so scanty or our light so dim. At first not a few
prominent BàbÕs, including even several " Letters of the
Living" and personal friends of the BAb, adhered faithfa~ly
to Subh-i-Ezel. One by one these disappeared, most of
them , as I fear cannot be doubted, by foul play on the
part of too zealous BebA'fs. Hiji Seyyid Muhammad of
IsfahAn, one of the BAb's " Companions " (aq-~db), MÕrzà
RizA-Kulf and his brother MÕrzà Naqru'llAh of Tafrfsh) .46
JAn Beg of KAshAn, and other devoted Ezelis,,were stabbed
or poisoned at Adrianople and Acre. Two of the Letters

of the Living," Seyyid 'Alf the Arab, and Mulhi manifest" to abrogate, change, can eel, and develop the earlier
Rajab 'Alf lCahh-, were assassinated, the one at Tabriz, doctrines. ' His chief aim seems to have been to introduce
the other at KerbelA. The brother of the latter, A' kA 'Alf a more settled order, to discourage speculation, to direct
Muhammad, was also murdered in Baghdad; and, indeed, the attention of his followers to practical reforms pursued
in a prudent and unobtrusive fashion, to exalt ethics at
of the more prominent 134bis who espoused the cause, of
Ezel, Seyyid JawAd of KerbelA (who died at KirmAn about the expense of metaphysics, to check mysticism, to con-
1884)1 seems to have been almost the only one, with the ciliate existing authorities, including even the ShAh of
exception of Ezel himself, who long survived what the Persia, the Nero of the BàbÕ faith, to abolish useless, un-
practical, and irksome regulations and restrictions, and)
Ezelfs call " the Direful Mischief " (fihia-i-saylanz). From
in general, to adapt the religion at the head of which he
that time forwards, while the Belid'fs have been ever waxing
now found higmself to the ordinary exigencies of life, and
in power and influence, so that their numbers now probably
reach or even exceed half a million souls, the Ezelis have to render it more capable of becoming, what he intended
been ever waning, until at the present time it is doubtful to make it, a universal system suitable to all mankind'. A
whether in all they amount to more than a few hundreds. remembrance of all the wrongs which he and his co-religi-
It is even doubtful whether the recent death of BeliA will onists had suffered at the hands of the Musulmins further
contribute in any sensible measure to the restoration of caused him gradually but steadily to eliminate the tinge
their failing fortunes, though Ezel still lives, and numbers of Muhammadan, and more especially of Shi'ite, thought
amongst his supporters at least one or two men of energy which the BàbÕ doctrine still maintained, while ever seek-
and ability. ing a better understanding with the -Christians, Jews, and
Zoroastrians with all of whom he recommended his fol-
At the present day, therefore, the vast majority of I
BAbis are Behi'fs, whose doctrines, sentiments, and ideals lowers to consort on friendly tern-is.
Now once admitting Behi's right to assume this posi-
are already far removed from those of the primitive BàbÕs tion of supremacy at all, there can be no question that
or modern Ezelfs. No sooner was BehA. firmly established these changes were beneficial and salutary. The original
in his authority than lie began to make free use, of the
privilege accorded by the BAb to " Him whom God shall See especially the summary of contents of the Kitdb-i- Akdas
at pp. 972-981 of the J.R.A.S. for 1889; and the Lawh-i-
Cf. J. R. A. S. for 1892, pp. 443-4 and 684; and Traveller's Bashdrdt, of which the text (with the exception of the 15th and
Al'arrative, vol. ii, p. 342, n. 2. That Seyyid Jawaid was a follower last clause, recommending constitutional government, which the
of Ezel is, however, categorically denied by Mfrzi AbA'I-Fazl of BehA'is appear to have thought it expedient to suppress in the
copy of the tract forwarded to Russia) has been published by
GuIpAyagAn in a letter addressed to M. Touniansky, the text of
which will be found on pp. 44-5 of vol. viii of the Zapisski of Baron Rosen with a Russian translation at pp. 183--192 of vol.
the Oriental Section of the Imperial Russian Archaeological vii of the Zapisski of the Oriental Section of the Imperial Russian
Societ . As, however, this is affirmed equally positively by ~ubh_ Archaeological Society (St Petersburg, 1893). The substance
y of this latter document has been stated in English by myself at
i-Ezel and Sheykh A- the Ezelf, I have allowed these words
to stand. pp. 678-9 of the J. R. A. & for 1892.

doctrine of the BAb, fascinating as it was to Persians of a
certain disposition, was utterly unfitted for the bulk of
mankind, and could never by any possibility have taken
any root outside Persia. In the sacred books wherein it
was set forth, precept bore but a small proportion to
dogma, and dogma a still smaller proportion to doxologies
and mystical rhapsodies of almost inconceivable incompre-
hensibility. Not only were the positive precepts few, but
they were generally quite unpractical, and not rarely
extremely inconvenient. What, for instance, could be
more unpractical than the adoption of the number 19 as
the basis of all measures and calculations; the command
that all books when they had been in existence for 202
years should be copied out afresh, and the originals de-
stroyed or given away; or the elaborate ceremonies pre-
scribed for the interment of the dead ? What more incon-
venient than the exclusion of all unbelievers from five of
the chief pr ovinces of Persia,- and, save in the case of
merchants and others following a useful profession, from
all lands in which the BàbÕ faith prevailed; the discourage-
ment of sea-voyages and of the acquisition of foreign lan-
guages ; and the command to destroy all works treating of
Logic, Jurisprudence, and Philosophy ? Great conceptions,
noble ideals, subtle metaphysical conceptions, and splendid,
though ill-defined, aspirations do, indeed, exist in the
BeyAn; but they are so lost in trackless mazes of rhapsody
and mysticism, so weighed down by trivial injunctions and
impracticable ordinances, that no casual reader, but only a
student of considerable diligence and perseverance, can
hope to find them'.
That the development of BehA's doctrines proceeded
1 For a summary account of the teachiDgs of the Persian
Beydn, the most systematic and comprehensible of the BAb'aa3
many works, see pp. 911-933 of the J. R. A. S. for 1889.
gradually there can be little doubt, for a system such as
he elaborated could not be worked out, much less imposed
on a scattered church not always remarkable for docility,
in a brief space of time. From the moment that his claims
were generally recognized by the BàbÕs, however, the whole
of the earlier literature of the sect, including the writings
of the Bib himself, began to suffer neglect and to sink
into oblivion. Without admitting the assertion made by
the Ezelfs, that BehA and his followers deliberately de-
stroyed, or fraudulently tampered with, the books belonging
to the older dispensation on a large scale, it is clear that
the conditions which could alone secure the - continual

transcription and circulation of these books had ceased to'
exist. They were, for the most part, voluminous, hard to
comprehend, uncouth in style, unsystematic in arrange-
ment, filled with iterations and solecisms) and not un-
frequently quite incoherent and unintelligible to' any
ordinary reader.- Hitherto, less on their own merits than
by reason of the enthusiastic devotion inspired by their
authors, they had been regarded by all the BAbis as price-
less gems. Of this enthusiastic devotion BehA now became
the object; and to his writings (which, at any rate in
comparison with those of his predecessors, were terse, lucid,
vigorous, and eloquent) was this sentiment of admiration
diverted. The energies of the Behi'f scribes were fully
occupied in transcribing the new revelations; and the
older books, no longer regarded as the final expression of
Divine Truth and Wisdom, ceased to be renewed, and for
the most part reposed undisturbed and forgotten. in the
shelves and boxes to which they had been consigned. All
this, of course, applies only to the BehA'fs; but the Ezelfs,'
to whom the old books still retained their pristine value,
were few in number, isolated, fearful alike of the Mu-
hammadaus and the Behi'fs, and altogether incapable of

maintaining the currency of the discarded literature. Be-
sides this, many of the older writings at the time of the
schism were probably preserved only at the BàbÕ head-
quarters in Adrianople, where, as we have seen, Subh-i-
Ezel was left entirely without supporters. What he could,
he saved, and bore with him to Cyprus; but there can be
no doubt that the lion's share fell to BehA, and was con-
veyed by him and his followers to Acre. And, from my
own experience, I can affirm that, hard as it is to obtain
from the BehA'fs in Persia the loan or gift of BàbÕ books
belonging to the earlier period of the faith, at Acre it ias
harder still even to get a glimpse of them. They may be,
and probably are, still preserved there, but, for all the
good the enquirer is likely to get from them, they might
almost as well have suffered the fate which the Ezelfs
believe to have overtaken them.
The history composed by Hiji MÕrzà JAnf, however,
belongs to a different category from the writings which
we have hitherto been discussing. Without sharing the
sacred character of these, it was incomparably more dan-
gerous to the pretensions and plans of Behi, as any one
may see by referring to Appendix 11 of this volume. Its
to-ne towards all beyond the pale of the BàbÕ Church, and
more especially towards the ShAh of Persia and his govern-
ment, was irreconcilably hostile. The doctrines set forth
in it, though undoubtedly those held by the early BàbÕ.9,
were eminently calculated to encourage mysticism and
metaphysical speculation of the boldest kind, and to main-
tain in full activity that pantheistic fermentation which
BehA was so desirous to check. Worst of all, it supplied
the Ezelfs with a most powerful weapon not of defence
only, but of attack. And withal it was interesting, pro-
foundly and intensely interesting; the most interesting
book, perhaps, in the whole range of BàbÕ literature. To
suppressit and withdraw it from circulation, at any rate
while thoser on whom had been thrown the glamour of the
young ShirAzf Seer and of the beautiful Kurratu'l-'Ayn, the
martyred heroine and poetess of Kazvfn, constituted the
majority of the faithful, was almost impossible; to let it
continue to circulate in its present form would be dis-
astrous. Only one plan offered any chance of success.
Often in the literary history of the East has the disappear-
ance and extinction of works both valuable and of general

interest been brought about, either accidentally or inten-
tionally, by the compilation from them of a more concise and
popular abridgement which has gradually superseded them.
As the Biography of the Prophet Muhammad composed by
Ibn Is-hAk was superseded by the recension of Ibn Hish6m.,
so should MÕrzà J&nf's old history of the Bib and his
Apostles be superseded by a revised, expurgated, and
emended 11NEw HISTORY" (Tdrikh-i-Jadid), which, while,
carefully omitting every fact, doctrine, ahnd expTeSSiOn calcu-
lated to injure the policy of BehA, or to give offence to his
followers, should preserve, and even supplement with new
material derived from fresh sources, the substance of the
earlier chronicle.
0 nly by the merest accident, so far as our present
knowledge goes, did this scheme fail of complete success.
Most fortunately for science, there resided at TeherAn in
the years 1855-8 a French diplomatist, the Comte de
Gobineau, who, animated by a keen and insatiable curiosity,
devoted himself with rare success to the study of the BàbÕ
religion, which was at that time still in its primitive state,
neither rent asunder by the schism which now divides it,
nor modified by the policy which that schism has intro-
dneed. The results of his labours, so far as the B6bfs are
concerned, were a masterly sketch of their history and
doctrines in his classical Religions et Philosophies daus

I'Asie Centrale, and a small but most precious collection
of BàbÕ manuscripts; this, after his death, was bought
by the Biblioth~que Nationale at Paris, where, since the
year 1884, it has been deposited. Of these volumes one
(Suppl. Persan, 1,071) contains the whole, and another
(Suppl. Persan, 1,070) the first third, of HAjf MÕrzà JAnf's
invaluable history, of which, so far as I know, no other
copy is extant in Europe or Asia. It is not too much to
say that but for M. de Gobineau's exertions in the cause
of science it would have been impossible to reconstruct
faithfully and in detail the early history of BàbÕism.
At this point I shall perhaps do well to answer two
questions which may suggest themselves to the reader.
11 Why," he may ask in the first place, " have you
chosen to translate this later 'New History' in preference
to Mfrzd JAnfs contemporary record, to which you evidently
attach a much greater importance ? "
This question can be answered in very few -words. I
did not discover the existence of the Paris manuscripts of
MÕrzà JAW's history till this translation of the New His-
tory had been completed, and the arraDgements for its
publication finally concluded. That there was such a
work, I had learned from the New History itself; and, as
may be supposed, I made many efforts to procure a copy,
or to discover whether any still existed. After repeated
disappointments, I finally came to the conclusion that the
work was probably lost. When, in the Easter Vacation
of 1892, 1 finally chanced on it in the Biblioth6que Na-
tionale during a short stay in Paris, it was too late to
substitute a translation of it for the present history. It
only remained for me to procure a transcript of it (from
the complete manuscript, SuppL Pers. 1,071), to compare
this carefully with the New History, and to epitomize in
an appendix the results yielded by this comparison. The
transcript was made for me by my friend Ahi~ed Beg
Agaeff, to whom I here tender my sincere thanks -, and the
variants and additional matter obtained by the comparison
of this with the New History will be found fully stated in
Appendix II (pp. 327-396) at the end of this volume.
For the present this must suffice; but, if the history of
BàbÕism. is to be seriously studied, the text of MÕrzà JAnfs
history will, sooner or later, have to be published in ex-
tenso. For this reason I now deem it a most fortunate
circumstance that the Syndics of the University Press,
when they accepted the present translation, were re-
luctant to incur t ' he great expense which the publica-
tion of the text of the TdrUk-i-Jadid would have

The second question which may be asked is this.
C(What relation exists between the history of the BàbÕ
religion entitled 'A Traveller's Narrative written to
illustrate the Episode of the B(tb,' of which you published
the text and translation rather more than a'year ago;
and these two histories which you have just been discuss-
ing ? "
This question also I must answer very briefly. The
Traveller's Narrative, composed by BehA'ullAh's son 'AbbAs
Efendf so recently as A.D. 1886, represents a further de-
velopment of the tendency, to which 1 have already alluded,
to glorify BehAu'llAh and his Neo-BàbÕ doctrine at the
expense of the BAb and the primitive BAbl theology. In
the New History it is still the BAb and his apostles, and
the early martyrs of the cause, whose'words and deeds
form the subject-matter of the work. In the Traveller's
Narrative this is no longer the case; it is Bebi'u'llih who
is the hero, and it is his words and precepts which are
quoted with admiration and reverence, while the BAb has
been reduced from his high station of I Point, " I I KA'im, "

and " ImAm Malidi " to that of a more precursor and
harbinger of a more perfect dispensation'.
Having now, as I trust, made sufficiently clear the
relations which subsist between these three histories, to
wit, the Nuktatu'I-K(if composed by MÕrzà JAnf in A.D.
1851; the irtrikh-i-Jadi'd, or "New History," composed
(as will presently be set forth in greater detail) -under the
supervision of MAnakjf the Zoroastrian by Mfrzi Huseyn
of HamadAn, assisted by TAlfrzA Abii'l-Fazl of GulpAyagAii,
in A.H. 1297-8 (A.D. 1880); and the 14fakaila-i-shaklist'
'k or "Traveller's Narrative," coniposed by BehA'u
sayya. ,
'llAh's son 'AbbAs Efendi in or about the year A.D. 1886,
I shall now discuss iihiore minutely the date and author-
ship of the second of these works, here offered in transla-
tion to the English-reading public, and describe the manner
in which I first became acquainted with it, the manu-
scripts which I have had at my disposal, and my labours in
re-establishing and translating the text.
First, as regards the date and authorship. Concerning
these something can be gleaned froiigi internal evidence.
As to the date, the allusion to the Jkabi. on p. 26 proves
that the New History was written subsequently to that
work, which was composed in A.D.,18582; the allusion to
BehAVIIAWs " Manifestation " on p. 64 carries the date
down to A.D. 1866; while the reference to the ShAh's tour
in Europe (presumably the first) on p. 181 brings it down
to A.D. 1873. This last date would in any case be the
earliest admissible, for on p. 174 the BàbÕs are said to
have endured nearly thirty years of persecution, while on
1 For further details as to the peculiar features of this latter
history, see the Introduction to vol. ii of the Traveller's Narrative,
pp. xlv-xlvi.
2 See J. R. A. S. for 1892, p. 305.
p. 321 this number is raised to thirty-five byh one manu-7
script. As to the internal evidences of authorship, they
are somewhat conflicting and misleading. In some pas-
sages the author implies that he is a Christian (p. 3), -an
European (p. 17) and not a Persian (p. 23), and a French-
man (p. 318). Certain expressions on pp. 2-3 would
suggest that he was a believer in the BàbÕ religion; certain
others on p. 30 would seem to imply that he was only a
sympathetic onlooker; while the verse cited on p. 17 would
lead us to suppose that he was a free-thinker. Several
passages (e.g. on pp. 323, 324, and 326) indicate familiarity
with Zoroastrian ideas and writings; others (e.g. on pp.
6-7, and 308-9) show a strange ignorance of the history
and customs of Europe with which-he professes to be so

familiar. Lastly, there are several passages and episodes
(some of them occurring in one manuscript only) which
have evidently been added to the original work by other
hands; e.g. the paragraph on p. 48 beginning, "The reviser
of this history says. . ."; the rationalistic remarks on p.
89 by "the writer (or transcriber) of these pages"; and
the narratives of the second Nfrfz war (pp. 128-131) and
the ZanjAii siege (pp. 139-168) attributed respectively to
Nabil and Zabfh.
Fortanately-we have, something better than internal
evidence to go upon. Thanks to Lieutenant Toumansky
of the Russian Artillery, to whose energetic and successful
researches amongst the BàbÕs of 'IslikdbAd science owes
so much, a full account of the circumstances whichgave
rise to the composition of the New History, and gthe
manner in which its composition was effected, has beeir
obtained from one of the -three persons (the only one
still living) concerned therein, to wit,, MirzA AbU"I-Fazl
Muhammad ibn Muhammad RizA of GulpAyagAn, whose
acquaintance M. Toumansky made at 'IshkAbAd. The

,substance of what M. Toumansky learned from Mfrzi
Abfi'I-Fazl he most kindly communicated to me through
Baron Rosen, with full permission to make use of it. Of
this permission I availed myself in describing my manuscript
of the Trtri'kh-i-Jadid in my Catalogue and Description of
27 Baibi'MSS. published in the July and October numbers
of the J. R. A. S. for 1892, where, at pp. 442-3, Baron
Roseii'as words will be found cited.
A little while before the conclusion of my Catalogue
went to press, I received certain books and letters (Cat.
and Des., pp. 663-5 ' , and 701 et seq.) from a Persian Jew
of Mash-had named AkA 'Azfzu'llAli, a BàbÕ, and a friend
of MirzA Abu"I-Fazi. In answering one of his letters I
asked several questions, one of which referred to the com-
position of the TrtrW-i-Jadi'd. He promised to refer this
question to Mirzi Abu"I-Fazl, and there for the time the
matter dropped.
It now appears, however, that my questions were duly
transmitted to Mfrzi AbA'I-Fazl, who thereupon composed
in reply to them a treatise which lie entitled Rist'W'li-
likandariyya (" the Epistle of Alexander") in lionour of
M. Alexander Touniansky, to whom, in virtue of a long-
standing friendship, the book was dedicated. Of this
treatise, as he himself says, he wrote four copies with his own
hand: one for transmission to Acre, one for M. Toumansky,
one for himself, and one for me. The last was sent to
Bombay to be thence forwarded to me, but has not yet
reached me. This, however, is of the less consequence
inasmuch as M. Toumansky is publishing an account of
thip important treatise at pp. 33-45 of the forthcoming
(eighth) volume of the Zopisski of the Oriental Section of
the Imperial Russian Archaeological Society. Of this
article Baron Rosen, with his usual kindness, has sent me
the proofas, from which I shall now tradaslate what MÕrzà
0 nd authorship of
Abfi'l-Faz says about the comp sition a'
the Tdri'kh-i-Jadi'd.
The copy of the treatise in question forwarded to
M. Toumansky bears the following inscription: "TIM
Epistle of Alexander was compiled and composed as a
gift to His .116st flonottrable -Excelle2icy Mirza' Alexander
Toumansky (may God Almighty prolong the days of his
glory and his fortune P). " The cause of its compilation
is thus stated:-
" The immediate cause of the composition of this his-
torical pamphlet was as follows. When I was in HamadAn
in the yearA.H. 1305 (A.D. 1887-8), 1 wrote, at the request

of certain elders of the Jews, a treatise entitled Risdhr-i-
Ayy7ibiyya1 ('The, Epistle of Job'), copies of which were
disseminated everywhere. Some while ago, when Ak4
'Azfzu'll;ih was in Bombay, a copy of this treatise fell into
the hands of Mr Browne, who wrote to .44 'Azizu'llih,
saying, 'Since you are in correspondence with MÕrzà_Abfi'l-
Fazi, ask of him three questions. Firstly, in this treatise
he has fixed the date of the second restoration of the Holy
Temple at four hundred and thirty years, whereas other
chronologists have stated it to be about six hundred years'.
Secondly, let him make known the chronological data
which he possesses touching the life of His Holiness Behi'-
1 Zapisski,'loc. cit., p. 33, n. 1.
2 This is tb e work described on pp. 701--- 5 of the J. R. A. S.
for 1892 under the title IstidIdliyyd
3 The objection which I raised to MÕrzà Abu'l-Fazl's chrono-
logy is neither very clearly nor very accurately stated here. His
contention was that the 2300 days (ie. years) during which the
sanctuary shall be trodden under foot, as mentioned in the book
of Daniel (ch. viii, v. 14), came to an end at the time of Behi'-
li'llah's "Manifestation" in A.H. 1285 (A.D. 1868), and the question
raised bore reference to the terminus a quo.

u'llili (may the life of all the delliZeIIS Of the world be his
sacrifice!); for the date wliiQli lie asasigiis in his treatise
to the Blessed Theophany is A.H. 1285, whereas in the
Traveller's Ncirrative it is given as A.H. 12691. Tkirdly,
who is the author of the T6rgrkli-i-Jadid ("New History"),
for some ascribe it to Mirzi Ab-h'I-Fazl, others to MAnakjf?'
In short, it became necessary to compose in reply to him
this treatise, which consists for the most part of such
facts connected with the Blessed Theophany from first to
last as have come within my own knowledge. Now al-
though this treatise is addressed to AkA 'Azfzu'llAh, and
was written in consequence of the enquiries of Mr Browne,
yet was it primarily composed in accordance with a promise
which I made to M. Toumansky when I was present with
him, and therefore is it named after his name. And the
cause of this delay 
was that, in the absence of an assistant, I was obliged to
write four copies with my own hand ; one for transmission
to the Supreme Horizon'; one for transmission to Bombay,
that it might thence be forwarded to Mr Browne; and
one for M. Toumansky; while one must needs remain in
my possession.
The text of the reply to the third question (touching
the authorship of the Trtrikh-i-Jadi'd) is given in full by
M. Toumansky (loc. cit., pp. 36-8); and, before proceeding
to translate it, it only remains to observe that the tran-
scription of his manuscript by MirzA AbA'I-Fazl was con-
eluded on the 11th of JumAdA 11, A.H. 1310 (=Dec. 31st,
A.D. 1892)-
I See Traveller's Narrative, vol. i, pp. 71 and 80-81 ; vol. ii,
P. 55 and n. 3, and p. 63. See also the J. R. A. S. for 1892, p. 703,
D. 1.
2 ie. to Behi'u'llah at Acre.
11 T14rd Question.
" Enquiry was made touching the author of the Tdrtkh-i-
Jadid (New History). The writer and author of the
Tdrikh-i-Jadi'd was the late MÕrzà Huseyn of HamadAn.
He was -a youth of the kinsfolk of Riz6 Khdn the son of
Muhammad KhAn the Turcoman, who is reckoned amongst
the martyrs of the Castle of Sheykh Tabarsf, and whose
name is recorded in the T(irikh-i-JadU . The aforesaid
author, in consequence of the calligraphic and epistolary
skill which he shewed in drafting letters, was at first
secretary to one of the ministers of the Persian Govern-
ment. At the time of His Majesty Nisiru'd- Dfn Shdh's
first journey to Europe he too visited those countries in

the Royal Suite. On his homeward journey lie remained
for some time at Constantinople. After his return to Persia,
he was amongst those imprisoned in consequence of the
troubles of,the year A.H. 1291 (A.D. 1874), when His
Reverence AkA JemAl of Burujird was committed to the
prison of His Majesty the King after his dispute with the
clergy of Tellerin'.
" After his release from the prison of Teherin, he ob-
tained employment in the office of MAnakjf the Zoroaastriail,
well known as an author and writer'. Mdiiakjf treated
I See pp. 96-101, and 365 iTVra.
2 A full account of this discussion will be found at pp. 170-
180 infra. This account, as appears from 1). 172, last paragraph,
was originally written by -W Jemil himself in Arabic, and trans-
lated by MÕrzà Abd'l Fazl of GulpAyagin into Persian. The
conjecture which I hazarded in n. I on p. 170 as to the identity
of " the Letter J " proves to be correct.
3 The full name of Minakjf, late Zoroa8trian Agent at TeherAD,
was Minakji' the son of Lfmjf H~ishang Hftaryirf Kiy6nf, sur-
named Darvish-i-Fdni (a)~!Jkjb 'a.
&U L;!-j._9jJJ  Tbusitisgiven by himself in
N. If. d

Xx Vill
Sith great respect, for had he not become notorious him as a BàbÕ, he would never have engaged in this work. Now
it chanced one night that he and Muhammad Isma'fl KhAn the Zend, who was a writer skilful in Persian composition,
were MAnakjf's guests at supper ; and MAnakjf requested each one of them to write a book (for be was most
zealous in book-collecting, and whomsoever he deemed capable of writing and composing lie would urge to write a
book or compose a treatise). So on this night he requested Muhammad Isma'fl Khdn to write a history of the kings
of Persia, and begged MÕrzà Huseyn to compile a history of the BàbÕs.
" To be brief, Muhammad Isma'fl KhAn wrote the book called _Viraizisfifn, on the ancient empire of Persia from
Mah-AbAd till the fall bf the SAsAnians, in pure Persian, which, as a matter of fact, he made a veritable ragbag of
legends and myths from the Slia'hwilma, the Cliah(tr Chiman, and the Dasaitt'r. But Mimi Huseyn came to the writer
and asked his assistance, saying, 'Since hitherto no full and correct history has been written treating Of the events
of this Theopliany, to collect and compile the
the preface which he wrote to the Farh ang-i-Anjuman-dr(t-yi
Mtsiri of RizA-Kulf KhAn Ld1dt-bdshi,, and at the beginning of the
Persian translation of theaccount of his travels in Persia published
under the title ;tVJ61 -dJL~; at Bombay
in A.H. 1280 (A.D. 1863). He appears to have come to Persia
from India in 1854, for the German missionaries Petermann and
Briffil travelled with him, his son Ormazdjf, a Mulbad or Zoroas-
trian priest, a secretary named Key Khusraw, and a cook named
ShApArjf, from Shfriz to Yezd in July of that year. (See an
article by F. Justi on the dialect of Yezd in the Z. A M. G. for
1881, vol. xxv, pp. 327-8, and a foot-note on p. 328, according
to which MAnakjf acted for a while as French consul at Yezd.)
He died a year or two ago.
various episodes thereof in a fitting manner is a very difficult matter. For what Sipihr and Hiddyatl have written
touching its circumstances is, by reason of their extreme, obsequiousness  and their utter error,
altogether sheer calumny and downright falsehood. And the accounts given by narrators, too, are so diverse and
different that the reconciliation of them is not free from difficulty-'
" To this I replied, 'There is in the hands of the Friends a history by the late HAjf Mfrz;A Jilif of KishAn, who was
one of the martyrs of TeherAn, and one of the best men of that time. But be was a man engaged in business and
without skill in historiography, neither-did he record the dates of the years and months. At most he, being a God-
fearilig man, truthfully set down the record of events as he had seen and heard them. Obtain this book, and take the
episodes from it, and the dates of the years and months from the Ndsikhu't-Tawairikh and the appendices of the
Rawzatu's_A~af(t,; and, having incorporated these in your rough draft, read over each sheet to His Reverence Hijf
Seyyid JawAd of KerbelA (whose name has been repeatedly mentioned in these pages), for he, from the beginning
of the Manifestation of the First Point [i.e. the Balb] until the arrival of His Holiness Behi'ullAh in Acre, accompanied
the Friends everywhere in person, and is thoroughly informed and cognizant of all events. Thus diligently correct
the history, in order that this book may, by the will of God, be well finished, and may win the approbation of the
learned throughout the world.'
"Then he requested the writer to indite the introduc
1 Concerning Sipihr (better known as Lisdme-1-3fulk) and Hiddyat (Rizi-Kulf KhAn Ldld-bashi), and their histories,
the Ndsikhu't- Tawdrikh and the supplement to the Rawzatzes- Safei, see Vol. ii of my Traveller's.Yarrative, pp. 173-
d 2

tory preface, and so open for him the path of composition.
So 1, agreeably to his request, wrote two pages at the
ginning of that book, and embellished this introduction
th prefatory exhortations a ' nd incitements to strive after
truth'. Now it was his intention to compose this book
in two VoluMeS2, the first volume about the events con-
nected with the Manifestation of the First Point [i.e. the
BAb], and the second volume about the circumstances of
the Most Holy and Most Splendid Dawn'. But after he
had completed the first volume, fate granted him no further
respite, for lie died in the city of Resht in the year A. H.
1299 [= A.D. 1881-2].
" But MAnakjf would not suffer this history to be
finished in the manner which the writer had suggested,
but compelled the chronicler to write what lie dictated.
For MAnakJVs custom was ti) bid his secretary write down
some matter and afterwards read the rough draft over to
him. So first of all the secretary used to read over to
him the rough draft which lie had made in accordance with
his own taste and agreeably to the canons of good style;
and then, after Mdiiakjf had made additions here and
excisions there, and had docked and re-arranged the matter,
he used to make a fair copy. And since MAnakif had
no great skill or science in the Persian tongue, the style
of most of the books and treatises attributed to him is
discolginected and broken, good and bad being mingled
together. In addition to this defect, ignorant scribes and
1 Cf. .1. R. A. S. for 1892, p. 442. According to Baron Rosen's
letter there cited, the portion of the Preface of the New History
composed by Mfrza' AbA'I-Fazl extends from the beginning to 1. 3
of p. 3 infra.
2 See pp. 318-319 infra.
ession (,.~l
3 By this expr 4JJo) the Manifestation
of Bebi)_~IlAh is meant.
illiterate -writers have, in accordance with their own fancies,
so altered the Tiriklk-i-Jadid' that at the present day
every copy of it appears like a defaced portrait or a restored
temple, to such a degree that one cannot obtain a correct
copy of it, unless it were the author's own transcript; other-
wise no copy can be relied upon.
" As for Hiji MÕrzà JAni of KAshAn, he was ODe Of the
most highly respected merchants of that town, and believed
in the blessed mission of the First Point [i.e. the BAbJ at
the very beginning of the Theophany. He was brother to
Jewltb-i-Zab~k (who is mentioned in the Lawk-i-Ra't's',
and was honoured with the title of Ant's). He it was who,
when the First Point (exalted be his Supreme Name 1) was

being conveyed, by command of Muhammad ShAh, from
lsfahd,n to TeherAn, entertained His Holiness for three
nights in his house at KAshdn'. Some while afterwards he
came froin KishAn to TeherAn, and abode in ShAh 'Abdu'l-
'AzfM4, where he wrote his history. He was involved in
the catastrophe of the year A.H. 1268 (A.D. 1852, Aug.-
Sept.), and in prison shared the same cell with His Holiness
Belid'u'llih, and was bound by the same iron chain. Some
days later 'he was put to death, an innocent victim, in
this massacre5, and attained to the rank of martyrdom.
1 The multitude of variants and divergences in the two MSS.
of which I made use in preparing this translation fully bears out
this statement.
2 See indei., s.v. Zabih - and the J. R. A. S. for 1892, p. 311,
where my conjecture as to the identity of Zabih seems to have
been erroneous.
3 See pp. 213-214, and 349 infra.
4 The celebrated shrine and city of refuge, distant about 5 or
6 miles from Teherin to the south.
5 On September 15th, A.D. 1852. See Traveller's Narrative,
vol. ii, p. 332.

But of his history 1, the writer, cannot now procure a copy;
for from Samarkand to Teherin is very far, and fortune
frowns on the People of BehA, and is beyond measure
jealous of them.
" God Alm lity best knoweth the truth of all matters.
" Written tin the twenty-first day of the month of'
Rabru'th-thainf A.H. 1310, corresponding to the thirty-first
of Tashrin-i-avval [October]' A.I). 1892, by the pen of the
author of this treatise, Abft'I-Fazl Muhammad ibn Mu-
hammad 1146 of GulpAyagin."
This full and detailed account of the authorship and
composition of the T6rikh-i-Jadt'd, for which both Mfrz6
AbA'I-Fazl and M. Toumansky are entitled to our warmest
gratitude-, the one for writing and the other for publishing
it, renders it unnecessary for me to say much more on this
head. We cannot but regret that one capable of writing
so clear, succinct, and pertinent a statement had not a
larger share in the compilation of the Rig-rkh-i-Jadid '
which would undoubtedly have gained much more from
the co-operation of MÕrzà Abu'l-Fazl than it has from that
of MAnakjf. One point, however, I must again briefly
allude to : I mean the share iing the work here ascribed to
Seyyid JawAd of Kerbeli. In my Catalogue and Descrip-
tion of 27 Bdb11'H8S. (J. R. A. S. for 1892, pp. 443-4 and
683-5) 1 expressed a doubt as to the correctness of this-
portion of MÕrzà Abu"I-Fazl's statement, my grounds for
this doubt being the ascription to Seyyid JawAd of the
Hasht Kihisht, a controversial work of strongly-marked Ezelf
proclivities, and assurances given to me by ~ubl ' i-i-Ezel to
the effect that Seyyid JawAd was one of his staunchest
This date is given according to the old style prevalent in
Russia. The corresponding date according to our style ias No-
vember 12th.
xliii -
adherents'. What I wrote on this matter was shown by
M. Toumansky to MÕrzà Abft'l-Fazl, who, in letters pub-
lished in the article in the Zapisski already cited, cate-
gorically and absolutely denies that Seyyid JawAd was
an Ezelf, or was other than a most devoted and loyal
adherent of BehA. I have not space to quote either the
interesting biographical details about this illustrious man,
nor the epistle addressed to him by BehA'u'lldh, nor the
denial of his sympathy with the Ezelfs made by Mirzi
Ab,h'I-Fazl to M. Toumansky, and published by the latter
in Vol. viii of the Zapisski (pp. 41, ahnd 43-5), to which
I refer such as desire fuller information. The sum of the
matter is this: Seyyid JawAd was a man equally re-
markable for his illustrious descent, his learning, and his

piety; he was brought up in the Sheykhf doctrines, followed
the lectures of Seyyid KAzim, and was one of the earliest
believers in the BAb, whom he knew personally. His
nature was so gentle and temperate that, according to
MÕrzà AbiYI-Fazl, 11 he would speak ill of no one, mentioning
all religious opinions, whether of Hindoos, Jews, Christians,
MusulmAns, Ezelfs, or BehA'fs, with respect." BoththeEzelfs
and the BehA'fs claim him; and, as I think, we have not
yet sufficient evidence to enable us to decide between them,
for against the clear and explicit testimony of Mfrz&
AhA'l-Fazl is the equally clear and equally explicit testi-
mony of Subh-i-Ezel and his partisan Sheykh A -.
I now pass to my own connection with the Tdrikh-i-
Jadi'd. I was first made aware of its existence by Mr Sidney
Churchill (to whose unrivalled knowledge of Persian biblio-
graphy I seize this occasion of once more bearing testimony)
on December 14th, 1887. He told me that he had obtained
a manuscript of this history of the BàbÕs for the British
I Traveller8 Narrative, Vol. ii, p. 342, n. 2.

Museum Library, and advised me, if I was interested in
this subject, to work at it on my return to England. H e,
did not inform me of the author's name, but said that he
was a member of the sect. I made a note of his communi-
cation in my diary, and, for the time being, did nothing
I next heard of the TdrWi-i-Jadid at SlifrAz on March
30th, 1888, from some of my BA]f friends. They described
it as a history of the events of1the 'Manifestation' from
the beginning, and the author as a Persian who had
travelled much, and who, having begun to write the book
as an impartial observer, had been convinced by the results
of his enquiries, if not by his own eloquence, during the
progress of his labours. One of my informants, a BàbÕ
missionary, admitted that he knew the name of the author,
but said that lie did not feel justified in divulging it
to me. At the asaiigie time a promise w . as given that a
copy of the book should be lent-to me. This promise was
fulfilled two days later; and during my stay at ShfrAz
I read a considerable portion of it. When I left ShfrAz
hurriedly for Yezd, expecting to return thither before
leaving Persia, I was permitted to take the manuscript
with me, and finally it was bestowed upon me as a gift.
It is now in my possession, and is described in full in my
Catalogue a2id Description of 27 Bdbi' 0188. (J. R. A.
for 1892, pp. 440-444) under the press-mark BBP. 5. In
this volume I designate it simply as C. (Cambridge Codex).
On my return to England in the autumn of 1888, 1
again read this manuscript through, this time more care-
fully, making marginal references and annotations ; and
I made considerable use of it in the compilation of the two
articles on the BàbÕs which I published in the July and
October n'Liinbers of the .1. -B. A. S. for 1889. This reading
I concluded on December 8th, 1888.
When the conclusion of the two articles above referred-
to left me free to take up fresh work, I resolved to prepare
a text and translation of the T6rikh-i-Jadid. I did not
at first make any use of the British Museum Codex (Or.
2942), as I could not at that time go to London to consult
it. I therefore transcribed my manuscript in a fair legible
hand, such as could be easily read by an European com-
positor, marking the passages which seemed corrupt, or
writing them in pencil with a query in the margin, and
sometimes a conjectural emendation. At the same time I
made the rough draft of a literal English translation, which,
however, I discontinued when I had transcribed about
half the book. The transcript I finished on February 8th,
During the following Easter Vacation (March 4tb-
May 3rd) I visited the two rival BàbÕ chiefs, Subh-i-Ezel

at Famagusta in Cyprus, and BehA'u'llAh at Acre in Syria.
From the latter place I brought back the -manuscript of
'AbbAs Efendi's Traveller's Narrative (referred to at pp. xiv
and xxxi-ii slTra), which, in accordance with the pleasure
of the Syndics of the University Press, I published in
ae_Sifijile a with an English translation and notes. Till the
appearance of these volumes in February 1892, 1 had little
leisure to give to the T6rrkh-i-Jad-rd, but nevertheless in
the Easter vacation of 1891 1 spent about three weeks in
London, and, by dint of hard work, finished collating my
transcript of the text with the British Museum Codex
(Or. 2942), hereinafter designated as L. (London Codex),
on April 11th of that year. This collation was more
laborious than I had anticipated, for the variants between
the two manuscripts were numerous and important, and
several long episodes contained in L. but omitted in C.
had to be transcribed. Finally, however, the work was
accomplished, and a satisfactory text established.

aid, to publish
My original intention was, as T have s, to bear the expenses of publishing the translation, but
both text and translation of a work which I regarded as of i
expressed a disinclination to undertake the text as well.
capital importance for the proper understanding of the
BàbÕ religion. It was clear, however, that the partial This decision, although it did not surprise me, caused me
translation which I had made would have to be entirely at the time some little disappointment; for it is not in
rewritten in the fuller light of the collated and corrected human nature, when one has laboured long and diligently
text. The work of translating the Traveller's Narrative at the reconstruction of a text, to learn without a shadow
had somewhat modified my views as to the manner in of regret that it will never be anything more than a manu-
which Eastern bookai should be done into English. I had script. Yet I deem it now a most fortunate circumstance
made that translation as literal is possible, and, owing that the Syndics arrived at this decision, for the discovery
of H&jf MfrJA JAnf's history in the Biblioth'que Nationak
to the concise and clear style of the original, this was not
so difficult as in the case of the diffuse, wordy and dis- puts an entirely new complexion on the matter, and it is
evident that it has a far stronger claim to publication than
cursive New History, which abounded in re-iterations, the T&z'kk-i-Jadzd.
digressions, and irrelevant diatribes. Yet even the trans- The -determination arrived at by the Syndics decided
lation which I had made of the Traveller's Narrative did
not wholly satisfy me, for I felt that, notwithstanding all me on two points. I had learned from Baron Rosen that
an incomplete manuscript of the TdrWW-Jadt'd had been
my pains, it was at best laborious and wearisome reading obtained at 'IshkAbad and forwarded to St Petersburg by
in English. How, then, would- it be with the New Lieutenant Touinansky in the summer or autumn of 1890'.
History ? Had it been decided to publish the text, I should- have
Before finally decidin on the course which I should
9 had to make a further collation of this manuscript with
adopt, I again applied to the Syndics of the University my restored text. As the translation only was to be pub-
Press with a view to ascertaining whether they were lished, this'seemed to me no longer absolutely necessary,
disposed to accept the text and translation of the book, my text being sufficiently good for this purpose. I was,
or either of them, for publication. I ventured to urge the ignoreover, enabled to form a clearer conception of the lines
publication- of the translation, but did not feel justified in on which my new translation must be made. Of the plan
insisting very strongly on the importance of printing the which I elaborated and have carried out in the following
text as well ; for to print so extensive a text in the Arabic pages I shall now proceed to speak.
character would, I knew, be a very costly undertaking, The facts with which I had to reckon were these : a
and, seeing that of such texts the total number which work wherein historical matter of great interest and im-
can be published in Europe is necessarily limited, it portance was mingled with prolix digressions of little value;
is incumbent on the scholar to consider what text is a text based on two manuscripts each of which contained
most indispensable, lest haply lie fail to use to the
I See Collections Scientifiques de Unstitut de8 Langues Orien-
best advantage the facilities placed at his disposal. In
reply to my application, the Syndics enerously consented tales de St Pe'tersbo urg, Vol. vi, p. 244 and the J. R. A. S. for
9 1892, pp. 318-'319.

several important and lengthy passages omitted in the being actually introduced by the words "thus says ~ the
other; and a style generally concise and clear in the reviser of this history," or "thus says the transcriber'."
narrative portions of the book, but florid, redundant, and It was evidently most important to preserve all these
diffuse in the digressions, The object which I had in view narratives, to indicate at the saine time the Codex in
was to produce a readable rendering of this work in English, which they occurred, and, in the case of episodes differently
which, while embodying everything in the least degree narrated in the two Codices, to give the two versions for
calculated to throw lialit on the history and development comparison one beside the other.
of the Bibf religion, a,31iould oiiiit most of the irrelevant The way in which I have done this is as follows. Pas-
matter mixed up with it in the original, preserving only sages occurring only in L. (the London Codex) are enclosed
such specimens of the digressions, diatribes, and somewhat in single square brackets and passages occurring
trite reflections of the author as might suffice to give a only in C. (the Cambridge Codex, i.e. my own MS.) in
correct idea of his style. double brackets When such passage is a simple
Now in the case of a classical or ancient text, which insertion, and, has nothing corresponding with it in the
has an interest mainly literary, our endeavour must evi- other manuscript, no further mark is added. , When, how-
here is a parallel passage in the other manuscript
dently be to find out, so far as possible, what the author ever, t
wrote, and to eliminate and discard all interpolations made (whether this consist of a few words only, or of a different
by later hands. No one, for instance, who proposed to narrative of almost equal length), the two versions are
edit the Jlasnavl' would wish to retain in the text the placed one above the other (the longer, as a rule, in the
many spuriotia-, lines which have been added by iiigeniouas body of the page, the shorter at the foot), and the same
copyists in the course of ages; therefore, having satisfied typographical mark (an asterisk, a dagger, or the like) is
himself that a given passage reposed on no good manu- placed outside the enclosing brackets of both, so that their
script authority, lie would without compunction excise correspondence may be at once apparent. In this way
it. But this does not apply to a book like the T6r~kh-i- both versions are preserved, and the translation of either
Jadid, which was written only thirteen or fourteen years
ago) -which is essentially a cOngipilati0ii made by two or As instances I will only cite K~ichak 'Ali Beg's-narrative of
the entry of the Nfrfz captives into ShfrAz (pp. 124-8 infra),
three persons acting in coihicert, and which, moreover, ia3
which is much fuller in L. than in C.; the different accounts of
interesting less from a literary than from a historical point the second Nfrfz insurrection in the two MSS. (pp. 128-131) ;
of view. In this case the interpolations may be just as the extensive particulars of the ZanjAn siege given in L. on the
valuable as the original text, for no one but a BàbÕ would
copy the book, and such an one might well add from his owl, authority of Haydar Beg, the son of Mulli Muhammad 'Alf's
lieutenant Din Muhammad (pp. 136-161, and 163-8); ~,abfh's
knowledge new and important facts of which the autlioras narrative of Mir 'Abdu'l-BAkf's meeting with the BAb at K6shAn
were not cognizant. Indeed, as a matter of fact, some of (pp. 214--216) in L.; the text of MÕrzà Muhammad 'Ali's letter
the most interesting portions of the Tdrikh-i-Jadrd are to his brother (pp. 301-3) in C.; and SuleymAn Kh6n's account
evidently interpolations of this sort, several of them of the Nib's execution in L. (pp, 309-311).

text can be easily restored. Suppose, for example, one of
my readers sees reason to think that the L. text is the,
more correct one, and wishes to deal with this only, he
will delete everything enclosed in double brackets, and
transfer the parallel passages in single brackets from. the-
foot of the page into the body of the text; and vice versa'.
In some cases passages occurring in one manuscript only
(but generally passages of small extent) have been rele-
gated to the foot of the page because they appeared to me
to be either redundant, or incorrect. In this case their
position in the text is indicated by the insertion at the
point where they occur of the same typographical sign
(asterisk, dagger, or the like) which is prefixed and ap-
pended to the brackets enclosing them.
Of the two manuscripts oil which my text is based, the
London Codex (L.) is described at pp. 192-7 of vol. ii
of my Traveller's Narrative, and my own manuscript (C.)
at pp. 440-4 of the J.R.A.S. for 1892, so that I need say
no more about them in this place, save that the former,
transcribed in Rajab A.H. 1298 (June, 1881), was written,
as appears from MÕrzà Abii'l-Fazl's statement, during the
author's lifetime (for he died in A.H. 1299), and may even
have been made under his supervision. In any case it
is the better manuscript of the two. My inability to
publish the text has made me feel a greater responsibility
about the translation, since my readers will not be able to
check the accuracy of my renderings by reference to the
original; and I can conscientiously say that I have taken
more pains with this book than with the Traveller's
Narrative, though I have not followed the idiom of the
Persian quite so closely, especially in the noil-historical
portions, where I felt that a greater latitude in treatment
was admissible.
It now only remains for me to speak of the supple-
mentary, matter with which I have striven, to enrich this
volume, and to tender my thanks to those to whom I am
most indebted for help. This supplementary matter con-
sists of three illustrations; four fac-similes of letters; and
three Appendices', numbered II, III, and IV.
Of the illustrations, one, a portrait of Subh-i-Ezel,
forms the frontispiece. For this I am indebted to my
friend Captain Arthur Young, lately Commissioner at
Famagusta in Cyprus, to whose kind help I owe so much.
The photograph, which, as I can testify, is an extremely
faithful likeness, was taken, so far as I remember, about
the end of 1889 or the beginning of 1890, and the negative,
which was necessary for the preparation of the copper-plate,
was sent to me last year. The plans of Sheykh Tabarsf and
the sketch of the ZanjAn gate were drawn by my sister,
Miss Helen Browne, from rough sketches made by myself

on the spot in 1887-8.
For the autograph letters of the Bib, Seyyid Huseyn,
MullA Sheykh 'All Jena&i-'Aztm) and Kurratu'l-'Ayn
I aign indebted to the kindness of Subh-i-Ezel. Fac-similes
of these, with their translations and reproductions in the
printed character, form Appendix 111, to which the reader
is referred for further information. All these illustrations
and fac-similes have been executed by the Cambridge
Engravillg Company under the supervision of my friend
Mr A. G. Dew-Smith of Trinity College, to whom I here
offer my warmest thanks for the pains which he has taken
to make them as perfect as possible.
For the facilities afforded ine for working at the Paris
manuscript of HAjf MÕrzà JAnf's history, an account of
which forms Appendix II of this volume, I owe a great
I Appendix I is not included, because it merely contains an
abstract of certain portions of the Tdrikh-i-Jadid which did not
seem to me worth translating in full.

debt of gratitude to the ,Liitlioritica3 of the Biblioth6que
Nationale, especially to M. Delisle and M. Zotenberg, as
well as to my friends M. Barbier de Meynard and M.
Michel Br6al. For the transcript of the text on which
1 have chiefly had to rely, my thanks are due to Ahmed
Beg Agaeff, who, at considerable personal inconvenience,
exerted himself to the utmost to complete it in the shortest
possible space of time.
The "Succinct Account qf the B(ibll' Jfovement," of
which the English translation forms Appendix IV of this
volume, and of which the Persian text stands at the end
of the book after the Index, was written for me by ~ubh-i-
Ezel in November--December 1889 in reply to sundry
questions which I had addressed to hini a little while pre-
viously. On the importance of such an account coming
from such a source it is unnecessary to dwell : it is almost
as though we had a narrative of the first beginnings of
Islim told by 'Ali ibn Abf Talib. That so valuable a
document deserved publication will, I should think, be
questioned by no one.
Last of all my warmest thanks are due to the Syndics
of the University Press for their liberality in bearing the
cost of publication of a work little likely, I fear, to prove
remunerative; to my friend Mr R. A. Neil of this College
for undertaking, notwithstan ding the many claii-nas on his
time, the labour of reading through the proof-sheets; and
to Baron Rosen and Lieutenant Toumansky for keeping
me continually informed of their latest discoveries, and
for supplying me with proofs of papers not yet published.
That my book may not be found unworthy of the generous
help received from so many different quarters is my earnest
I I  I

N. H.
I  I
THAT in matters of faith and g religion a slavish sub.-
servience to authority and custom is improper and unseemly;
that problems of such vital importance cannot be solved by
passion, prejudice, and idle guesses ; and that we canihiot
soar into a region so vast on the wings of baseless'con-,
jecture or blind conformity, are statements which allwise
and impartial judges will readily admit. For it -was
through naught else than such blind -imitation of --their
ancestors and unreasoning submission. to the. authority -of
their priests that former peoples rejected the prophets, sent
unto them, seeking to justify their unbelief by such words
as, "Verily we found our fathers practising a religion, and
we follow their footsteps'." Neither is this enquiry one
on which we should enter heedlessly or unreflectingly,,
inasmuch as even those best qualified to undertake it do
humbly entreat Him who is the Guide of Wanderers to
keep them from erring or stumbling, while the, very pro-
phets and apostles exclaim in their sense of utter helpless-g
ness, " Place me not with the g wicked people One
cannot, therefore, in a quest so perilous, follow the foot-
steps of such as pretend to take philosophy as a guide of
life while they are themselves still entangled in the bonds
of passion; nor of those who acquire learning only with A
1 Kur'àn, x1iii, 22.
2 Kur'àn, vii, 149.

view to obtaining power, and who make their austere and enquiry to his fellow-men, that they also may be delivered
ascetic life a snare wherewith to delude the ignorant. [For from doubt and uncertainty. For this reason did the
the Prophet bath said, "All men shall perish save the writer of this book deem it incumbent on himself to set
wise, and all the wise shall perish save such as make uase of forth in these pages in a concise and narrative form such
their wisdom, and all such as make use of their wisdom information as he acquired during his travels in Persia
shall perish save those who are sincere, and even the concerning the different sects of the MusulmAns, hoping
sincere are in dire peril." This is also implied in the that thereby certain current misapprehensions may be
saying, "The true believer is rarer than the philosopher's dissipated, and that sundry baseless calumnies and false
stone, and harder to find than pure gold" ; while the same accusations which lead men to deem their fellow creatures
fact is eloquently aset forth by Christ where he, says that infidels meet only to be slain and despoiled, whose very
men of every kind shall assemble at the wedding-feast, but touch is a contamination, may be disproved. In this way
that the chosen are few.] the enmity and discord which are the ruin of this people
But inasmuch as the Merciful God bath made every may perchance be abated, so that they may meet and
soul a mirror capable of illumination by the Sun of discuss amicably with a view to the removal of their
Wisdom, in such wise that whosoever will inay thereby differences, and may no longer continue to regard each
apprehend divine verities, and so become endowed with other as infidels and unbelievers without having clearly
true humanity and unselfishness, it behoves every one to apprehended that wherein they are at variance.
renounce all self-seeking and egotism, to avert his gaze To be brief, after travelling for some time in all parts -of
from passion and desire, and earnestly to endeavour to Europe and India and observing the races and religions of
follow the path of God, looking to Him and trusting in those regions, I chanced to visit Persia. Although I had
Him. So with stedfast feet shall he pursue the path of not meditated a long sojourn in that country, nevertheless
righteousness, and enter with all sincerity and singleness of events so shaped themselves that I remained there for a
heart into the highway of enquiry, until lie at length win considerable period, mixing in familiar conversation with
to a state where God shall be gracious unto him and shall all sorts of people, and making friends and acquaintances
guide him unto the recipient of divine revelation and the amongst every class. Some of these invited me to ex-
saint of that age. Thus may the seeker realize the pro- change the Christian faith for the religion of Muhammad;
mise of the blessed word, "Those who strive for us we will others regarded me as one of themselves; others again
assuredly direct into our ways'." received me not. Yet such was the divergence of opinions
Now whosoever bath been brought to this state and led and such the multiplicity of sects which I beheld in this
to apprehend this truth is bound by the gratitude which so religion- Sheykhfs, Mutasharri's, SAffs, Sunnfs, mystics,
signal a blessing ashould inspire, as well as by the dictates metaphysicians, dervishes, Nuseyris', devotees, and BàbÕs-
of common humanity, to communicate the results of his that, though my inclination prompted me to advance, my
reason bade me stand still. For if the Kur'-An be one and
Kur'a'n, xxix, 69. contain the commands of God, whence come all these

differences of opinion and contradictory judgements ? Seek
as I might, I could discover no agreement between the
treatises of two vmll6s, or the decisions of two muitallids.
What I heard was ever, "My humble opinion is this," or
"the view held by So-and-so is this," the command of God
being altogether disregarded amongst them.
Alas that they have by their disagreements and dif-
ferences so marred this holy Law that little is left of it
save the name and appearance, and that nothing wise or
intelligible is any longer heard, but only vain discussions
touching legal uncleanness and purification It is as
though God, in His infinite bounty, ahould cause to fall
the rain of mercy, purposing thereby to satisfy all mankind
with sweet streams of wisdom, and to deliver them from
the thirst of ignorance and inadvertence; that thereupon
a host of foul reptiles should gather round the spot where
it had collected pure and sweet, battening, breeding, and
each after his own fashion asserting his supremacy and
claiming undisputed possession ; that in the course of ages
these should so befoul and pollute that pure sweet water
that it waxeth loathsome and abominable; that notwith-
standing this they should still continue with those melodious
voices wherewith they are endowed to invite all inen from
far and near to enter in and drink, crying out "This is the
pure Water of Life and the Fount of Immortality " ; that
pilgrims athirst in the desert of enquiry should approach
with eager hope ; but that on their arrival they should
behold the contrary of what they had expected, and should
turn away in bitter disappointment, saying,
If indeed the faith of IslAni be what in the world appears,
Well may sceptics mock the faith of Islaim with a thousand
sneers ! "
And yet, by striving to exercise a little candour and to
banish dissension, they might still hope to purify and
reform this holy religion. But if they desire to please God
and His prophets, regenerate their faith, restore to their
creed its pristine lustre, and render their country and state
once more free, prosperous, and powerful, they must in the
first place abandon certain habits which are at present
rooted and engrained in their very nature. To these
habits they have grown so accustomed that not only have
they become almost a second nature, but the hatefulness
thereof is not even suspected by them. Their condition is
like that of a certain priest who said to a friend, " If you
notice in me any objectionable habit of which I myself may
not be aware, pray inform me of it, that I may strive to
relinquish it." " I perceive no fault in you," answered his
friend, "save a habit of using abusive language." "Abusive
language!" cried the other, " What rascally knave calls me

abusive? What shameless ruffian have I abused that he
should dare to prefer such a charge against me?"
Now the principal vice of the Persians (and it is the
worst of faults, and, indeed, the source of all) is falsehood,
which has gained such universal ascendancy and become so
customary and so familiar that truthfulness and integrity
are entir6ly abandoned and ignored. And it is this vice
which has brought about the decay of religion and law and
the enfeeblement of Church and State. For falsehoods
uttered by ministers of state in diplomatic transactions
by destroying the dignity of the Crown and the reputation
of the government, bring about the ruin of the empire ;
falsehoods proceeding from ministers of religion dishonour
the Sacred Law and overthrow the edifice of faith; while
falsehoods uttered by the common folk prevent progress
and tend to bring about the decline and fall of the nation.
For this reason political and religious liberty and national
wealth and prosperity are in all other countries and amongst
all other races and creeds, whether in Europe or India,

daily on the increase ; while with this unfortunate people,
by reason of this same perverse untruthfulness and lack of
integrity, they are continually on the decline, though the
prevalent corruption, disorder, and mental preoccupation
do not suffer the cause of this to be discerned.
The people of Italy were till within recent years similarly
afflicted. Eventually a number of their men of learning
assembled together to investigate the cause of this. "Since
we dwell in the fairest portion of Europe," said they, "and
are skilled in all arts, trades, manufactures, and sciences,
what can be the reason that we are continually deteriorating
while our neighbours are perpetually making progress in
every direction ? " After due thought and deliberation
they discovered that this was wholly traceable to the
influence of the Pope, who in their country represented
the supreme spiritual authority, declaring himself to be the
vicar of Christ. He, like the divines of Persia, withheld
men from acquiring iia-,efiil arts and accomplishments or
amassing wealth by senseless injurictions, in proof of which
lie would adduce sayings of great and holy men whereof
he had wholly failed to apprehend the true purport, sue
as, " The world is carrion and such aas desire it are dogs"
" Love of the world is the source of all error "; " Provision
is appointed and the covetous are disappointed." These
aphorisms, and others like unto them, had been so dinned
into men's ears that they had ceased to care for art,
commerce, agriculture, or wealth, and had been brought to
regard this ancient and enduring world as a thing im-
permanent and unstable as a spider's web, saying, for
"Naught in tb e world shall endure ;
Naught shall abide 'neath the sun;
Earth is a mansion as frail
As the web which the spider hath spun."
Yet in this " spider's web " the wise men of , Europe,
by means of the astronomical instruments and tables which
they possess, behold one of those celestial orbs whereof
some are so remote that the light proceeding from them
must travel for thirty thousand years ere it reach this
globe, notwithstanding that light travels two hundred
thousand miles a second! We speak here of orbs which
the wise men of those parts have actually beheld with the
eye of sense, for as to those far more distant orbs which
cannot be seen without special appliances, but which still
exercise attraction on other celestial bodies, they extend
unto wheresoever God pleaseth, and He alone knoweth
their number, the distances which intervene between them,

the fashion of their formation, and the kind of creatures
which inhabit them. Compared to these this globe is like
a ball encircled by the bat of Divine Might, and so moved
and rolled by the sun's attraction.
To be brief, however, when the wise men of Europe
and the people of Italy had proved the extent of His
Holiness the Pope's hypocrisy, guile, and deceit, they
exerted all their energies, and, notwithstanding all his
power and the subjection in which he had hitherto held
all the sovereigns of Europe, so effectually deposed him
and his children and grandchildren that naught remained
of him but the name and appearance, nor did anyone
thenceforth pay the slightest heed to a single word
which he wrote. After this they employed themselves
in spreading the triumphs of Art, Commerce, and Political
Reform, until in a little while they became objects of
emulation to all their fellows and contemporaries.
Now, although the Persians have witnessed and com-
prehended the consequences of falsehood, they still refuse
to relinquish this evil habit-
I know not how such as in evil delight
See nothing but evil in virtue and right."

Yet in their books of tradition it is stated on good
authority that certain persons demanded of the ImAin
Ja'far-i-SAdik, "Will your followers commit crimes and
do unlawful actions?" He answered, "Yes." "Will they
be guilty of fornication alid sins against nature?~' they
asked. "It is possible," lie replied. "Will they drink
wine and do murder?" they inquired. , it is likely
enough," said he. " Will they utter falsehoods ?" they
asked. " That," said lie, "is impossible! "
Notwithstanding this, the Persians astill claim to be
Shi'ites, and, although God has called liars accursed in
all the sacred books, refuse to abandon their mendacious
habits. Nor do they confine themselves to minor false-
hoods affecting only the things of this world, for in
matters relating to religion also they have shewn them-
selves to be ready liars and shameless -forgers, as will be
duly set forth in its proper place.
Now the principal evil of falsehood is, that when it
has entered- into a man's nature -aii(hl there established
itself, it generates a host of other evils. Amongst these
is hypocrisy, which is a kind of unbelief. Hypocrites
have ever been the chief cause of the downfall of re-
ligion, even as the Seal of the Prophets, Muhammad,
hath said, " I fear for this faith neither unbeliever nor
believer, but I fear - the hypocrite who makes a show of
faith and harbours unbelief in his heart." Now the ori-
ginal meaning of the word kit
,fr (unbelief) is the con-
cealing of h-uth or right in any way whatsoever, though
it be but to the extent of a mustard-seed or mote, without
its being restricted to the truth or right of God or man.
Indeed it is evident that none can conceal God, who is
more evident and manifest than the visible sun. So a
k6fir (unbeliever) is one who refuses to recognize the
rights of God or of his fellow-men; and this unbelief, as
I imagine, exists to some extent in every one. And so
likewise the devout Musulm.An is he who recognizes God
and all 'such as have just claims on him, and who dis-
charges the duties which he owes to others in a right
manner, injuring none either in word or deed. But as for
such as devour the wealth of great and small alike, dis-
honour their fellow-men, lay violent hands on the property
of this one or that one, give unjust decisions, and de-
nounce as infidels and doom to death God's servants, I
know not how they can hope or believe that they are
devout Musulmins! Could some men but regard them-

selves impartially and discern their own inward unbelief,
they would never again ascribe infidelity to another 1
As it has now been shewn that disregard and neglect
of the rights of our fellow-men is a kind of unbelief, it is
evident also that hypocrisy is a species of latent infidelity,
and Muhammad hath said, Infidelity is more difficult
of detection amongst my people than a black ant crawling
in the dark night over hard rock." Now hypocrites are
those whose hearts and tongues are not in accord, -whose
words and deeds are inconsistent, who are inwardly repro-,
bate and outwardly devout, and who, clothing themselves
in the garb of a spurious asceticism and simulated piety,
seek to deceive God and man by their guile and cuniiing-
"Without fair-seeming as the pagan's shrine;
Wi thin o'ershadowed by the wrath divine;
The life of Bdyazfdl their lips defame -,
Their hearts Yazfd2 himself might blush to claim."
Now should anyone, while admitting that it is possible
by guile and falsehood to deceive men, demand how it,is
possible to deceive God, we reply that, albeit this is im-
1 BAyazid of Bistim, a celebrated SAff saint who flourished in
the third century of the hijra.
2 Yazid b. Muliviya, the second 0mayyad caliph and mur-
derer of the Imim Huseyn. He reigned from A.H. 60 to 64. ,

possible, these foolish itgicii do nevertheless attempt to
cheat Him who is " the Bost Deviser of Stratagems'," and
to explain away the ordinances and commandinents of
Muhammad, the Seal of the Prophets. Have you, not
yourself seen and heard of how many estates and fortunes
persons ostensibly devout obtain possession, persuading
themselves by their casuistry that these are tgheir lawful
right and just due? Judge by this of the thousand other
species of traffickings, barterings, and pleadings whereby,
in diverse fashions, they compel rightful claimants to effect
settlements and partial compromises. With such phrases
as " I compromise," " I agree," which have now become
universal technicalities, do they defraud God and man,
trampling under foot the rights of their fellows, and
shutting their eyes to equity and justice. This is the
real meaning of infidelity, and these are the true infidels.
Consider fairly: if a woman be entitled to receive a. thou-
sand tu'm6nis dowry from her husband, or a sister the like
sum as a legacy from her brother, and if, after the, con-
clusion of the legal formalities and proceedings, she be
unabl-I to enforce her just claims and be compelled to
effect a compromise at one hundred tu'vzains, have those
other nine hundred ta'mdns become the lawful due of
those who constitute themselves her creditors, and are
their consciences clear? Though the doctors of law and
divinity have now given their sanction and authority to
such decisions, yet are they none the less repugnant to
God's good pleasure, and inconsistent with true piety and
So, in like manner, if a hundred tfinza'ns of tithe' be
So is God termed in two passages in the Kur'6n: iii, 47; and
viii) 30.
2 In the original kliums, which signifies a proportion of one
fifth of wealth acquired in war, commerce, or the like, to which
due from one of these pious believers, they will place that
sum in a vessel containing oil, honey, or curdled milk,
and offer it instead of the tithe to some poor Seyyid.
Then for a small sum they buy back the vessel with the
hundred tu'ma'??s concealed therein from the Seyyid, who,
poor fellow, is quite unconscious of the way in which he
has been defrauded. Or sometimes they will give one
tt'im(g't~t to a poor Seyyid on condition that he accept it
as a hundred tq'tnubis. By such quibbles do they mock
God, and account themselves free of blame in their usurpa-
tion of men's wealth. By the more utterance of the phrase
" I compromise," they divest themselves of all anxiety as
to the questioning of the Day of Reckoning, although they

profess to believe in the holy precept "Contracts follow
intentions," which, indeed, they are unable to deny. Yet,
fraudulent and sophistical hypocrites that they are, they
consider the wealth which they have amassed by their legal
quibbles and artifices just as lawfully obtained as did the
thief the shroud for his mother.
For they relate that the mother of a certain thief when
at the point of death besought him to obtain for her a
lawful shroud'. lie assented, and sallying forth from his
house at midnight lay in wait at the end of a road. By
chance lie presently fell in with a poor solitary traveller
who had-lagged behind the caravan, and at once took from
him by force his ass and his saddle-bags. Amongst the
various articles contained in the latter lie discovered
several yards of linen, whereat lie rejoiced and gave thanks,
saying, "Praise be to God who hath not suffered me
to return disappointed and ashaiiied to my mother!"
Then he fell to beating the owner of the linen with all his
might, crying, "Make this linen lawful to ngie with thy
the descendants of the Prophet are entitled. See Querry's Droit
Musulman, vol. i, p. 175 et seq.

whole heart 1 " On his return lie described to his mother
all that had taken place, saying, "I gave the owner of the
linen such a drubbing that he cried out with all his might,
'I make it lawful to thee,' repeating more than a thousand
times with tears and groans, 'May it be lawful to thee!"'
Now this hypocrisy, with the envy, frowardness, guile,
and jealousy which are, as it were, the fourfold elements of
which it is compounded, has become so engrained in this
people as to be almost a second nature. Their miserable
and degraded condition is entirely due to this cause, for no
two individuals can unite or combine in any enterprise
without quarrelling; and, should they enter into partner-
ship for six months, for six years they will be wholly
occupied with litigation. In short they so vex, oppress,
and harass one another in every possible way that the very
name of charity and courtesy would seem to be forgotten.
Another offspring of this hypocrisy is injustice, which
drinks milk from the breast of the false mother and draws
instruction from the I in,, father, until, when it is well
y t,
matured and has learned to walk alone, it goes abroad to
destroy the welfare of every land where it plants its foot-
steps. Such is the injustice which holds absolhlite sway
over this country, and to which the people (through ancient
habit and long subserviency, and because, as the proverb
says, "Men follow the, faith of their kings") have becoiihie
as much attached as is the nightingale to the rose or the
moth to the candle. Though their wings are scorched by
this fire, they still whirl recklessly around it, as though
eager for immolation. To adopt another simile, this in-
justice is like a chronic wasting disease which is continually
sapping and undermining the health of this people, who are
notwithstanding so heedless of their condition that they
fancy themselves better every day, and refuse to follow the
advice of those wise physicians who bid them avoid that
lying and hypocrisy which generate it. Such spiritual
pliysiciana~ were the prophets and saints sent for their
guidance and healing, to whom, out of inere cruelty and
lust of oppression, they did such things as the pen is
ashamed to record.
Now just as these vile qualities of which we have
spoken are the cause of temporal and eternal loss and
ignominy, so do kindliness, charity, and concord conduce to
the welfare and progress of states and nations, and secure
peace and happiness for great and small. It is impossible
to do justice here to the beneficial results of these qualities,
and we will only remark that true affection and charity is
not that a man should love his wife, children, and kindred,

or his fellow-citizens and compatriots only. He is indeed
worthy of the name of man who loves all his fellow-
creatures, withholds his charity from no human being,
refrains from injuring by word or deed aught that has life,
and neither scorns nor regards as unclean anything -which
breathes, however lowly, remembering that it too stands in
some relation to the Lord of the Universe, and would -not
exist but for some beneficent purpose. And so the wise and
humane man will not regard as accursed aught which exists,
nor spurn it, nor speak evil of it, even as the Lord Jesus
was once walking with some of his disciples when they
came suddenly upon a dead and putrid dog, at the stench
of whose corruption the disciples expressed their disgust.
But he rebuked them, saying, "Why take ye heed but of
the corruption of its body, and regard not its white teeth
nor ponder on its defence of its master's rights and con-
tentment with its lot ? Regard but what is good, if ye be
of the spirit."
, How far from this are some, who, instead of striving to
see naught but good in all around them, occupying them-
selves with the amendment of their own characters, and

endeavouring to remove their own faults, seek only in their
folly to discover blemishes in others 1 " Such an one," say
these, " is unsound in his religio'Lis beliefs " ; " So-and-so is a
reprobate and accursed"; "The to-Lich of Zeyd is a, pollu.-
tion"; "It were a meritorious action to slay 'Amr." Only
the most extravagant self-approbation and conceit can
lead them to speak thus, and of all vices these are the ligiost
detestable. To them is traceable in no small measure the
deterioration of the Persians, their refusal to accept new
idea,s, and their complete indifference -to the progress and
well-being of their country, And so, in spite of all their
self-esteem, they are continually going back while all other
nations are advancing. Yet they themselves relate, a well-
known tradition of how God bade Moses seek out some
creature of less account than himself and bring it into the
Divine Presence, After searching for a while Moses dis-
covered the putrid carcase of a dog. Thinking that this
would serve his purpose, lie attached a cord to its leg and
began to drag it after him, but ere he had proceeded many
steps the thought came upon him, "How dare 1 prefer
myself even to this?" Even as he dropped the cord from
his hand he beard a voice rebuking him and saying,
"0 son of 'lmrAn, hadst thou brought that dog one
step further thou wouldst have forfeited thy rank of pro-
phet 1 "
Far removed froin this humility of Moses (who, not-
withstanding his prophetic rank and the privilege of com-
muning with God which he enjoyed, dared not prefer
himself to the putrid carease of a dog) is the arrogance of
those who regard tliemaselves as superior to all the rest of
mankind, and do not even lieasitate to rank themselves
above Moses, quoting in support of their presumption the
tradition, "The doctors of my church are more excellent
than the prophets of the children of Israel." As to the
rest of God's servants, they hold them in less account than n
the carcase of a dog !
In strong contrast with these are the people of Europe,
who have truly apprehended the meaning of affection and
concord, and have reaped from these a wondrous harvest.
For, solely by reason of g the love which they bear towards
their fellow-creatures, the wise men of modern Europe have
devoted themselves to the devising of such appliances as
may serve to lessen the sufferings of God's creatures or
conduce to their prosperity and comfort, whereby also the
glory of the State is increased. Thus was the power of
steam discovered, whereby thousands of factories of different
kinds were set in motion, many precious and wonderful

goods produced, and prodigies of workmanship hitherto
undreamed of accomplished. The land was delivered from
the thraldom. of desolation and disorder ' the people were
freed from sloth and poverty, the nation waxed rich and
the state strong. Governments ceased to depend - on
oppression and injustice as a means of acquiring revenue,
and the practice of extorting money by threats and promises
fell into d,isuse. Every effort was made to secure equal
Justice for all, and every exertion put forth to perfect the
mechanism of the administration. The people, thus. freed
from anxiety, began to seek after education and culture,
and to make rapid progress in humanity and virtue; and,
since each bad his allotted share in the common work and
was indispensable to the common weal, all became United
in intent and purpose. Thus they made progress in every
direction and became objects of emulation to all around
Amongst these numerous inventions was the railroad,
which was originally devised with the object of alleviating
the sufferings endured by beasts of burden and increasing
the comforts of travellers. Consider the benefits which

i I ~
have resulted from this invention, and observe how, where-
ever it goes, it furthers the prosperity of the country and
the freedoiigi of the people, leaving none within the sphere
of its influence poor or unemployed, and furnishing each
with work suited to his capacity. How largely has it
conduced to national progress, wealth, and consolidation 1
How well it shelters its patrons from the depredations of
robbers, the keenness of the winter's cold, and the fierce
heat of summer!
Not long ago the Prime Minister of Persia, actuated
solely by a desire for the welfare of his nation, sought to
introduce into his country that which had elsewhere proved
so beneficial. In this design, however, lie was vigorously
opposed by the doctors of religion, who stirred up the
people against him by telling them that the increased
influx of Europeans which would result from the proposed
iniiovatioigi would infallibly bring about the spread of in-
fidelity and the downfall of religion. They were really
actuated by a fear lest in course of time the eyes of the
people might be opened and they should refuse any longer
to obey them blindly. So they set themselves to discover
objections and obstacles to the proposed scheme, to fabricate
cc authentic" traditions, and to cast imputations of atheism
on the Minister. Thus, because of their selfishness and
craving for power, they would not suffer this people after a
thousand years of abasement and misery to obtain peace
and happiness.
A certain Persian of sense and discernment wrote a
pamphlet to expose the true motives of these doctors.
Unfortunately, however, it was not published or circulated,
for "truth is bitter," and its contents would have been so
uupalatable to his antagonists that, had they seen it, they
would, without stopping to consider the arguments con-
tained in it, at once have declared its author an infidel. It
is not.unlikely that they would pronounce the same judge-
ment on the author of the present work; but he, thank
God, is not of this people, and cares naught for the appro-
bation or resentment of any one.
"I neither hearken to the Sheykh, nor hold the parson's
creed ;
From every sect and every faith, thank heaven, I am
freed I I"
Now if I have strongly and repeatedly insisted on the
defects apparent in the religion of certain persons, the
injustice of the government, the ignorance of the people,
or the total absence of moderation and fairness in the

ministers of church and state, God is my witness that I
have no personal spite against any individual or class. My
sole object is to arouse their zeal by bringing these matters
before their notice, and to shew them the hatefulness of
certain of their vices in a true light, so that they may
cease to regard them as trivial, and may learn to abhor
and avoid them. So also when I instance the practices of
European nations in exemplification of such virtues as
justice, magnanimity, charity, uprightness, and culture,
and dwell on their praises, it is from no mere desire to
extol my compatriots', but in the hope that'thereby I may
arouse the spirit of emulation in this people, incite them to
acquire these good qualities, and induce them to desist
from injuring and destroying their fellow-countrymen.
To return, however, to the tract of which I spoke. The
author maintains that the Persians are endowed with a
1 This verse and the words immediately preceding it are
noticed by Baron Rosen (Coll. Sci., vol. vi, p. 244) as affording
some evidence that Minakjf, the late Zoroastrian agent at
TeherAn, wrote, or caused to be written, this history.
2 It must be borne in mind that throuohout this work the
author maintains the fiction of his European nationality.
N. H.

high degree of intelligence and aptitude, and are fully
capable of improvement, but that unfortunately their
rulers, fearing to lose the authority which they enjoy, will
not stiffer them to open their eyes and ears, or learn to
discriminate between good and evil. After establishing
this thesis by conclusive arguments, lie puts forward the
following allegory, observing that, as each of the ministers
of state is charged with special duties, the Minister for
Foreign Affairs may be likened to the sentinel who keepas
guard over the citadel of the empire. And so, when one
comes in the early morning and knocks at the gate of this
citadel, the Minister for Foreign Affairs demands, " Who
art thou, and what dost thou seek?"
" I am Justice and Progress," answers the other, " and
I come to establish equity, inaugurate an era of progress,
and root out disorder and oppression."
" Thanks be to God," answers the Minister, " that our
land already enjoys the fullest measure Of justice and
progress. We need you not."
The other then proves to the Minister by conclusive,
evidence that he is JhListice and Progress, after which he
continues :-
" Long ago I went forth from this country and took up
my abode iigi Europe. For more than a thousand years I
have not beheld this land or its people, nor set my footsteps
on its soil. Learning, however, that a fraudulent impostor
claiming to be myself has formed a league with Discord to
lay waste the land, I have now returned, for charity's sake,
to effect its regeneration. Open the door!"
Quoth the Minister, bolting the door more securely,
Our country needs not your help. Thanks be to God, we
have strong and lofty buildings."
I bring from Europe," rejoins the other, "all manner
of new and wonderful inventions and appliances, that I
1, 4.1, :  :
y tic on, ee e peop e from misery and
poverty, and make them rich, prosperous and happy like
the people of Europe."
"We want not your gifts," replies the Minister, "for
such of these things as we need men bring from Europe,
and we buy them. Besides, if our people were to become
rich, they would rise in rebellion."
After much discussion and argument, the Minister,
unable to raise any further objections, says in a soft and
wheedling tone, "Your remarks are perfectly just. Through
your influence countries prosper, peoples are made free, and
nations become great. But what can I do? With you here

I could neither govern nor subsist, but must at once re-
linquish my power, limit myself to the exercise of my
proper authority, and content myself with the fixed salary
paid to ine by the state. An annual income of two hundred
thousand t6mrins and an annual expenditure of one hun-
dred thousand would be no longer possible, inasmuch as I
should be prevented from accepting gifts and bribes, and
could no longer arrest, imprison, condemn, and acquit as~ I
please. In spite of my lofty rank 1 should be compelled to
abide by the law, nor should I be permitted even to apply
a simple abusive epithet to one of my subordinates without
causa. These things being -so, I cannot, so -long as I -live,
admit you. But even if I were to withdraw my opposition,
there is not one of the administrators of the state who would
stiffer you to remain here for a single instant. They would
all unite in representing you to the Privy Council as an
enemy to His Majesty the King, and would forthwith issue
orders for your execution. But even leaving this out of
account, the doctors of religion, on becoming aware of your
arrival, would at once assemble and produce a thousand
well-authenticated and accredited traditions against you.
That they would kill you is a mere nothing, for they regard

it as obligatory on every MusuhnAn to drink your blood abasement is the prevailing lack of justice and absence
and eat your flesh, and if one should so much as mention of generous feeling. Not that they have not a certain
your name they declare him an infidel deserving of death. kind of justice of their own, but it is like the piety of
That they would not suffer~ you to remain in this country the Hindoos and Jews', which doth but conduce to their
for a single moment is also nothing, for wherever they greater error. Nor are they devoid of all social instincts
recognize one of your friends and admirers they slay him and power of combination, but their concord is the concord
without a moment's respite. They regard all Europeans as, of wolves, who appear friendly while face to face,'but, so
enemies who inay be lawfully plundered and slain solely soon as one relaxes his attention in the least degree and
because of the love which these bear you. The massacres suffers sleep to overcome him, they tear him in pieces. So
and persecutions of the BàbÕs-a sect so remarkable for do they combine to plunder, but afterwards quarrel over
their steadfastness and earnestness of purpose-were also the spoil.
brought about entirely by their devotion to you; else why How much better have the people of Europe ap-
do the MusulmAns refrain from interfering with the Nu- prehended the true ideal of friendship! Some years ago
aseyrfs and GhAlis (whom their clergy regard as utter they announced in all their newspapera-, that in the opinion
heretics), the KhArijfs, the eleven unorthodox sects of of experts all the coal-miDes in the world would be ex-
ImAmites, the SAdikfs and Ni'u'sfs (who hold that the hausted in a thousand (or, as others maintained, in less
linAmate ceased with the ImAm Ja'far-i-SAdik, and regard than four hundred) years; that then all the railways and
him as the promised Mahdf), and the MukhtArfs' (who factories in the world which are worked with coal would
assert that Muhammad ibiih Hanafiyya was the expected be brought to a standstill and rendered useless; and that
ImAm), all of w,hom are a hundred thousand times worse any one who should succeed in devising some substitute
than the BàbÕs?" It for coal would confer a benefit upon his own and all
What the learned author of this tract wished to shew nations, and would receive a pension for himself and his
was that these people have neither care nor compassion for heirs in perpetuity. Such people, who concern themselves
their agiibor(linates, being concerned only about the pre- about the welfare of those who shall come into the world
servation of their own power, and not at all about the several hundred years hence, may indeed be said to have
protection of those committed to their charge. Had it grasped the true meaning of affection 1 This is why they
been otherwise, the people would never have sunk into have made, and still continue to make, countless dis-
ago degraded a condition nor have become so despicable coveries in the application of electricity, compressed air,
in the eyes of foreign states, for the cause of this national and the like.
Accounts of these sects will be found as follows i When I was on my way to Persia I met in Alexandria
one of my friends who had reasided for some while in that
Shabrist~ufs Ifit(ibit'l-9nilal (ed. Cureton):-the Nuseyriyya, p.
143; the Ghulit or Ghiliya, p. 132; the Khirijiyya, p. 85; the
Iminiiyya, p. 122; the S6dikiyya or Ja'fariyya, 1). 124; the C. reads "'Alagians," but it seems unlikely that Aldnakjf
MYlsiyya, p. 126; the Mukhtiriyya, p. 109. would have gone out of his way to speak ill of his own people.

country, and lie remarked to me, " Persia has great natural the people toiadopt this custoin, it is best that they should'
resources, but the people are devoid of kindliness." Thia3 observe the second condition, and, by means of fair- dis-
was exactly what I ngiyself afterwards observed. it is this cussioD, remove dissent from their religion, so that concord
lack of kindliness which causes them to hold alooffrom may be established and peace succeed all this dissension
their fellow-men, and thereby to cut themselves off from and strife.
the possibility of happiness and progress. So, in course of Now although there are amongst the Muhannuadans
time, these misunderstandings and differences which have more than seventy different sects, each of which is further
brought about their ruin C ose, and *Ttlie government was split up into several subdivisions, these, though they may
thus enabledl* to usurp a tyrannous sway. Now until hold aloof from each other, are not at enmity and strife;
they make the recovery of this concord and harniony the for ages have elapsed since their differences first appeared.
object of their endeavours it is impossible for them to But in the case of the Bdbis, who are of recent origin, they
make any progress in civilization. And the conditions make the most strenuous and persistent efforts to harass
under which the attainment of this end is possible are and hurt them in every way, seizing, imprisoning, and
two. The first is that they should follow the example of slaying them with unremitting enery and this notwit -
European nations, and refrain from interfering in any way standing that they know nothing of their beliefs, and
with the religious opinions of their fellows, regarding all as declare them infidels solely on the misrepresentations of
God's creatures, and acting towards all with kindlinesas certain ignorant and malicious persons. Wherefore since
and charity. For the people of Dirope became civilized the writer, during his travels in Persia, became - fully
when they abandoned all attempts to constrain any man III cognizant of the history and doctrines of this sect, he felt
matters concerning himself alone (of which matters is the himself impelled by sympathy and common humanitygto
choice of a creed and the manner of its observance), and compose this book, that perchance by its instrumentality
confined themselves to the suppression of actions hurtful these discords and blind enmities may be removed, andh
to the community, such as lying, breach of contract, and men be led to pursue the paths of amity and concord,
evil-doing. So in matters of conscience they compel no whereby they shall become generous, huniane, earnest,
one, nor do they say, "You must accept such-and-such a magnanimouas, and noble; cease to appear vile and con-
creed and obey such-and-stich a divine." Indeed in Europe teinptible in the sight of other nations ; and be no longer
people who claim to be civilized never question anyone as a by-word throughout the world for lack of virtue, misery,-
to his religion, nor do they consider themselves entitled to folly, and uncharitableness. As God is my witness, though-
make such an enquiry, lest their own taste be questioned I be not of this nation', whenever I reflect on the former
by people of culture. As, however, it appears impossible greatness of this people and their present abasement my
that the ecclesiastical authorities in Persia should suffer eyes involuntarily overflow with tears and my heart is filled
with sorrow.
* rthose wolves in sheep's clothing who are the heads
of church and state were enabled]* -1 1 Cf. n. 2 at the foot of p. 17, supra.

About the time of the appearance of Seyyid 'Alf
Muhammad the BAb, when all Persia was convulsed, I
arrived by way of Constantinople and Trebizonde at Tabriz.
Here I saw with my own eyes and heard with my own ears
how the BAbis were everywhere hunted down, and, where-
ever found, doomed to death, without enquiry or exami-
nation, by the ecclesiastical or civil authorities. Some
were sawn asunder, some strangled, some shot, or blown
from the months of cannons. This period of massacre and
plunder endured for a long while, and in Yezd, ShfrAz,
Tabriz, Nfrfz, MAzandarAn, and ZaiijAn there was strife,
bloodshed, massing of troops, and slaughter of the people.
None were spared. Those who bore a grudge against any-
one, as well as bands of scoundrels bent on plunder, had
now their opportunity, for whomsoever they pointed out
to the fm-raishes as a BàbÕ was put to death without
more ado.
The object of my travels in Persia was to visit and
examine the different towns and describe their geographical
features. In every city, village, or hamlet which I entered,
1 beheld the saine strife and turngioil, whereat I marvelled
much, saying to myself, "What can these people see in
this new faith, and what manner of men has it made them,
that they recoil in fear neither from death nor bondage,
mutilation nor imprisonment? Rather will they consent to
abandon their riches, their wives and children, yea, even
life itself, than this belief, though already nigh upon ten
thousand of them have drenched the earth with their
blood, or gone forth as exiles into foreign lands. How
many ancient families have perished! How many notable
and esteemed persons, divines, doctors, and other men of
learning and virtue, have abandoned wealth and life and
made the earth their couclil Yet withal they neither
repent) nor dissimulate, nor seek to preserve themselves,
~ I -
nor shrink from the arrests, imprisonments, and executi ons
which are of daily occurrence."
I enquired of sundry doctors and men of learning
amongst the Shi'ites concerning the nature of this people's
belief and the sources whence they drew their inspiration.
The answer which I received was that they believed the
BAb to be the ImAm Mahdf ; held their wives and posses-

sions in common, regarding both alike as belonging to
God alone; accounted lawful the drinking of wine and
every kind of immorality, as well as other things pro-
hibited by IslAm; and asserted that one woman might,
and indeed should, have nine husbands.
Hearing of such follies, I was disposed to regard these
people as madmen, until at length I became acquainted
with certain learned men belonging to this sect, and heard
that every one of those who had been taken and put to
death had been a master of eloquence and discernment,
an authority on matters of learning, and an object of
general esteem and respect, as, for example, were MU-114
Uuseyn of Bushraweyh, A'kA Seyyid YahyA of DArib, MU114
Muhammad 'Alf of ZaniAn, and the rest. My astonishment
was increased by finding such persons amongst the BàbÕs,
" for," thought I with myself, "it cannot be that men so
wise and so gifted should believe in the absurdities with
which they are credited by the ignorant and vulgar, neither
would they so freely and joyfully forego their position,
wealth, families, and even their very lives unless they had
apprehended something of moment."
Now in every age two classes are inwardly antagonistic
to the spirit of a new dispensation-statesmen and priests.
These, because they love authority and dominion, stand
firmest in the ranks of denial, and are conspicuous for the
obstinacy with which they reject the new truth. This is
more especially so in the case of the clergy, because they

run a greater risk of losing their power; and, indeed,
unless the prophet of the age, perceiving in thein some
latent merit and virtue, should constrain theign by his
attractive influence, it is scarcely possible for them to
enter in.
1Dasmuch as I was most eager to apprehend correctly
and record in writing the doctrines and principles of every
religion and cult, I strove to acquire precise information
as to the tenets of this new sect also, in order that I
might give some account of tlieign in my journal of travel
in Persia. After seeking for some while, I obtained several
of their books, including the Bey('02, the I'k('tgii, and sundry
epistles, treatises, and fornhis of prayer. On examining these
I perceived them to be written with eloquent fervour, and
to contain nought but precepts of virtue and piety, com-
mands to love God and man, and exhortations to seek
after wisdom and purity of morals. Brotherly love, equal
participation of wealth, chastity, and charity towards all
were likewise enjoined. Amongst the precepts contained
in their books one which specially won my approval and
led me to prosecute my enquiries with renewed zeal was in
substance as follows:-
"0 servants of God, it behoveth you to be so weaned
fi-oni all save God, and so endow'ed with divine qualities,
that your works may be a proof to such of God's creatures
as are still in darkness, and may rend asunder the veils
of doubts, vain iiuaginiiigas, and promptings of devils which
hinder them from this Law of Wisdom revealed by the
All-merciful Lord, so that they may become partakers in
the pure water of Eternal Life and the everlasting wine of
To be brief, after prosecuting my enquiries for some
while, and ascertaining somewhat about the matter, I be-
came acquainted with aseveral men of learning belonging
to this sect. One day in the course of confidential con-
versation I enquired of one of these, " What have you
perceived in this new faith that no kind of suffering will
induce you to relinquish it? Already not fewer than ten
thousand of you have been laid low in blood-stained graves
or driven forth into distant countries as exiles from their
native land, neither is any abatement yet apparent in the

persecutions to which you are subjected. Why have you
no compassion for yourselves, your wives, and your children?
Who and what was this BAb? Had he been. gifted with
supernatural powers, lie ought assuredly to have saved
himself from a miserable death, and not suffered men to
crucify and slay him, or the wild beasts to devour his
0 n hearing these words my companion became affected
with a sorrow strange to witness, and replied,  .. .. . ; .
it 'And darest thou question those whom God hath given
Power to control the treasure-house of heaven?"'
Seeing him so affected, I strove with all my tact to
conciliate him, saying, " Men ignorantly utter many foolish
words and baseless assertions wh ' ich in no wise prove the
falsity of the religion iii question. My enquiry was not
intended to imply either denial or affirmation, and I de-
sire but to arrive at the truth of the matter as an *un-
prejudiced historian, who is not concerned with anyone's
creed, but wishes only to obtain accurate information as
to the circumstances, practices, and doctrines of any sect
having a claiin to advance, so that he may commit to
writing the facts which lie has aaseertained. This is my
sole object, and I therefore pray you to give me a true
account of the matter."
Thereupon my friend gave me some account of that
illustrious Seyyid, and of the persecutions suffered by his

followers, whereof that which I myself had seen afforded
ample corroboration. So my heart began to burn within
me as I reflected on the patient fortitude and endurance
of these people, the sufferings which they had undergone,
and the total absence of justice in Persia. For in other
countries many erring sects whose practices are abominable
in the eyes of all, such as the different kinds of Hindoos
(who are adorers of beasts, idolaters, cow-worshippers,
Manicheans, fire-worshippers, and even downright atheists)
live peacefully under the protection of just rulers, neither
is it permitted to any one to question the religion of
another. And although the Bdbfs are no -worse than
these, nor than the Nuseyrfs, GhAlis, KhArijfs, Nisibfs',
materialists, and sceptics, but are, on the contrary, re-
inarkable for their superior huiihiaiiity, culture, and in-
telligence, yet, because of the total absence of justice in
Persia and the misrepresentations to which they have
been exposed, they have been subjected to the most cruel
treatment, albeit those things which are alleged in proof
of their infidelity are utterly false and devoid of founda-
tion. Therefore, being moved by love of mankind and a
desire to dispel the misconceptions entertained concerning
this sect, I felt myself constrained to set forth in a sepa-
rate treatise somewhat concerning thein and their beliefs,
so that those who read these pages may be rightly informed
concerning them, and may cease to treat with such cruelty
those who are not only God's creatures but their own
I therefore requested my friend to visit me at my
I See note at the foot of p. 20, supra. The Nisibis (ahlu'n-
nasb, ndsibiyga) are a sect who make it a matter of religious
obligatioii to bear a violent hatred to 'Alf b. Abi TAlib, the first
IniAm. of the Shi'ites. See Lane's Arabic-English Lexicon, vol.
viii, p. 2800, third column.
abode twice a week during his hours of leisure', and to
describe from the beginning all the events of this dis-
pensation as they actually occurred, together with the
doctrines in which he believed, so that what I proposed
to write might be a true and correct statement of facts.
He, when he perceived me to be free, from prejudice, eager
for discussion, and unwilling to accept anything on hear-'
say, was kind enough to introduce me to one of his co-
religionists who was remarkable alike for his learning and
virtue telling me that I might rely on whatever 1 should
hear from this man, since he had personal knowledge of all
things connected with this matter.
I soon -found opportunities of holding frequeigit and

prolonged conversations with my new acquaintance, whose
virtue and learning proved fully equal to what I had'been
led ' to expect. Even before he adopted the new creed he
was notable for his piety and godliness, and, notwith-
standing the fact that he was in easy circumstances and
possessed of ninch wealth, was reported to have made a
pilgrimage on foot to the shrine of the ImAin Rizi at
Mash-had in company with HAjf Mir 'Abdu'l-Wisi' the
dervish, who, for thirty-five years, had withdrawn himself
entirely from the world. The hardships and privations of
that jourDey bore fruit, for on reaching KburAsdn he met
with MullA Ni'lliatu'llAh of Ardabfl, Mulli-Yihsuf 'Alf of
Khiiy, and MullA 'Abdu'l-KhAlik of Yezd, all wise and
holy men, by whom he was directed to the truth. The
full and detailed accounts vouchsafed to me by this man,
enhanced as they were in interest by his agreeable manners
and evident sincerity, confirmed me in the resolution which
I had formed to write this treatise.
My original intention was to confine myself to a state-
ment of the history and doctrine of this sect, avoiding all
controversial matter. My friend, however, pointed out to

me that if I desired to render real service to the cause of
truth and to remove existing misapprehensions, I shoitili
certainly fail, if I did not even make matters worse, by
omitting all reference to the arguments and proofs adduced
in support of the doctrine. About this time, moreover, it BEGINNING OF THE NARRATIVE.
so happened that a long discussion took place in my
lodging between him and a certain divine, wherein the *EI -visited the holy shrines of Kerbeli and Nejef
latter was signally worsted, though lie continued as long shortly after the death of H.Iji Seyyid KAzim, and learned
as possible to raise objections and demand further proofs, from his disciples that during the last two or three years
and was finally reduced to silence rather by necessity than of his life he had spoken in lecture-room and pulpit of
by a sense of justice. little else but the approaching advent of the promised
1 am now convinced that my friend is right, and that Proof, the signs of his appearance and their signification,
my book could serve no good purpose if I excluded from and the attributes by which he would be distinguished,
it all reasonings and arguments. Neither could these be declaring that he would be a youth of the race of 116shim,
kept apart from the historical portion of the work and set untaught in the learning of men. Sometimes he used to
down in order as they came up in the discussions between say, "I see him as the rising sun." During his last pil-
him and the divine, else would the book be unduly en- grimage to Surra-man-ra'a, while lie was returning thence
larged. In accordance with his wish I have therefore in- to Baghdad by way of Kdzimeyn, he was, entertained by
serted such of them as appeared most pertinent in the one of his friends and disciples, about a dozen others
course of my narrative. Furthermore, whenever I have being present. All of a sudden an Arab entered, and,
had occasion to mention that illustrious Seyyid', I have, still standin , said, "I have seen a vision touching your
for several reasons, alluded to him in terms of the iitugiost Reverence." Permission to speak having been accorded
respect, making use of the titles used by his own followers. to him, he related his dream; whereupon Seyyid KAzim
For, in the first lace, the claim which lie advanced was appeared somewhat disturbed, and said, " This dream sig-
a great one, and lie was of an illustrious descent and a nifies that my departure from the world is near at hand."
Seyyid of the people; secondly lie suffered martyrdom by Hearing this, his friends were greatly troubled, but he
reason of his love for his nation and his attempts to ad- turned to them, saying, " Why are ye grieved and troubled
monish and regenerate them. And in Europe the name at my approaching death? Desire ye, not that I should
of such a man is not mentioned slightingly, but is ac- depart and that the Truth should appear?"
counted worthy of all lionour. EThis is the account which I have heard from Miji
Here follows what my learned friend narrated to me. 'Abdu'l-Muttalib of IsfahAn and HAjf SuleymAn KhAn',
I i.e. the PjaM
C. has, "Suleyma'n KhAn Afshir of SA'in-Kal'a," an evident
error, as Suleymin KhAn Afshir was one of the most determined

who were present on the occasion alluded to. The latter
further added, " Seyyid KAzini specially promised me that I
should myself participate in the new Manifestation, saying,
Thou shalt be there and shalt apprehend it."
EThat the late h Seyyid actually gave utterance to these
words, and announced these good tidings as above de-
scribed, is a matter of notoriety, and a thing universally
admitted amongst those who were intimate with him.
The fact, moreover, is further authenticated by several
letters from well-known persons to others who also be-
lieved in the new Manifestation'. - Indeed, some who
were present on the occasion above described are still
alive, and these adignit that they heard this announce-,
ment made by Seyyid KAzim.
EMul1A H-Useyn of Bushraweyli, a most eminent divine
who enjoyed great intimacy with Seyyid KAziin, urgently
besought him to enlighten them further as to the manner
in which the Manifestation would take place, but he only
replied,3 ' " More than this I am not permitted to say,
but from whatever quarter the Sun of Truth shall arise,
*[I visited the holy shrines of KerbelA and Nejef
shortly after the death of H6jf Seyyid K6zim, and learned
from his disciples that the late Sey.-yid had, a few days
before his journey to Surra-man-ra'a and death, said, "This
is the last time that I shall visit Surra-man-ra'a, for the
days of my sojourn in this world are ended, and it is time
for me to depart." His friends thereat displayed much
sorrow, but lie replied, "Grieve not, but rather be thankful
and rejoice, for after I am gone you shall be permitted to
behold the Promised ProoUT
persecutors of the BAbis. Haijf Suleymin Khan of Tabriz, the
son of Yabyi Kh-An, is without doubt intended. See my
Traveller's A'arrative, p. 239 and foot-note.
1 Cf. Traveller'sYarrative, p. 240, note 1.
it will illuminate all hearts which are receptive 'of Divine
On his return from Surra-man-ra'a the venerated Seyyid
departed this life, even as he had foretold; and I, after a
while, repaired to the mosque of K-ftfa, and there abode for a
time engaged. in the performance of certain spiritual exercises
which I had undertaken. Here I saw MullA Huseyn of
Bushraweyh, Mulli 'Alf of Bistim, HAjf Mul1A Mu-
hammad 'Alf of Bdrfur6sh, AW 'Abdu'l-Jalfl the Turk,

Mimi 'Abdu'l-Hidf, MÕrzà Muhammad HAdf, AkA Seyyid
Huseyn of Yezd, Mul1A Hasan of NajistAn, MU114 Bashfr,
Mulli BAkir the Turk, and MullA Ahmad AbdAll, with
many other learned and devout men who bad retired into
seclusion to undergo as severe a spiritual discipline as can
well be imagined. On the completion of these exercises I
proceeded to visit Nejef, while the others departed each on
his own way.
Now as it has been said,
"Whate'er man seeks as surely he obtains,
If he but seek it with sufficient pains ;
God's shadow falls upon His servant's mind,
And he who striveth in the end shall fi I nd2,"
aso God did direct their steps in the path of search until
they came to ShfrAz. To Mulli Huseyn of Bushraweyli
I L. is corrupt here, interrupting the continuity of the narra-
tive with a verse of poetry bearing reference to Seyyid Ka'zim's
death, and omitting the list of names given above. Probably
the scribe intended to write them in afterwards with red ink, as
two lines are left blank.
2 Both these couplets are from the third book of the ffasnavi,
but they do not belong to the same context. The first will be
found at p. 229, 1. 13, and the second at p. 319, 1. 13 of the
Teherin edition of 'AIA'ud-Dawla.
N. H.

f  I
was granted the happiness of first coming to His Supreme Then he opened the door. [It did not at the time, strike
me ]low strange it was that without havi he
Holiness, and he became " the first who believed'." ing seen me
The late H6jf MÕrzà JMif, one of the most respected of ashould know I was there.] When he *[had opened'the
the inhabitants of K6sh6n, who was remarkable for his self- 4loor]* he smiled and said, 'All day I have felt disinclined
devotion, virtue, and purity of heart, who had with his own to 90 to the caravansaray, and now I know that it was
eyes witnessed all the most important events of the Mani- because of your coming.2 So we entered the house and sat
festation, and who for his zeal finally siiffered martyrdom down, and after we had exchanged the customary enquiries
(whereof he foretold all the circumstances a-,oiigic while before liesaid, 'Do not you Sheykhfs believe that soine one must
take the place occupied by the late Seyyid KAzim? Five
their occurrence to certain of his acquaintance), wrote a inoiithas have now elapsed since his death. Whom do you
book describing the coiirase of events and setting forth argu- now recognize as you
ments in support of the faith. In this work lie recorded r Master? ' 'As yet,' I replied, 'we
have recognized no olle.2 'What manner of man,' as
all that lie was able to ascertain [from firast to last, by ked
diligent enquiries iigiost carefully conductedd about each of lie, 'must the Master be?' Thereupon I enumerated some
the chief disciples and believers. Concerning MullA Hu- of the requisite qualifications and characteristics. 'Do you
observe these in me?' he asked. Now during the two
seyn s conversion he writes as follows :-
" I igiiyself heard directly from MÕrzà 'Abdii'l-WallhAb of I months he abode at KerbelA I bad not observed in him any
KliurAa-,Aii, a inoast endlient' divine, the following narrative signs of special knowledge, and I knew that he had not
(f this event:- astudied in the colleges nor attended the lectures of any
I enquired' (said lie) 'of Mulli Iltiaseyii concerning teacher, so I anaswered, 'I see in you none of these quali-
the manner of his conversion. He replied, " After the tieas.' To this he replied nothing. After a while I observed
death of Seyyid KAziln I became afflicted with great per- aseveral books lying on a shelf. I picked up one of them,
turbation of mind, an'd, in the course of my iihieiital struggles, and found it to be a commentary on the Sfiratit'l-Bakaral.
went from KerbelA to Shfrdz in the hope of benefiting a After reading a little I perceived it to be a commentary of
palpitation of the heart from which I suffered. And since remarkable merit, and demanded in astonishment who the
the Seyyid 'Alf Muhammad had lionoured me with his author might be. 'A mere youthful beginner,' answered
friendship during a journey which we made. together to the he, 'who nevertheless lays claim to a high degree of know-
Holy Shrines , I at once on reach- ledge and greatness.' I again asked who and where the
ing ShfrAz sought out his abode. As I approached the writer was. 'Thou seest him,' be replied; but I did not
door I desired inwardly to tarry there some few days. So at the time apprehend his meaning, and continued to read
I knocked at the door. *[Before he had opened it or seen *~had seen and recognized mej*
mej heard his voice exclaiming,'Is it you,MullAHuseyn?']*
*T.As it chanced he came to the door in persoii.j*
I See Traveller's ill"arrative, vol. ii, pp. 241, 250.
I See my Catalogue of 27 Betbi X88. in the J. R. A. S. for
1892, where the text of this passage is quoted in a description of
the work in question.

on till I came to a passage where it was written, 'the expla-
nation of the inmost of the imnost.' This appeared to me to
be an error, and I remarked, 'Here it should be " the in-
most," and " the inmost of the i n9nost " is written.' I What
can I say?' he answered, 'the author of this Commentary
lays claim to more even than this of greatness and know-
ledge. Consider the passage attentively.' I did so, and
said, 'It is quite correct. But I am wearied. Do you read,
and I will listen.' He read for a time, and then, as men
are wont, I said, 'It is enough. Do not trouble yourself
further.' Towards evening tea was brought, and several
learned Sheykhis and merchants who had been informed of
my arrival came to see me. In the course of conversation
they, supported by MÕrzà'Alf Muhammad, made me promise
to deliver a lecture, and arranged to assemble on the morrow
in the IlkhAuf mosque to hear it. Next morning, agreeably
to this arrangement, they assembled in the mosque, whither
I also repaired. - When, however, 1 desired to -begin my dis-
course, I found that in place of the ready flow of language
and easy delivery generally at my command I was as
though tongue-tied and unable to speak. This filled me
with amazement, for I was persuaded that so unusual an
occurrence must be due to some unusual cause, and won-
dered much who it was that exercised this secret control
over me, and what might be his object. Such was the
astonishment and emotion which took possession of me that
I was obliged to make the best excuses I could for cutting
short my discourse. Thereupon the assembly broke up,
and I returned to my lodging deeply meditating. Next
day when I wished to preach precisely the same thing
happened, and so again a third time. On this last occasion
I came out from the mosque in a state of the utmost
misery and astonishment. Mfrzd 'Ali Muhammad said,
'Let the rest of our friends go to their own houses, and do
you alone accompany me.) When we reached his house he
,said, 'By what sign canst thou recognize the Master, and
what proof dost thou deem most effectual to convince thee
that thou hast attained the object of thy search ? ' 1
answered, 'The possession of the Point f Knowledge, which
wisdom of past and
is the source and centre of all the 0
future prophets and saints.' 'Do you perceive this in me?'
he asked; 'How if I were so endowed?' 'That you are
devout, godly, and holy of life,' I answered, 'is true; but
only knowledge derived directly from God can admit to
this lofty rank.' At this he was silent for a while as
though in wonder, while I thought to myself, 'What idea
can this devout youth be harbouriDg in his mind that he so
persistently introduces this topic ? I must at all events

ask some question of him which he has never heard dis-
cussed and cannot answer, so that he may be turned aside
from his vain imaginings.' I therefore put to him a ques-
tion which appeared to me very difficult of solution, and
which had always been in my mind during the life-time of
the late Seyyid - of the most perfect lucidity and eloquence, [whereat I was utterly astounded, perceiving that my trained
intelligence was incompetent to grasp all the subtle mysteries and lofty ideas contained therein]." ' "
 The account given by 116ji MÕrzà Jinf of MullA
Ijuseyn's conversion is much more detailed than this, but
were 1 to repeat a tithe of what I have heard on the most
trustworthy evidence weak reason would fail to comprehend
it.  I
"Should I attempt to write or utter it,
The mind would stagger and the pen would split."
But Hijf Mulli Muhammad 'Alf of Bdrfurfish, a man of singular excellence, and noted for his piety and godliness, had
no sooner seen and conversed with the Bib than, because of the purity of his heart, he at once believed without
seeking further sign or proof; for " to demand a sign after attaining the thing signified is unseenily'." So, because lie
recognized the Proof by its very nature Twithout any further sign], he received the title of jenaib-i
1 Cf. Traveller's Yarrative, Vol. i, p. 12; Vol. ii, p. 9.

ki~uddfis, and became the companion of His Holiness Oil the
journey to Mecca, and the possessor in a high degree of all
manner of miraculous powers and divine illuminations.
To be brief, other learned and eager seekers after truth
who were wandering amazed in the path of search were
drawn unwittingly to ShfrAz by the attraction of the True
Beloved, and there, each in a different way, were brought
to see and apprehend the Truth. Each of these, according
to the measure of his strength and his capacity, drank of
the wine of faith and wisdom; forgot all ties and obstacles,
and, indeed, his very being; rent asunder the veils of name,
fame, and worldly position; purified his heart from the
stain of apprehension; and, resolute in the pursuit of the
desired object, set off, each in a different direction, to
spread the good tidings of the Manifestation and to convey
the signs' of it to all. And, because of the love and fervour
which possessed them, they thought not of the enmity of
the stubborn, neither did they anticipate the opposition and
ands of the
rejection which they were to encounter at the h,
froward. So, briefly, the matter came to the ears of most
men, great and small; of whom some, believed, though the
more part turned aside, [while many set themselves to stir
up trouble].
At this time Mulli Huseyn [of Bushraweyh, who was
entitled Bdbu'1-B('(bJ set out for IsfahAn, where he fell in
with MullA Muliammad SAdik [generally known as the
saint] of KhurAsAn, a professor in that city, who, when he
had heard the matter, and considered the proofs and signs
thereof, believed. The circumstances of his conversion
(which I heard directly from himself) were thus told by His
Excellency the Saint of KhurAsAn :-
" When I had considered the clear signs and proofs set
i.e. the sacred writings, to which alone the Bib appealed in
proof of his divine mission. Cf. Gobineau, p. 158.
before me, I could see no possible way of rejecting or,
denying them. For the Merciful Lord hath plainly said in
the Kur'àn that though all genii and men should combine
together they could not produce a sign like unto it'. and,
during these twelve hundred and sixty years which had
elapsed since that time, none, however skilled in rhetoric
and eloquence, had presumed even to make this attempt.
But these verses were incomparably superior to the KurAn
in point of eloquence and beauty, so that it was im,
possible to take exception to them or deny them. Never-
theless I remained overwhelmed with amazement, w onder-
ing how such verses could be poured forth like copious
showers by this simple and unlettered youth**. '0 God!'
I cried in my heart, 'in face of such ample proofs how ias

denial possible? Yet how can I confess and accept this
illiterate and uneducated young merchant as Bib and
Vim?' So for a while I subjected myself to a severe
discipline, keeping continual vigils during the night, -and
praying God for help and guidance; until one night, when
I had been engaged in prayer and self-abasement till near,
the morning, a little before dawn t~I came somewhat to
myself, and began to reproach myself, saying,lt 'Wherefore
these plaints and prayers, and this tarrying in the world of
form ? Why be blinded by the limitations of the common-
place, and kept back by the restrictions of the nominal ?
Is God's hand shortened, then, or is He unable to accomplish
His will? Is He not one who " doeth what He pleaseth
and ordaineth what He willeth?"' At this inward com-
*[whom in his childhood they had brought to me for
instruction, though he attended my class only one day.]*.
t [being wide awake, I plainly saw His Holiness appear
to me saying,]t
I Kur'àn, Xvii, 90.

muning I was overcome with fear; but when I came to
myself the veil was lifted, and I beheld within myself a
state of freedom and peace transcending description."
Now although I have myself with mine own eyes beheld
greater wonders than those above recorded, yet am I faiii
to excuse myself from relating or publishing them; for that
Gem of created essences  was in no wise eager
or desirous for the disclosure of asucli ocetirreiiceag, neither
did he seek to make known such evidences of power as
were manifested in him, since he regarded his nature as his
proof and his verses as his sign. [  So much was this the
case that MullA Mirzi Muhammad, one of the lgyiost eminent
of those divines giiid higlily-gifted men who hastened to
accept the new Manifestation, one who had, moreover,
himself witnessed the greater part of the occurrences con-
nected with it, and who was amongst the remnant who
escaped the sword at Sheykh Tabard, at the request of a
certain learned and eminent enquirer set down in writing
two thousand four hundred occurrences of a miraculouai
character which he had witnessed on the part of His
Holiness, and, during the siege of the Castle of Sheykh
Tabarsf, on the parth, of Je?u'tb-i-IC?tddU'S and his coiigipaiiioli,-~
and supporters. But when lie had completed this, lie
be-came aware that His Holiness in no wise regarded these
miracles, wonders, and -supernatural occurrences as a proof
of his mission, and did not desire them to be published;
wherefore he effaced what he had recorded in that precious
book, and refrained from publishing it. Somewhat of the
nobility of nature and eininence of this great man we shall
describe, if God so please, when we come to speak of the
learned doctors and emilient divines who entered into this
new dispensation.]
Let us return, however, to MullA Huseyn. of Busliraweyh
entitled J3dbu'1-B6b. In every part of the country which
lie visited lie made converts amongst inen of learning and
diaseeriiinent, until at length he reached KhurAsAn, where
also he guided many to the truth. The late HAjf Mfrzd.
JAnf writes ffin his bookJ as follows:_
" MullA Huseyn of Bushraweyh, who was entitled
Rdbu'I-Petib, set out from KhurAsAn [after lie had remained
there some while] with the intention of visiting His Holi-
ness the Supreme. So great was his devotion, and the
sense of unworthiness which possessed him, that he went
on foot to MAku' (where at that time His Holiness abode),
conducting himself everywhere on the way with caution
and prudence. After he had been honoured by admission
to the Blessed Presence, the BAb informed him of his
approaching martyrdom and the many cruel afflictions
which were impending, ordering him at the same time to

return to KhurAsAn, and adding, 'Go thither by way of
MAzandarin, for there the doctrine has not yet been rightly
preached.' So, agreeably to these instructions, he came to
Mizandar4n, and there joined Jentib_i-Kuddi~s. Such of
the faithful as were present at that meeting relate that on
the first day of his arrival Jen6b-i-Ba'bu'1-Bdb sat, as
befitted biA rank, in the place of honour, while Jenaib-i-
Kuddfis took a lower place; for Jena'b-i-Ba'bu'1-_B4b was
unrivalled in excellence and learning, while Jendb-i-Kuddgs
appeared to possess no special inerit or distinction, save
that he had accompanied His Holiness the Supreme on the
pilgrimage to Mecca. But on the following morning they
beheld Jena'b-i-KuddAs seated on the chief seat, and MOIA
Huseyn standing humbly and reverentially before him.
Until that time the virtues and extent of spiritual know-
ledge possessed by the former bad been suspected by none,
but during that night such evidences of hidden wisdom
and knowledge of divine mysteries had been witnessed in
him by Je?z(ib-i-.B6btt'l-hB(ib that on the morrow he was

fain to stand humbly before one who had neither studied
deeply, nor, to all outward appearance, attained any very
high degree of excellence. Be this as it may, they relate
that in a single night Jenaib-i-Kudd,~s wrote a sublime
commentary of some three thousand verses on the words
"God the Eternal'," and that in a brief space of time
nearly thirty thousand verses of learned discourses, homiliea,~,
and supplications proceeded from him 2. "
To return, however, to our narrative. After a while
Jeiia'b-i-B6bu'1-B('tb set out for KliurAsAn, and shortly after
this the faithful were lionoured with an Epistle from the
Fountain-head of the Faith, bidding them, in case it
should be possible, to proceed to KliurAsdn. In the letter
addressed to MÕrzà Ahinad of Azkaiid, one of the chief
disciples of the late Seyyid, the impending catastrophe of
MAzandarAn was made known. So Jena'b-i-Kuddfis, ac-
companied by several of the faithful, set out towards
KhurisAn, but after a while turned back into MAzandarAn.
On arriving there, he despatched a letter to Jenaib-i-Baibu-
'I-Ba'b announcing the news of his approaching [death,
along with seventy believers 1, as well as the circum-
stances of his own] martyrdom, and bidding him depart
out of KhurAsAn. Jenab-i-Bdbu'1-Ba'b, on receiving this
letter (which is known as " the Eternal Witness"), came
out from that holy sanctuary with a number of his com-
panions, and set out for MAzandarAn. On reaching Mi-
yAmf, these were further reinforced by a band of about
thirty believers. The leader of these was a devout and
saintly old man named MullA Zeyiiu'l-'Abidfn, a disciple of
I Kur'àn, exii, 2.
2 Concerning the writings of Jenib-i-Kudduls, seo Traveller's
vol. ii, p. 30, n. 1; and J. R. A. S. for 1892, p. 485 et
3 Cf. Traveller's hzVa2,2,ative, vol. ii, p. 308.
THE 1411fS IN MUANDAffikN. 45
the late Slieykh Alimad AhsA'f. So great was his devotion
and the ardour of his affection that he had said to his re-
cently-wedded son, a lad eighteen years of age, "Come with
me, 0 my ason, for this journey is to the Hereafter, and I
iniagine for thee a right goodly marriage." And every-
ivliere this white-bearded old manwent On foot.
Now when had reached the con-
fines of MAzandarAn, lie began to tarry on the way, and
even when he advanced it was but a parasang or half a
paraagang a day. His companioiias enquired of him whether
lie was expecting aught that he thus loitered and lingered,
to which lie replied that they would soon know the reason.
After some days the news of the decease of His Majesty
Muliammad ShAh arrived, whereupon Je2z6b-i-B6bW1-Bdb

recommenced his march, saying, "It was this news which I
w,as awaiting." They were at that time at Arfm, one of
the villages of Sawdd-Kfih, for which latter place they at
once set out, - and there performed the daily prayers in-
cumbent on them. Now it was the custom of Jen(&i-
_B(ibu'1-B6b to preach to the faithful twice a day, exhorting
them to remember God, to purify their.hearts, and to hold
themselves aloof ftom the world. So he ascended into the
pulpit, and, after delivering a homily containing many ex-
hortations, counsels, and disparagements of this transito
world, thus addressed them
" Vnn I
W, peop e, that, according to the dictates of
asound reason, it is impossible to conibine things essentially
opposed, and that therefore the pursuit of worldly pros-
perity is incompatible with the Perfecting of religious life, and
that the amassing of wealth is antagonistic to the working
out of faith. For, from the very creation of the world
until now, such as were guided by Divine Grace and fitted
by their natural dispositions for the search after true
wisdom and the attempt to perfect themselves in faith and

service, if they did not at the first step close their eyes to
wealth, wife and child, nay, life itself, could in no wise take
a second step in advance. Thus it is that, in every past
age down to the present time, until the prophets, the saints,
and the elect had themselves crossed over the Bridge' of
attachment to this Old Inn'; displayed, along with their
companions and followers, the utmost constancy and stead-
fastness in supporting all manner of sharp afflictions and
grievous trials ; and advanced with eager steps towards
martyrdom, they did not succeed in delivering their be-
nighted people froiihi the abyss of error and the snare of
unbelief, or in guiding them into the city of assurance and
the haven of faith. For this it was that the Chief of
Martyrs', together with his suppffters an(l adherents,
stood so firm in that plain of self-sacrifice', and bore active
witness to the truth, for the guidance of mankind and the
establishment of the faith; whereby, long years after the
consummation of their martyrdom, the Law of the Prophet
'Whether the report of Mulla' Huseyn's address to his
followers here given be literally correct or no, it at least shews
an evident reflex of his Master's doctrines and phraseology. The
BAb distinctly taught that Heaven, Hell, the Questioning of the
Tomb, Hades (Barzakh), and the Bridge here alluded to,
were not to be understood in a material sense, as by the Muham-
madans, but metaphorically. This doctrine is elaborated in
detail in the second Vdhid of the Persian Beyin, whereof the
twelfth chapter, treating of "the Bridge," begins thus:-"What
has at all times been intended by I the Bridge' is the manifesta-
tion of God and His religion. Whosoever is steadfast is on the
Bridge of God, else is he not on the Bridge. " Cf. J. R. A. S.
(new series), vol. xxi, p. 930.
2 ie. the world, often likened to a caravansaray or inn where
the traveller sojourns but a few days.
3 ie. Huseyn b. 'Ali b. Abi TAlib, the third ImAm.
4 ie. the plain of Kerbeli.
ivaa,3 matured, and the ordinances of his hol y religion
established. And now we likewise, for the awakening of
our fellow-men, be they rich in virtues or beset with faults,-
intelligent or heedless, wise or simple ; for the removal of
the doubts and objections of the obdurate ; and for the
admonition of the careless and indifferent, are constrained '
by the good pleasure of the Beloved to bear witness by our
deeds to the truth of this new revelation, to prove our
sincerity by disregarding all earthly considerations, to
undergo sufferings transcending human imagination and
endurance, and to lay down dear life itself for the es-

tablishment of this great truth and the perfecting of the
proof to our perverse and benighted opponents. Know,
then, for a agiirety, that oihice arrived in MAzandarAn all
paths of escape will be closed to us; that we shall without
doubt be slain with most grievous torments; and that the
land beyond BArfurfish shall be dyed with the blood of
these our comrades. Indeed our supreme-object in pressing
forward to the goal of this our journey of woe is naught
else than to bear witness to the truth and attain to the
lofty rank of martyrdom. Whosoever feelefh himaself able
to bear steadfastly, contentedly, nay, rapturously, this heavy
burden, let him remain; but if there be any who perceive
in themselves, be it even in the least deg ree, signas Of
weakness, they are enjoined to depart, for it is not meet
to lay on anyone more than lie can bear. Let these, then
(if such there be), bid a last farewell to their friends and
comrade,s, and turn back even from this place."
On hearing these words those faithful companions wept
much, and replied, " When we entered on this journey we
shut our eyeasa to all worldly considerations and earthly ties,
firinly resOlViDg not to shrink from laying down our lives."
And there were present in this assembly two hundred and
thirty persons, all distinguished for learning and virtue,

,nally of them being also 1110,11 of wealth and position. Of
these, two hundred unhesitatingly agreed to endure even
unto death. The other thirty, by reason of diverse im-
pediments, felt constrained to excuse themselves, and aa-,ked
permission to depart. And these turned back from that
JThe reviser of this history says:-"Several persons
worthy of credence affirm that it was oil this occasion that
Jen('1tb-i-Ba'bu,'1-Bdb informed his companions of the im-
pending death of Muhammad ShAh, who was at that time
still alive; even as he had previously, while in the Most
Holy Land', made the same aDnouncement, along -,,vith
others bearing reference to the calamities and afflictions
which God had decreed to take place ill the Most I-Ioly
Land, to a certain great and eminent man of KhurisAn
who is now present.1 2
After this, Jen'b-i-Baibi -B6b and his remaining com-
panions mounted and proceeded towards BATfurAsh. But
when news of their advent reached the 8a'i'du'1,'U1a?na',
he, because of a former difference which lie had had with
Jendb-i-Kudd'a's, whose devoted friend he knew Jena'b-i-
Ba'bit'l-Ba'b to be, issued orders that they should not be
Suffered to approach the city. Je a'b (11
n -i-B'bu'1-Ba'b, who,
With sonic of his companions, was a little in advance of the
others, said to those who would oppose, their advance,
"Because of the King's death and the disturbed state of
the roads and highways we come to you as gueata3 seeking
shelter. In accordance with the tradition, , Honour the
guest even though lie be an infidel,' suffer us to abide.
for a few days in your land of safety, and seek not to injure,
I ie. Almh-had, the place of Martyrdom and burial of the
IMAM Rizi.
2 This paragraph, -wbich occurs only in C., is evidently all
addition to the original text. (~f p. 45, supra.
us. For according to no creed is it lawful and right to
molest strangers, or to spurn such as come seeking protec-
tion." Yet, notwithstanding the arguments thus advanced,
and the efforts made to induce a kindlier feeling, these
pretended followers of the Prophet of God, instigated by
their clergy in general and the Sa'fdu'1-'U1ama' in par-
ticular, refused to be turned from their purpose;
rather in face of this gentleness and forbearance they waxed
yet more insolent, and grew bolder in their attempts on the
life and property of the strangers.
So Jena'b-i-Ba'bu'1-Ba'b, determined to complete the

proof, and, if possible, to avert strife, submitted and turned
back, while these devout and godly professors of the holy
religion of IsUm continued to follow them, till at length
one fellow, more insolent than the rest', discharged his
musket. Now A'kA Seyyid Ri;,A, a mail eminent for his
piety and virtue, was wont, by reason of the ardour of his
devotion, to walk -everywhere by the stirrup of Jendb-i%
Bdibu'l-Baib; and he, thus running by his leader's side,
received that fatal shot, and forthwith gave up the ghost.
And so, in like manner, were two others amongst the
faithful slain.
Then Jena'b-i-Ba'bu1-Bab turned himself about, saying,
"Now have they made it our duty to protect ourselves;"'
grasped the hilt -of his sword; and, acquiescing in that
which the providence of God had ordained, began to defend
himself. Notwithstanding his slender and fragile frame
and trembling hand, such was his valour and prowess on
that day that whosoever had eyes to discern the truth
could clearly see that such strength and courage could only
be from God, being beyond human capacity,
I L. reads 8hakhsi khabbdzi, Cc a certain fellow who was a
baker," instead of shakhsijabbdri which is C.'s reading.
N. H.

bfs, obediently to their leader's command,
So the BA
began to defend themselves and to wage battle until they
came to the city. One of their opponents fired a shot
which did not take effect, and Jem'tb-i-B6bu'1-Brtb made
as though he would punish the attempt, but iievertbelesas
spared the offender because of his entreaties. The action
was, however, again repeated; the foolish wretch fired a
charge of shot full at Jma'b-i-Bdbu'1-B6b's face, and
inflicted on him a serioglis injury. At this the latter was
filled with wrath, and rushed upon his antagonist, who
took shelter behind a tree, striving to guard himself with
the barrel of his musket. So JeW'tb-i-Bdbu'1-Brtb, perceiv-
ing that with the right hand he could not reach him,- smote
Iiinhi with his sword a left-handed blow beneath the arm-pit
and clave him in twain. After this he pushed on to the
door of the 8d'i'dit'l-'Uhun(c's house; but, though he could
easily have entered it (for most of the combatants, on
beholding the last blow- dealt by him, had taken to flight
or hidden themselves, while such as remained kept crying
out afar off in terror for their lives), lie refrained for several
reasons from doing so, in order that this inan and his deeds
illight remain oil the page of time as a warning to such as
are endowed with discernment. So lie spoke him fair, and
turned back thence to the Herb Market, iii which is a
caravansaray wherein they took up their quarters. Again
tile townspeople attacked them, surrounding the caravan-
saray and striving to set fire to it, until at length some of
the faithful sallied forth and put them to flight.
Now when these were come back, Je2i4b-i-B6bu'1-Bdb
said, "Let one aniong you (To up and sound the call to
prayer." So one went up, but ere lie had uttered more
than a few words lie was stricken down by a bullet. Then
Jeiia'b-i-B4bu'1-Brtb said, "The call to prayer must be
completed." Another went up, but, before he had finished,
lie too was shot. Forthwith a third went up, and completed
the remainder of the call, but, even as he did so, he also fell
a martyr, and was united to his comrades who had preceded
him. The object of Jena'b-i-Bdbu'1-Baib in thus insisting
on the completion of the call was, as it would appear, to
make apparent to those benighted people the steadfastness
,and self-devotion of himself and his companions in pro-
claiming the word of God, and to demonstrate conclusively
to all mankind the absence of all piety, mercy, and true
religion in those pretended Muslims.
Although in this age there are but few who are im-
partial or disposed to believe, those of the time to come will
meditate on these events diligently and without prejudice,
and these will distinguish the oppressed from the oppressor,
the wise from the foolish, and the true from the false. It

is related that [four hundred, or, according to another
tradition] seventy doctors and divines of repute signed the
warrant authorizing the murder of the- Chief of Martyrs'
and declaring him a heretic. But now, after the lapse of a
thousand years, they admit their wrong-doing, and vainly
beat their breasts and heads in mourning for that broken
troth and the desertion of that holy one whom they left
alone in the plain of KerbelA, crying goiit continually, " 0
would that we had been with you! " Yet withal, because
of their heedlessness and blind prejudice, they continue
to act towards the saints of this dispensation, and even
towards the Proof foretold to this ignorantly-expectant
people, in such wise as hath happened in no former age,
and with a cruelty and injustice never heretofore witnessed.
And, on the other hand, there hath never been any people
so patient under the most cruel wrongs, or of like forti-
tude under afflictions so grievohlis. Every sound under-
standing must admit that men so reasonable and so learned
Huseyn b. 'Ali b. Abf Tailib, the third InAm.

would not thus cast the coin of life into the crucible of
tribulation, or plunge their wives and children into the
abyss of woe, unless they had first seen visibly before them
that which they sought, and experienced within themselves
a peace and power from God.
"When saints behold the Hour of Union nigh
Then seemeth it to them most sweet to die;
Ken those magicians, stirred with gratitude
To Moses, passed with rapture to the rood'."
To return, however, to our narrative. The Sa'idu'l-
'Ulama' gathered together from all quarters a great multi-
tude, who laid siege to the caravansaray, so that for the
space of five or six days there was strife and battle. At
the end of this time 'Abbds-Kulf KhAn of LAr1jdn entered
BArfurftsh, and, having heard what had taken place on
either side, sent his son-in-law to wait upon Jena&i-
'I a
Ba'bu -B'b with a message to this effect:-" Although the
people of this place have acted wrongly and foolishly in not
observing the respect due to you, who came unto them as
1 See Kur'a'n, sAra vii (pp. 115-117 in Sale's translation).
According to the Muhammadan account, the magicians sum-
moned by Pharaoh to oppose Moses were so overcome by
witnessing the true miracles wrought by him that they fell on
their faces crying, " We believe in the Lord of all creatures, the
Lord of Moses and Aaron." Thereat was Pharaoh very wroth,
and said, " Have ye believed on Him ere I have given you
permission so to do 7 Verily this is a plot which ye have
contrived in the city, that ye may drive out thence the inha-
bitants thereof. But ye shall know for a surety  I will cause your hands and your feet to be
cut off on opposite sides, then will I cause you all to be crucified."
They answered, " We shall assuredly return unto our Lord; for
thou takest vengeance on us only because we have believed in
the signs of our Lord when they came unto us. 0 Lord, pour
on us patience, and cause us to die Muslims.'
a,trangers seeking lioa,3pitality, and in further seeking to do
you injury, yet since, owing to the death of His Majesty
the late King, the public order is disturbed, it is desirable,
especially having regard to the fact that blood has been
shed between you, that you should depart out of this city."
To this message Jenirtb-i-Baibtel-Baib thus replied:~
"On condition that they suffer us to depart without harm,
we have no objection to go. If you will promise that no
fresh attempt shall be made to cause bloodshed and provoke
strife, we will not refuse to withdraw." To this the chief

pledged himself, and sent his son-in-law' Sa'idat-Kulf Beg
to bear them company till they should reach a place of
safety. Their antagonists, however, conspired with a cer-
tain Khusraw of KAdd-kalA, a matchless and notorious
scoundrel, to follow and treacherously rob and murder
them in a certain part of the forest. So Khusraw of Kddd-
kali, taking with him a hundred horsemen, rode off with
~the SardAr's son-in-lawl Sa'Adat-Kulf Beg. When they
had proceeded a short distance *~'AbbAs-Kulf KhAn's son-
in-lawJ* took leave of them and turned back, while
Kbusraw continued to accompany thein till he came near
to bis owif home, to a place hard by the Tomb of Sheykh
Tabarsf'. When they were come there, some of the faithful
* [Sa'Adat-Kulf Beg] %
L. adds "and," thus making Sa'idat-Kulf Beg a different
person from the chief's son-in-law. According to Subh-i-Ezel,
Salidat-Kulf Beg was himself a B6bf. He had a young daughter
whom he used occasionally to dress in boy's clothes.
2 The Tomb of Sheykh Tabarsf lies to the south of the road
leading from Birfurilsh to Sirf, some twelve or fifteen miles S.E.
of the former town. I visited it on September 26th, 1888, in the
company of a very intelligent tradesman of BArfuHish. Yet,
though he was intimately acquainted with the country, so intri-
cate are the paths leading to it, and so uncertain the state of the

observed to Jena'b-i-Ba'bu'1-B(ib that it was the time for
[the noon-tidel prayer, whereupon lie alighted to pray.
Khusraw, seeing his opportunity, approached Iiiligi, saying,
'.'We wish to turn back; give us a present." So, in-ac-
cordance, with the instructions of Jenab-i-Ba&t'1-Ba'b, they
gave him a sum of one hundred tu'viains in money, besides
other articles. He then demanded Jen6b-i-Ba'bu'1-Ba'b's
horse and sword, but the latter replied, "Make not thia%
request, for these were given to me by a certain holy maD,
and I cannot part with them to anyone." "If you will not
give them up," returned Kliusraw, " I am authorized [b3,
the clergy] to kill you; your [lives and] possessions are
lawful to us." As he continued to speak after this un-
seemly fashion, MÕrzà Muhammad Takf [of Juveyn] caught
hold of his hand and drew him back a few paces, gently
remonstrating with him, and even offering to add to the
sum of money which lie had already received if lie would
but refrain from molesting Jendb-i-.Ba'bu'1-B(,ib. Remon-
strances and offers, however, proved equally unavailing ;
and MirzA Muliammad Takf, having completed the proof,
and being reduced to despair, with a blow of his dagger
freed mankind from Kliiisraw'as malice. On secing their
leader fall, the others took to flight, but, their village being
near at hand, soon returned with a great multitude, over-
took the BAbis in a narrow path, and prepared to attack
and plunder them. So Je?za'b-i-Ba'bu'1-Ba'b, seeing that in
that forest-path there was neither room to pass nor to fight,
commanded his companions to abandon their baggage and
retreat. In obedience to his command, therefore, they
quagmires and marshes which must be traversed to reach the
forest on the edge of which it lies, that we were continually
obliged to ask the road and to change our course wherever the
swampy rice-fields proved impassable. Altogether, a worse ride
of three hours I never saw.
retired into the tomb of Sheykh Tabarsf. When, they
reached it, he said to them, "Here shall we attain our
object, and here also will the purpose of the froward and
unrighteous be fulfilled." And in passing this spot on his
way to BArfurfish he had similarly said, "In this place will
the blood of God's soldiers and saints be slied, and many
a pure spirit shall be quenched in dust and gore." And
most of his congipanions knew what lie intended to signify. - -
After this several mounted men were sent to collect the
baggage, and they gathered it together and brought it in.

Then Je2za'b-i-Ba'bu'1-B(tb said, "If ye be united in spirit,
it is contrary to the dictates of self-devotion and single-
heartedness to make any distinction in these perishable
possessions during the few brief days for which a respite
may be granted to you. Forsake, then, all such distinc-
tions, and, for this short while, share what ye have in
common." So they appointed a steward and a cook; and
at breakfast and supper they sat round like brethren, one
plate containing a uniform portion being placed before
every two of them. Thus did they live happily together
in content and gladness, free from all grief and care, as
though resignation and contentment formed a part of their
very nature.
For about twenty days and nights did they thus tran-
quilly await the fulfilinent of divine destiny, but during all
this time the continuous rain suffered none to leave his
house. When the weather cleared, the comrades of Khusraw
of Kld&kall, banding themselves together, surrounded the
Castle with a great host of horsemen and footmen, deter-
mined to slied the blood of its inmates. When news of
this was brought to Je?za'b-i-Ba'bu'1-Bdb most of his fol-
lowers were without the fortress. But he said, "Let none
of those who are without the castle stir from their places,
and let those who are within go forth and sit down out-

side boldly and unflinchiDgly." And all obeyed his com-
What ensued is thus related by one worthy of credence
who was of the remnant spared by the sword in -the
" We, as we had been commanded, were sitting round
about outside the Castle, while our foes came so near us
that their bullets and shots passed by our cheeks and
whistled round about and beside us. Inwardly we were
somewhat disquieted, but Jeiia'b-i-B4bu'1-B6b came up to
us and said, 'Fear not; but if ye be indeed fightiDg for
God, if ye be content with His good pleasure, ready to
endure affliction and martyrdom, and freed from all worldly
ties, then stand firm even where you are, and bow your
heads in submission. If so be that God's will requireth
your martyrdom, then great is your honour and happiness!
But if God purposeth not that you should be slain, then
none of these successive shots will effect your death ; and
this will be but one amongst the countless manifestations
of His Power and Grace. If, therefore, anyone, in whatever
position he may be, should so much as move his head to
avoid a passing bullet, or should inwardly desire that the
bullet should pass by him, he hath failed to attain to a
state of true spiritual peace and contentment, is an un-
faithful and wavering servant, and advanceth a vain boast.'
"Such was the effect of these words that our hearts
became filled with strength, and so ready were we to lay
down our lives that without flinching we joyfully exposed
our breasts to the fire of the malignants. The enemy's
horsemen galloped round about us in great numbers, but,
though they fired many shots at close quarters, uone of us
suffered any injury, and it almost seemed as though their
erring bullets were testifying to the error of their ways.
"After a little while Jen6b-i-Ba'ba'1-Ba'b came forth


from the Castle, picked up several small pebbles, and- cast,
them towards the enemy, saying, 'This is what David.', did:
to the troops of Goliath 21 ; whereupon, in 'the course.of a
few minutes, all were dispersed and incontinently fled.'? g : ~
To proceed. Soon after this occurrence Jenaib-i-,Kudd6s
arrived at the Castle with a number of his,companions.g
[The writer of these pages, being actuated by no wish
to produce an elegant literary work, but only desiring to
set down a true, faithful, and correct account of, these
matters, has become assured, after the most careful investi-
gation, that what the late HAjf MÕrzà JAW has ~written
concerning the events of this Manifestation is in accord-
ance with truth and actual fact, and is the outcome 1. of
careful and discriminating enquiry. He has, therefore, for
the better informing of his readers and their fuller assur-
ance, succeeded, with the assistance of a distinguished and
noble Seyyid, who is also eminent in literary attainments,-
in obtaining a copy of this work.] Of-the detailed7 account
of these transactions *[there given]* the following is - -an
epitome of what is most material. ~ When Jendb-i-Kuddfits
had arrived at the Castle of SheykhTabarsi and interviewed
those wh6 already occupied it, he proceeded to determine
the extent and limits of the fortress, and ordered a wall to
be built about it. He likewise commanded all such as were
1written by the late HAjf MÕrzà Anf I*
C. reads Jdnftb and L. Jalfit (Goliath). The first is a mere
copyist?s error, and the second an evident mistake. I have sub-'
stituted Dd'ftd (David), which the sense of the passage obviously
requires. Allusion is made to the transaction here referred to in
Kur'àn ii, 252. A full account of it, according to the Muham-
madan tradition, is given in Book i
other Muhammadan histories.
of the Rawzatu's-&fd and in
2 C. and L. both read Talfit (Saul) instead of Jdlfzt (Goliath),
an error which I have not hesitated to correct.

skilled in any craft to exercise that craft for God's glory in
Muhammad Beg, the captain, with 300 marksmen, set out
as perfect a manner as was possible, to the end that their
in haste to subdue and destroy the Castle, and, on their
brethren might be profited thereby. So the mason busied
arrival there, began to throw up earthworks and to dig a
himself with building, the tailor with tailoring, and the trench.]* But on the other side, as a measure of defence,
sword-maker with the manufacture of swords. The number
a body of men marched out, attacked the entrenchment,
of those amongst them who were craftsmen and artisans routed the enemy, and, without losing even one of their
was but small; but what was intended by this command
own men, slew a hundred and thirty of their antagonists.
was that all should profit by the results of one anotlier'sg
And Jena'b-i-Kudd4s had announced that in this fight none
gifts and talents. Wherefore in like manner such as were of them were fated to fall.
divines and men of learning busied themselves in searching
When this news reached Teherin) Prince Mahdi-Kulf
out divine mysteries and expounding philosophic truths, MirzA was appointed to the government of MAzaildardn *with
whereby those who lacked learning and scholarship were
commands to put down the BàbÕs, and 'AbbAs-Kulf KhAn
enabled to partake in the advantages which these confer,
of LArfjAn received instructions to hel and s  rt the
and to advance towards perfectiolgi, learning to base their p uppo
Prince. So the latter, with two or three thousand soldiers,
faith on grounds of reason, and not on inere imitation or advanced to within two parasangs of the Castle of Sheykh
blind devotion. Tabarsf, and halted at Dih-i-BAz-h to await the arrival of
The news of the construction of the fortress was soon the remainder of the royal troops with 'AbbAs-Kulf KhAn.
spread abroad in every direction. It was at this time the During tliia-, period of inactivity the Prince *-addressed a
beginning of the reign of His Imperial Majesty NAsiru'd- letter to Jen6b-i-A'udd6s, demanding what his real aim
Din ShAh KAJAr (may God perpetuate his rule)', and to his
might be, and whether lie was fighting for religious or
court did the Sa'idu'l-'Ulamd forward a petition, in re- political objects, and calling upon Iiiilgi in any case to
sponse to the demands and lying assertions of which orders
for the annihilation of the BàbÕs were issued to the chief abaudon'liis present attitude.
In reply to this letter, Jen ib-i-KudAs wrote nearly as
local authorities. *[A~A 'Abdu'llAh, the brother of HAJf follows:-"We are exceedingly adverse to enmity and
Mu*tafA KhAii, with a body of skilled marksmen and ex- If discord, much more to actual strife and warfare, especially
with His Majesty the King. Only those who dream of
perienced soldiers; MÕrzà AkA, the secretary, with a host
of Kurdish, Turkish, and Afghan horsemen from SAri; and lordship and dominion deliberately seek war with established
authority, not such as these, who, foredoomed to destrue-
TSo there came to war with them a great host, who tion in this narrow eDCIOSUre, have nobly and devotedly
entrenched themselves in a village hard by the Castle of cast from them such power, authority, and lordship as they
Sheykh Tabarsf and made preparations for battle.J* formerly possessed, abandoning worldly success and su-
L. inserts " corresponding to the year ", the date being premacy to such as seek after these things. For we, agree-
left blaigik. The coronation of NAsiru'd-gDfn SbAh took place on ably to the duty incumbent on the doctors of 1slAm, who
Zfl-Ka'da 22nd, A.H. 1264 (Oct. 20th, A.D. 1848). pretend tohavebeen expecting the Master's coming for

twelve hundred and sixty years, and who continually pray
'May God hasten his glad advent,' have announced the
appearance of that promised Proof and declared his signs ;
and we maintain that you should not, like most of the
doctors of former ages (who, through their blind adhesion
to vain superstitions, remained shut off from the blessing
of recognizing the Prophet of their time, whereby the com-
mon people also were held back, doubting and expecting,
in the desert of error), continue to await in darkness the
accomplished Manifestation, as do the diverse sects of Hin-
doos, Zoroastrians, Jews and Christians. Of these, some
were indifferent, some mocked, some fell to chiding or
cursing, while others again set themselves to fight and
oppose the new truth, and, without investigation or en-
quiry, denounced as infidels and doomed to death the
innocent objects of their cruel hatred. And now, by their
misrepresentations, they have induced His Majesty the
King to send forth his hosts to battle, thus bringing eternal
disgrace on this Royal house. Had they been indeed
seekers after God and desirous of distinguishing truth from
falsehood, they should at least, when this matter first be-
came apparent, have made it their business to enquire into
it, and ought not to have rested for a moment until they
had seen and questioned the Master, and verified or dis-
proved his claim, so -that they might be in a position to
direct the rest of mankind without war and bloodshed.
But now the government, refusing to give the matter due
consideration, has imprisoned that Day-spring of Divinity
in the remotest borders of its territory, and has carried
war and slaughter against a mere handful of its subjects
who have renounced the world and all that therein is.
Hereby it has exposed itself to the reprobation of all
nations and eo les who will say, 'Bigotry and injustice
have come to such a pass that guns and muskets have
.F r )
become the arbitrators between truth and falsehood.' : Can
gunners and soldiers distinguish right and wrong?.' This
is the work of learned. divines, on whom devolves the duty
of enquiring into the matter. If differences can be re-
moved by reasonable discussion and argument, well and
good. If not, then let us invoke God's curse on whomso--
ever is in error, leaving to Him the decision. Or, if this
content thein not, let us kindle a fire' and enter in to the
midst thereof, that the truth or falsehood of either side
may be made apparent without the shedding of blood or
the slaughter of God's servants. And should they agree
to none of these alternatives, we for our part have no
quarrel with any one, being strangers, who have suffered

much in this wilderness, and are the objects of causeless
persecution. Suffer us then to depart, that we may with
all speed quit this land and pass to the holy shrines of
Kerbel& and Nejef. But if you encompass us on all sides
and suffer us not to depart, and if ye be indeed bent on
the slaughter of innocent folk, then have we no choice but
to defend ourselves and to prove the sincerity of our belief
by laying down our lives as martyrs to our cause.. But do
not thou, '0 noble Prince, take part in bringing about this
bloodshed. Misrepresentations have made His Majesty
the King hostile to us without cause, else by counsel and
fair dealing could our differences be removed without the
unsheathing of a single sword or the utterance of a single
unkind word. Even Pharaoh, notwithstanding his claim to
divinity, his exceeding greatness and power, and his con-
viction that Moses was but what he seemed-the son of
one of his own slaves, and a self-confessed murderer fleeing
from justice-still ostensibly acted towards him with justice
1 The ordeal by fire would seem to have been long known to
the Persians, for we find an account of it in the Episode of
SiyAvush iii the SAdlindvid (ed. VUllers, vol. ii, pp. 550-3).

and fairness. For he summoned Moses before him, spoke
with him at length, heard what he had to say, and de-
manded a sign. Moses answered, 'The rod and the white
hand are my signs.' 'These,' said Pharaoh, 'are but a
juggle'; but he was met with the answer, 'Produce the
like thereof if ye speak truly'.' To this, notwithstanding
all his power and despotic authority, Pharaoh raised no
objection, but, at great expense, asseiigibled about a thou-
sand magicians from all parts of the country in order that
a like sign might by wrought by them. So in like manner
did HAru'nu'r-Rash1d, whom our divines regard as accursed
and an unbeliever, assemble nearly four hundred learned
doctors to answer Hasaniyya the handmaiden' and to test
the truth of her assertions. How different is the case now,
when, though more than three hundred eminent and gifted
divines confidently assert the truth of this new doctrine,
these people, who profess to have been expecting this Mani-
festation for twelve hundred and sixty years, are at no
pains to enquire into this matter with a view to arriving at
the truth, and so preventing a powerful governnient from
being led by the wilful misrepresentations of prejudiced
persons from carrying battle and slaughter against a mere
handful of its subjects. According to the Law they regard
the testimony of two just witnesses as sufficient, even where
life is involved : wherefore, then, do they refuse to accept
the testimony of three hundred men who are not only just,
but, for the most part, learned, discreet, self-devoted, and
ready to lay down their lives at God's bidding? If they
declare these to be in error and delusion, we reply that
it is most improbable that three hundred learned men
possessed of such means for forming a correct judgment
should fall into such an error, seeing that each one of
I Cf. Kur'in, ii, 21 ; x, 39; xi, 16; Iii, 34.
2 See note I at the foot of p. 38, supra.
them attained the goal in view with intinite pains and after-
enduring countless privations and hardships. Only when
a thousand difficulties, whereof the solution was a thousand
times harder than the Cleaving of the Moon', had been
resolved, did they suffer their doubts, which formed a
rampart more stubborn than the Wall of Alexander, to be
surmounted; neither did their pride of learning and priestly
arrogance permit them to bow their heads in humble sub-
mission until they had been convinced by irrefragable
proofs of the plenary authority bestowed from on high on
that Well-spring of divine wisdom. Yet do men foolishly
imagine that they lightly and easily relinquished their
supremacy, and chose without reason such utter self-aban-
donment, . little thinking what hesitation, diffidence, fear,

and anxiety each of them experienced ere he became fully
assured of the truth  Again, if it be asserted that
they embraced this doctrine in the hope of securing to
themselves authority and lordship, this is an evident
calumny, credible only to such -as regard learning merely
as a means for the acquisition of the perishable wealth and
worthless consideration of the world. These things which
they already enjoyed, yea, the very hope of life, they freely
forsook for the good pleasure of the Beloved and the
awakening of benighted souls. Their very deeds bear
witness to the purity of their motives, for, in so dire a pass,
even the most faithful are in grievous peril, and the elect
quake and tremble in fear of stumbling.
Cast away thy sword and buckler, make thy life thy shield
Only he can head the van who feareth not to lose his head.']"
Now when the Prince had perused this letter, guile
entered into his heart, and he wrote in reply as follows:-
What you have written accords with truth and sound
I One of the miracles ascribed to Muhammad. g

reason. 1 will convene the clergy for the consideration of
the claims advanced on either side, and will endeavour to
arrive at a true decision in this matter." His real object,
however, was only to gain time till his reinforcements
should arrive and he should be in a position to make a
night attack upon the fortress; and meanwhile he, arrested
all such as he knew to be well disposed towards the Bib or
believers in the BeyAn, displaying in his treatment of them
no lack of cruelty and harslineass. Amongst these was
MullA Yiisuf of Ardabfl, who, in company with another,
was proceeding to the Castle. These they arrested and
imprisoned in the camp, About the same time that this
misfortune occurred, the late HiJf Mfrz.4 JAW, the chro-
nicler of these events, together with Muhammad Taki
KhAn of Nldr and several others, arrived in the neighbour-
hood in company with His Holiness BehA' (the lives of all
beside him be his sacrifice), the mystery of whose real
nature was still hidden within the veils of the divine Wis-
dom, and desired to proceed to the Castle of - Sheykh
Tabarsf. The late HAjf MÕrzà JAnf writes, " We repeat-
edly urged him' to proceed, and to let us bear him com-
pany, but he replied, 'If we go, they will not suffer us to
reach the Castle ; for this is unattainable, and the matter
is otherwise predestined."' At length, however, he yielded
I This passage is very important, as it shews not only that
the author of this history wrote after MÕrzà Huseyn 'Alf
Belid'016A had advanced his claim to supremacy, but also
that he recognized the validity of this claim. That he dreiv
his inspiration from BehA'f sources is also shewn by the fact
that he makes but one doubtful reference to Mfrz6 Yahvi Subh-
i-Eizel, who, whatever view be taken of his position, certainly
played a part in BàbÕ history too important to be ignored by
any disinterested historian.
2 i.e. Behi'u'IlAh.
N. H.
to the entreaties of his devoted companions. Of the
sums of money which others have mentioned, they had
with them in all not less than four thousand tuma'ns
in cash, besides other goods and chattels. When they had
come within two parasaDgs of Sheykh Tabarsf, they were
observed and seized by the royalist troops, who stripped
them and bore them to the camp, intending to put them
to death. As, however, Behi. belonged to a distinguished
family of Mdzandardn, certain of the royalist officers ac-
corded him their protection and sent him to Bdrfurfish,
where he suffered such afflictions as the pen is ashamed to
pourtray. As to HAjf Mfrzd J.Anf, two merchants of KAshin,
who had a claim on certain of the officers, received him as
the equivalent of four hundred tfimains which were owing

to them, and set him at liberty. [When he was setting out
from Teherdn, some of his friends had strongly dissuaded
him from going, but he replied in answer to their remon-
strances, " I shall suffer martyrdom in Teherdn, and though
on this journey I shall be taken captive, I shall be released.
Yet that I may have no cause for shame in not going, and
that I may to the full accomplish my endeavour, I will go.
Better he who boldly fronts the desert is than he in languid
ease who lies;
I at least am free to make the effort, even though I fail to
win the prize."']
Now inasmuch as Jendb-i-Kuddiis had, in the address
known as the " Eternal Witness , made known the circum.
stances of his own and his companions' martyrdom in the
plainest manner, and knowledge of this had reached most of
the brethren whether far or near, who were firmly persuaded
of the truth of his foreshadowings, these no sooner learned
how he and his followers were hemmed in by so great a belea-
guering force in the Castle of Sheykh Tabarsf than they knew
I See p. 44 supra.

for a surety that in a little while that devoted band would them) they rejoiced, thinking that it was'Abb&s-Kulf KhAn
to a man fall before the guns of the foe, and stain the earth arriving with re-inforcements. But when they came to the
with their life-blood. In spite of this knowledge, however, i magazine they set fire to it, and then surrounded the
they eagerly set out from the most distant provinces to Prince's quarters. Then cries and shouts arose from the
share the martyrdom of those already assembled in that soldiers on all sides, and the fire of battle blazed high.
fatal spot. I know not what these people had seen or The royalist troops, unable to withstand the attack, were
apprehended that they thus readily cast aside all that men utterly routed and took to flight, while the followers of
do most prize, and thus eagerly hastened to imperil their a its
Jen -b-i-Kitdd' continued to fight with the utmost courage,
lives. Surel their conduct was such as to leave no roorn and succeeded in releasing such of their companions as were
for doubt of their sincerity and devotion in any unprejwli- confined in the camp, besides setting fire to the Prince's
diced mind; and in truth what they did and suffered was qhliarters. Prince Sult6n Huseyn Mfrz&, a son of the late
little short of miraculous, being beyond mere human king Fath-'Alf ShAh, Prince DVid MÕrzà, son of gthe late
capacity. In thein was exemplified the blessed verse, Zillu's-sultAn, and MÕrzà 'Abdu'l-Bdkf, not being quick
'Desire death then if ye be sincere',' while through their enough to effect their escape, were burned to death in the
steadfastness the words, 'Those who strive in the way of fierce conflagration; but Prince Mahdf-Kulf Mirzd, being
God with their possessions and persons, these are highest swift and cunning in flight, boldly leaped from the high
in rank before God, and these are they who shall be happy2,1 roof and hid himself in the forest.
gained a new lustre  The BàbÕs of MAzandardn, about ahundred and twenty,-
So Jeita'b-z*-Kitddgit,~, being well aware of the Prince's in number, Nvboase leader was Aki Rasfill, together with
real intentions, and perceiving that his design was nothing some others, began to spoil and plunder. Thereupon Jenaib-
else than to gain time till his re-inforcements should arrive i-Kuddits called out to them, " 0 brethren, do not disgrace
and he should be able to make a niaht attack, repeated the
ZD your cause'by associating it with rapine!" But the weak
blessed verse, 'They devised stratagems, and God devised brethren of MAzandardn, seeing a clear field and abundant
stratagems, and God is the best deviser of stratagems',' spoil, paid no heed to the commands of their leader, and
and issued orders that three hundred men should that night continued plundering till dawn began to brighten the sky.
bold themselves in readiness for battle. And when these Now some tllouasand of the royalist soldiers had hidden
were ready, Jenaib-i-K4tdd1'ts mounted his horse, and Jenaib-i-
themselves in the defile of a mountain hard by, and when
Beibit'I-Beib rode forth by his side, and all set out towarda-, these perceived that tghe BAbis were but few in number, and
the camp. that, In addition to this, many of them were scattered
Now when those who were in the royalist camp saw abroad or laden with booty, they took courage, surrounded-
' Kur'àn, ii, 88; 1xii, 66. them, and opened fire. Je2za'b-i-B6bu'1-Ba'b attacked them
2 kur'An, ix, 20. The x,crse is not, however, quoted quite
accurately. I C. adds LS.~p - The title is hardly legible in L., but seems
3 Kur'AD, iii, 47. to read

with drawn sword, and was pressing thein hard, when sud-
denly a bullet was fired which struck J_Mdb-i-Kt1ddU'$ in
the mouth, knocking out several of his teeth, and shattering
one side of his face. When Je?i4.b-i-Bdbu7-Bab witnessed
this catastrophe, he began to fight even as Huseyn fought at
KerbelA, and to mete out to the enemy the recompense of
what they had done. The late 116ji MÕrzà JAW writes that
in that onslaught he dismissed nearly three hundred from
their evil courses to the place whereunto they belonged'.
The rest, unable to witbstand him, fled and bid themselves,
while Jenrtb-i~B6bu'1-B4b halted till all his comrades were
collected together, and then set out on his return to the
Now in spite of the success achieved by the 136bfs, two
misfortunes had befallen them. Firstly, three of the be-
lievers had been slain; of which the reason was that Tewltb-
i-Kudd~ks had given permission to three hundred only to
take part in the enterprise, and these three, had gone in
excess of the number so ordained. Secondly, some of the
weaker brethren had engaged in plundering and straggled
from the main body, thus delaying the return ; and their
transgression had been visited on Jena&i-Kuddiis, for
" the kindred bear the blood-wit." Jena'b-i-Ba'bu'1-BU'b
was deeply distressed at this sad misfortune, and seemed
overcome with shame in the presence of his chief ; for
.fena'b-i-ICuddits was unable to eat solid food, and for three
months tasted nothing, except now and then a little tea or
broth. And this was a most marvellous thing, yea, almost
a miracle ; for during these three months he neither lost
colour nor wasted away, nor was any impairment of bodily
strength perceptible in him, nor any sign of pain or un-
i.e. Hell.
When news of the Prince's defeat reached the Sartip
'AbbAs-Kulf KhAii, he assembled his troops and joined him
in BArfurdsh, whence they set out together with a large force
for the Castle of Sheykh Tabarsf. On their arrival they
began to entrench themselves, and sometimes at night they
would make a sudden attack on the Castle. But Jendb-i-
Kuddi~s used to warn the garrison in advance, saying,
1: To-nigbt these pretended watchers for the advent of the
ImAm Mahdf intend to attack us, therefore let nineteen
men be ready to repel them." The royalists, imagining that
their antagonists had no knowledge of their plans, sought
by all manner of devices to capture the fortress ; but on
each occasion they were routed at the outskirts of the
Castle and driven back in shame and confusion by these
nineteen men.
After the war had continued for some time, Jenaib-i-
B6bu'1-Ba'b said to Jenrtb-i-Kuddfis, " I can no longer

bear to look upon the wound which mars your glorious
visage. Suffer me, I pray you, to lay down my life this
night, that I may be delivered alike from my shame and
my anxiety." So Jenaib-i-Kuddits asuffered him to go, and
bade the faithful bear him company.
Now it was the custom of Je?za'b-i-Ba'bu'1-Ba'b to go
forth to fight in this wise : he himself, followed by several
other mounted men, would ride in advance, while-the rest
of his companions followed on foot. If it was at night-
time, they would put on felt caps, gird their swords to their
belts, and, with bare feet and arms uncovered to the elbow,
rush upon the very centre of the hostile army with cries of
Yd 86hibit 'z-zama'n'V' Then, with swords worth not
more tiian five krans, which they had wrought for them-
selves within their castle, they would cut down men whos . e
gear had cost a thousand tftmdns.
I it 0 Lord of the age ! "

So Je?za'b-i-B6bu'1-B6b and his companions advanced
calngily upon the enemy in tliias fashion, and quitted them-
selves that night like gnieii of valour. Though their
opponents were more than seven thousand strong, within
one hour they captured seven of their entrenchments.
When 'Abbis-Kulf KhAn saw this, he disguised himself
in change of raiment, quitted the camp with two of his
retainers, and concealed himself in the shelter of a hillock,
or, according to another account, in a hollow tree. Now
since the night was very dark, and rain was falling heavily,
the Bdbfs, fearing to injure one another, had set fire to the
wood which had been a,3tackod in the camp (or, as others
relate, to the bundles of reeds which were there), that they
inight have light enough to distinguish friends from foeas.
They had also hung white shawls across their shoulders as
a token to serve for mutual recognition, and this rendered
them coiispiciiouas to 'Abbis-Kulf Khdn, who presently
caught signs of Jena'b-i-Bdbu'1-B('1b, and discharged_ a
bullet at him which struck him in the breast. He followed
up this shot with another, which also took effect.
Now Je?z6b-i-Ba'bie1-B6.b, knowing for a surety that he
would iihieet his death that night, had, in the very midst of
the conRict, said to one who was beside him, "Mount
behind me on my horse, and when I say, 'Bear me to the
Castle' turn back with all speed." So now, overcome with
faintness, he said, " Bear me to the Castle." Thereupon
his companion turned the liorse'a-, head and brought Iiingi
back to the entrance of the Castle; and there lie straight-
way yielded up his spirit to the Lord and Giver oflife. *
So they brought in his body and laid it before fendb-i-
Kudd,~s, who neither wept, nor lihiove(I from his place, nor
by any change of countenance betrayed his emotiou, but
only pointed to it with his staff, saying, " Leave it here,
and go dig a grave in such-and-such a spot." What
followed is thus related by him who made ready the
grave:,-"Wllen the grave was completed, I advanced
to the curtain -,
to request permission to enter, and to announce that the
grave was ready. As I did so, the low murmur of conver-
sation reached my ears. I softly raised a corner of the
curtain, and beheld Jendb-i-Kuddgs seated beside Jena'b-i-
Ba'bu'1-Bdb, from whose face the covering had been re-
moved, engaged in conversation with him. When I saw
this, fear overcame me, and I quaked with terror. Sud-
denly Jendb-i-Kitddiis said to me, 'Is the grave ready?'
I replied in the affirmative. 'Enter, then,' said he, 'and
take away the body.' So I entered the chamber, bore

away the body of Jen6b-i-B' 'tbu1-BU'b from before him,
and buried it with the raiment in which it was clad."
The royal troops had that night suffered a disgraceful
defeat, and were scattered in flight. Many of the BAbis,
too, had in the darkness and pouring rain missed the way to
the Castle and become separated from their comrades, but,
when the time for prayer came, these, guided by the sound
of the azain, found their way back thither. For it was
custom ary -w~ith the garrison of the Castle to keep vigil
during the last third of the night, to read and pray aloud
with fervent devotion until day-break, and to offer up
their petitions to the Just and Gracious Lord. Far other-
wise was it in the royalist camp, where wine-bibbing, foul
and licentious acts, dice-playing, and utter neglect of
spiritual exercises universally prevailed.
When these belated stragglers reached the Castle, and
were informed of the martyrdom of Jendib-i-Babu'l-Brib,
they became exceeding sorrowful. And when they com-
puted the number of those who had fallen by his side from
the beginning of the war until that night, there were
seventy, neither more nor less, exactly as Jendb-i-Kuddgs

had explicitly declared iii the sermon of the " Eternal
Witness'." But in the royalist camp more than four
hundred men perished that night, includiDg thirty-five
officers of distinction, and more than a thousand were
wounded, while the survivors had betaken themselves to
flight. So 'AbbAs-Kulf KhAn gathered up the corpses
of his officers, and retired to Amul to mourn their loss.
But when the Sa'fdu'l-'UlamA was informed of this, he
(fearing lest the BàbÕs should enter BArfurAsh and mete out
to him the punishment which he deserved) was overcome
with trouble and consternation, and wrote several suc-
cessive letters to 'AbbAs-Kulf KhAn, saying, " I congratu-
late you on your courage and discretion, but how miicli to
be deplored it is that after you have been at such pains,
lost so many of your kinsmen, and gained at length so
signal a victory, you did not follow it up. You have made
a great multitude food for the sword, and have returned,
leaving only a few decrepit old men as survivors. Alas,
that., after all your efforts and perseverance, the Prince is
now prepared to march against the Castle and take captive
these few poor wretches, so that after all he will get the
credit of this signal victory, and will appropriate to himself
all the money and property of the vanquished! You must
make it your first and most important busineass to return
to the Castle ere lie has set -Out, for the government of
a province like MAzandarAn is not a thing to be trifled
with. Strive, then, to gain the entire credit of this
victory, and let your exertions accomplish what your zeal
has begun." He also wrote at great length to the clergy of
Amill, urgently exhorting them to use their best endeavours
to make the Sartip 'AbbAs-Kulf KhAn start at once without
further delay. So they continued to remind him incea3-
I See p. 44 supra.
santly that it was his duty to march with all speed against
the Castle; and the Sartfp, though he knew that what the
8a',Ra7-'U1ama' had written to him was utterly false and
baseless, was eager, if it should be possible, to make some
amends for what had passed, and so to clear himself iii
some measure of the disgrace which be had incurred in the
eyes of the LArijAnf women whose husbands lie had sacri-
ficed, and of the government. But inwardly he was con-
sumed with anxiety, fearing that, as in the previous
campaign, he inight fail to accomplish anything. Most of
his men, too, were wounded, while many had fled and
concealed themselves in the surrounding villages distant
four or five parasangs from the city. So, as a makeshift,
lie wrote to the clergy of Amu], saying, " If indeed this be
a religious war, you, who are such zealous champions of

the faith, and to whom men look for example, should take
the lead, and make the firast move, so that others may
follow you." The clergy, not being prepared with a suit-
able answer, and seeing no way of excusing themselves,
were obliged to send a message to the effect that the war
was a religious war. A great company of tradesmen, com-
mon people, and roughs was assembled, and these, with the
clergy ai-id students, set out, ostensibly for the accomplish-
inent of a religious duty, but really bent on plunder and
rapine. Most of these went to BArfurAsli and there joined
the advance of Prince Mahdf-Kulf MirzA, who, on reaching
a village distant one parasang from the Castle, sent a body
of his men to reconnoitre and collect information about the
movements of the BàbÕ garrison.
But Jendb-i-Kuddiis was well aware of the circum-
stances just detailed, and said to his followers, " Go, and
set lip Oil posts the heads of such of our antagonists as
were slain, arranging them in regular order round the
ramparts of the Castle." So they did as he commanded.

And when the royal troopas, with the rabble who accom-
panied them, drew nigh to the Castle, and saw these heads,
with months gaping horribly and blackened faces, set up
on posts round the fortress, they were filled with inde-
scribable terror. And even as they stood gazing thus,
fifteen horsemen emerged from the Castle crying " Yd
jY4ibu 'z-zamahi'l " and scattered before tlieiigi the cavalry
of the enemy (though these were more than five hundred
strong), slaying not a few.
After this it became clear to the royal troops that they
could not carry the fortress by storm. They therefore
employed carpenters to construct scaling-ladders and bat-
tering-rams, which they carried to the Castle and erected
during the night. They also began to dig trenches, and
thus gradually advanced. Many came from the surround-
ing district to help theiigi ; ammunition and artillery began
to arrive daily from TeherAn ; and the garrison of the
Castle came forth but seldom, only firing occasional shot,-,
from the tops of their towers.
The reverend divineas, who with their pupils, had come
to take part in the holy war, were scarce able to sleep at
night for fear (though their quarters were in a place distant
two parasangs from the Castle), and continually in their
conversation would they roundly abuse the Prince and
'AbbAs-Kulf KhAn and curse-the 8a',&u'I-'UIam6t; "For,"
said they, " these have, without sufficient reason, taken us
away from our studies, our discussions, and the earning of
our livelihood, besides bringing us into dire peril ; since to
fight with men like these, who have renounced the world,
and carry their lives in their hands, is to incur great risk."
So the holy verse " Cast not yourselves into peril with
your own hands " " became their daily utterance. One said,
I " 0 Lord of the age? " Cf. p. 69 mpra.
2 Kur'àn, ii, 191.
" Certain circumstances exonerate me from the duty 'of
taking part in this war at present." Another [adducing
thirty different pretexts] said, " I am lawfully excused and
am compelled to turn back." A third said, " I have little
children dependent on me ; what can. I do? " A fourth
said, " I have made no provision for my wife, so I must go,
but, should it be necessary, I will return again." A fifth
asaid, " My accounts with certain persons are not yet
settled; should I fall a martyr, my wealth will be wasted,
and an injustice will be done to my wife and children; and
both waste and injustice are condemned as repugnant to
our holy religion and displeasing to God." A sixth said,
"I owe money -to certain persons, and have none to acquit
me of my debt. Should I fall, my debt will not allow me

to cross the Bridge of ' ". A seventh said, " I came
away without the knowledge of my mother, and she had
said to me, 'Should'st thou go, I will make the milk where-
with I nourished thee unlawful to thee.' I fear therefore
that I may be cast off as undutiful by my mother." An
eighth wept, saying, " I have made a vow to visit KerbelA
this year; one circumambulation of the holy sepulchre of
ttie Chief of Martyrs' is equivalent in merit to a hundred-
thousand martyrdoms or a thousand pilgrimages to Mecca.
I fear to fail in the fulfilment of my vow, and so to be
disappointed of this great blessing." Others said, " We,
for our part, have neither seen in these people, nor heard
of them, aught which sheweth them to be unbelievers, for
they also say 'There is no god but God, Muhammad is the
Apostle of God, and 'Alf is the Friend of God.' At most,
they maintain that the advent of the Inidni Malidf has
1 The narrow bridge " finer than a hair and sharper than a
sword" which, as the Aluhaningladans believe, all must traverse
to reach paradise.
2 Huseyn b. 'Alf b. Abf Tilib, the third InAni.

all events they are no
tal~en place, Let them be ; for at ,
worse than the Sunnis, who reject the twelve Inikins and
the fourteen immaculate saints, ~recognize such an one
as 'Uiigiar as caliph, prefer 'Othindn to 'Alf ibn Abf TAlib,
and accept AbU' Bekr as the successor of our holy Prophet~-
Why should our divines leave those alone, and fight with
these about matters whereof the rights and wrougs have
not been properly determined ? "
In a,,Iiort, throughout the camp inurligiurs arose from
every tongue, and complaints from every i-nouth; each one
sung a different tune and devised a different pretext ; and
all awaited but some plausible excuse to betake tilejUSelVeaS
to flight, So when 'AbbAs-Kulf KhAn perceived this to be
the case, lie, fearing lest the contagion of their terror might
spread to his soldiers, was forced to accept the excuses of
these reverend divines and their disciples and followers,
who forthwith departed, rejoicing greatly, and uttering
prayers for the Sartfp's success. Men of discernment can
easily appraise the faith and understanding of persons like
these, who came to join in a holy war at the coiiiigiiand of
'AbbAs-KhLilf KhAn and turned back from it by his per-
mission, not having sense enough to see that the wise
would deride their conduct, saying, " If, agreeably to God's
command, it was a religious duty to fight with these
people, then the clergy should have taken the lead; in
which case, why did they not from the first undertake this
duty ? And when, impelled by the zeal of 'AbbAs-Kuli
KhAn, and at his command, they had entered upon the
war, what occasion had they for turning back without
striking a blow? If, on the other hand, it had not yet
been sliewn that the BàbÕs were hifidels, and if war with
them were a thing displeasing to God, then why did they
not strive to restrain 'AbbAs-Kulf Khin iihistead of sub-
mitting to his opinion?" In a word, they went forth to
light actuated solely by their passions, and turned back
by reason of their own selfish motives. By this all may
judge of the rest of their actions, for whosoever is endowed
with discernment will perceive that all their words and
deeds were prompted by self-interest, and that their conduct
was wholly at variance with right. They regard knowledge
but as a means of obtaining power and winning men's
esteem; they barter religion for gold and silver; and they
.study the Law but to demand 'restitution of wrongs','
'ImAm's money',' and 'thirds" of the property left by
persons dying, or to obtain bribes in lawsuits and presents
for pronouncing decisions contrary to what God hath re-

vealed. TThus do they amass wealth without the trouble
of engaging in commerce or agricultureJ
Ill If every sinner got drunk with sin as the toper does with
How ~iany a sin would stand revealed which we scarcely now
divine! "]
Now after tglie martyrdom of Jena'b-i-Ba'bu'1-Ba'b,
Jendb-i-Kudd,hs made it his chief object to prepare, his
companions for death and departure from the world, and
to set in, order the means for their deliverance from earth
and ascent to the realms of true existence, desiring that the
period of strife and suffering might be shortened, and that
they might the sooner escape from the prison of the body,
and rest in the presence of the Beloved. For they had no
I When a Persian Shi'ite dies, it is customary to give a
certain proportion of the wealth he leaves behind him to the
clergy, to be expended on pious and charitable objects, and thus
to atone for the wrongs which the deceased during his life-time
may have done to his fellow-men. This is called radd-i-niazd1im
('restitution of wrongs').
2 See Querry's Droit Husulman, Vol. ii, pp. 327-362 pas8hn.
3 Ibid.) Vol. i, p. 633,  178, and p. 162,  210.

other object in placing their lives in jeopardy than to
publish the news of the Manifestation, proclaim the word
of God, complete the proof, and convey the summons to
all peoples of the world ; so that all such as were. open
to receive the truth at that time or in after ages might,
according to the degree of their fitness, become enquirers
or believers. When, therefore, they knew that the faine
of their deeds and doctrine had beeii asiifficieiitly uoised
abroad and had reached the ken of all nations and peoples,
then, their sole object being accoiigiplislied, they made haste
to lay down their lives and depart to the invisible and
eternal world. Thus Je?i(tb-i-Yitddgits, coming forth one
(lay from the room wherein lie dwelt, saw lying a quantity
of rice in the liusk'. Thereupon lie said to his coligipanioil,,~,
" We came hither to sliew forth 6'rod's truth, not to live
gluttonously. If the aini in view were to maintain in
luxury these perishable bodies, had you not in your own
homes all inaliner of delicate foods ? Why then did ye
forsake these to come hither? But if ye came to die, then
you need not fodder and provisiolia,~." To this his coin-
panions replied, " Whatever your orders may be, we are
ready to obey them." Then a,~ai(i lie, " Give the rice to
the horses and sheep and cattle for them to eat it." For
they had over two hundred horses, forty or fifty milch-
cows, and three or four limidred sheep, most of which had
been given to them by the people of Mizaiidar4n, who,
as iigiany as believ6d, brought with them to the Castle of
what they possessed. So the BAbis, eager to obey the
commands of Jendtb-i-A.-udd~ts, took no pains to husband
their resources, so that in a little while their provisions
were exliatiasted; while, inasmuch as the eneiny had sur-
I Shalthk, i.e. rice not yet separated froni the husk. In Hin-
dAstinif it is called shdill, and by Anglo-hidians " paddy."
79 1
rounded the Castle on all sides, they could not go forth to
procure fresh asupplies.
Once, indeed, some few of them did go out to try to
obtain a little tea [aDd sugar] for Jenaib-i-Kuddiis. The
most notable of these was Mulhi Sa'fd of ZarkanAd. Now
lie was a man so accomplished in science that when certain
learned men of the kindred of 1ITMfrzd~* Muhammad Takf
of Nlir addressed to Jendb-i-Kuddi'ts in writin(y certain
questions touching the sciences of divination and astrology,
the latter said to MullA Sa'f d, "Do you speedily write for
them a brief and compendious reply, that their messenger
be not kept waiting, and a more detailed answer shall be
written subsequently." So MullA Sa'id, though hurried

by the presence of the messenger, and distracted by the
turmoil of the siege, rapidly penned a most eloquent ad-
dress, wherein, while replying to the questions asked, he
introduced nearly a hundred well-authenticated traditions
bearing on the truth of the new Manifestation of the
I)romiased Proof, besides several which foreshadowed the
halting of those who had believed in the Lord about Tabarsf,
and their martyrdom. The learned men of N-hr were
amazed bbyond all measure at his erudition, and -said,
"Candour compels us to admit that such presentation of
these matters is a great miracle, and that such erudition
and-eloquence are far beyond the Mullk Sa'fd- whom ~we_
knew. Assuredly this talent hath been bestowed on him
from on high, and he in turn hath made it manifest to us."
Now MullA Sa'fd and his companions, while they were
without the Castle, fell into the hands of the royalAroops,
and were by them carried before the Prince. The Prince
strove by every means to extract from them some inform-
ation about the state of the BàbÕ garrison, their numbers,
* [MLIIIA] *

and the amount of their munitions; but do what he would
lie could gain nothing. So, when he perceived Mulli
Sa'fd to be a man of talent and understanding, he said to
him, "Repent, and I will release you and not suffer you
to be slain." To this MullA Sa'id replied, "Never did
anyone repent of obedience to God's command, why then
should I ? Rather do you repent, who are acting contrary
to His good pleasure, and more evilly than anyone hath
heretofore done." And he spoke much more after the
same fashion. So at length they sent him to S6rf in chains
and fetters, and there slew him, with circumstances of the
utmost cruelty, along with his companions, who appear to
have been five in number.
We have, however, wandered from our subject, which
was the scarcity of provisions from which the garrison of
the Castle began to suffer. When their stores were ex-
hausted, and they began to suffer the hardships of priva-
tion, they represented to Jenaib-i-Kuddis that the horses
were perishing of hunger. So he ordered them to drive
out from the Castle such as, were lean, and to slay and eat
such as were fat, seeing that this was now become lawful
to them'. One can readily imagine how grievous and how
distasteful the eating of horse-flesh must have seemed to
persons habituated to such luxuries as Russian sugar,
Austrian tea', and fine aromatic rice. Yet they ate sub-
missively and with contentment so much as was needful to
sustain life, bowing patiently, yea, thankfully, before the
Divine decree. Now there were in the Castle from olden
time the remains of a bath, which the BàbÕs had endea-
I See Querry's Droit Ifusulman, vol. ii, p. 230,  10, and
1). 242,  100.
2 "White tea" (clidy-i-safid) and "Austrian tea" (chdy-i-
Naras~') are the nanies given in Persia to the finest variety of the
voured to repair. One day Jena"b-i-Kuddiis, as 'he came
forth from this bath, saw some of his companions roasting
and eating horse-flesh. "Let me see," said he, "-what
this food, which the Beloved hath apportioned to us, is
like." Then he took a little and sucked it in his mouth,
and presently remarked that the meat was very pleasant
to the taste, and sweet in savour. After this, horse-flesh
seemed to the taste of all so sweet and so palatable that
they were filled with astonishment, saying, " lt is as
though our food savoured of paradise, for never have we
tasted meat so delicious."

Now when the horse-flesh came to an end they began
to subsist on vegetables, until even the grass and the leaves
of the trees within the fortreas were all consumed,so that, as
some have related, they ate even the leather off their saddles'.
Grass became harder to find than the Philosopher's Stoile,
and if they sought to gather it outside the Castle, they
were at once exposed to the fire of the enemy. They there-
fore ceased to attempt to leave their fortress, and abastaiiie(I
from food, so that for nineteen days they took no sus-
tenance (save that morning and evening they drank each
a cup of'warm water), drawing their strength from their
converse with Jendb-i-Kuddi~s. And as his aim. was to
liaasten the impending catastrophe, so did the strength of
the faithful wane daily on every side, while that of their
foes ever waxed greater. Thus the latter constructed four
towers on the four sides of the Castle, and raised them so
high that they were able to command the interior of the
fortress with their guns, and to make the garrison targets
for their bullets. Then the faithful, seeing this, began to
dig subterranean passages and to retreat thither. But the
ground of MAzalidarAn lies near the water and is saturated
1 The saddles used by the Persians are chiefly composed of
N. H.

with moisture, added to which rain fell eontinually, in-
creasing the damage, so that these poor sufferers dwelt
amidst mud and water till their garments rotted away with
danip, and a voice from the Unseen seemed to proclaim
to each,
"Clothe thy body with the garb of nakedness
Ere the cloak of death shall fall upon tby frame;
So renounce the thinos of earth that at illy death
Ken the slgtroud upon thy corpse may seem a shame."
So their bellies clave to their back-bones, as though to
say, " Ye are coiigic near to the spirit-world ; be ye there-
fore like unto the angels; " their bodies became like skele-
tons, reminding them that-
"There they asee]4: for wasted frLigiies and know the worth of
,vearied hearts;"
their clieelias grew pallid as amber, telling them that the
si,(Pis of a, faithful lover are a heart filled with woe, bitter
and a sallow complexion. They were read to bre
y ast
the steep ascent to martyrdom and blis~s; they liogvere(I like
inoths round the cannon-balls and bullets, which they
hailed as a means of deliverance; they rushed towards im-
111(lation with in impetuosity which imagination can asearce
conceive.-They weiigic(l weary of life and of their bodicas,
'til(gl met the afflictions which continually be set them with
the cry of "Is there more'?" Whenever one of their com-
rades quaffed the draught of martyrdom before their eyes,
instead of grieving they rejoiced. Thus, for instance, oil
one occasion a bomb-shell fell oil the roof of a hut, which
caught fire. Sheykll SAlili of ShfrAz went to extinguish
the fire. A bullet struck his head and shattered his skull.
Even as they were raising his corpse a second bullet carried
away the hand of Akd Mirzi Muliamillad 'Alf, the son of
I Kur'in, 1, 29.
Seyyid Ahmad, who was the father of -AkaA Seyyid Huseyn
the beloved." So, too, was Ak6 Seyyid Huseyn "the be-
loved," a child tell years of age, slain before his father's
eyes, and he fell rolling in mud and gore with limbs quiver-
ing like those of a half-killed bird. His father heaved a deep
sigh and said, " May thy filial piety find acceptance! " Oil
another day a bomb-shell fell on the wooden roof of the hut
occupied by J'en6b-i-lCuddiis. MullA Muhammad SAdik,
who was better known as Hukaddas-i-K1iur6sa'ni', involun-

tarily sprang up, crying, " 0 my master, quit thy place 1 "
But the other answered composedly, " If the Beloved of all
worlds desires that. we should fall by a bullet, then why
should we flee, our object being gained? But if He desire
it not, then a,41iftll we assuredly not be slain; wherefore then
should we move?" Jeita'b-i-fflitkadd-as-i-IClittra'sa'2zz'usecI to
declare that forthwith the projectile rose up from the ground
and burst in the air, and this notwitlistanding the fact that
boinb-shells commonly enter the ground where they fall,
and then leap back and burst.
So every day the final catastrophe drew nearer, and ever
the royalist troops devised some fresh plan for capturing
the Castle.' Amongst other devices, they had some while
before dug a mine under one of the towers, charged it with
powder, fired it, and destroyed the tower; but during the
following night the garrison, at the command of their-illus-
t~rious chief, rebuilt it, and completed it ere dawn.~ g Now
again in these last days they made a mine under one of the
walls of the Castle, placed therein a cauldron full of powder,
and fired it, thus destroying the wall. Jendib-i-Kudd,(ts,
being informed of this, said, "Do not rebuild it, for when
we bade you repair the breach in the tower we had need of
it for other six months, but now we need these things no
longer. Let two marksmen sit there; so shall none be
able to approach or enter in."

The first attempt of the enemy to storm the fortress able to escape from their hands, while the rest, overcome
was made on the covered way'. As soon as they ap- with panic, could neither fight nor flee.
proached the Castle in force, fifteen Tmountedl men land That night the chiefs of the besieging army met in
fivel on foot sallied forth and, attacked them. Many of the council. "We cannot," said they, "carry the Castle by
soldiers were slain, and amongst them fell the SardAr 'Ab- storm; every attempt to do so results only in defeat, dis-
du'llAb KhAn. Of the defenders only two were killed. grace, and useless loss of life." Even Suleymin Kh.An
The attacking force retired in despair, while the garrison AfshAr, a man wise in council and skilled in war, who had
collected the bodies of their slain, and carried them into been sent from TeherAn to take the Castle at all hazards,
the Castle. The disastrous result of the attack on the gave up in despair, and retired to 'Alf-Abdd with the in-
covered way was openly admitted in the royalist camp, but tention of returning Ito the capital]. The Prince and
nevertheless, seeing that the garrison did not repair the 'Abbds-Kulf KhAn also declared in the despatches which
breach in the walls, they again prepared to make an at- they forwarded to the King that in spite of the most
tempt to carry the Castle by storiigi. It was arranged by strenuous efforts the troops could gain no advantage, and
the royalist leaders that there should be five standards, that it appeared certain that there was but little chance of
and that to him who should first asi-icceed in planting one of their obtaining a victory. So the Prince, despairing of
them on the Castle wall should be awarded a sum of five effectino, a-Light by force, again resorted to a stratagem, and
hundred Wmains, to the second four hundred, and to each wrote to Jendb-i-Kuddiis as follows :-" Seek not to inflict
subsequent one a hundred him6ns less, by which arrange- further hurt on tfie MusulmAns. For nine months have
ment the bearer of the last standard would receive one both sides been engaged in hostilities without any truce or
hundred tAmains. They then disposed the artillery, mar- respite. We now consent to abandon all thought of war,
shalled out seven thousand regulars, horse and foot, and and, for the sake of peace, to agree to what terms you may
boldly began the advance. When they were come near to propose.)1,
the Castle, the first standard-bearer succeeded in planting When Jendb-i-Kuddiis had read this letter, he said,
his standard ou the ramparts, but a bullet struck his foot "Although he meditates treachery, and designs to shed the
and he fell. He bravely regained his feet ' but a second blood of these innocent people, yet, since his designs accord
shot struck him in the breast, and he fell down headlong with destiny, and since we desire but to die and escape
with his standard. The defenders of the Castle, hungry from this transitory world, we will even suffer his schemes
and barefooted as they were, hurled themselves upon the to prevail." Therefore he wrote in reply, " If you will-
enemy sword in hand, and displayed that day a courage guarantee our safety and let us pass without molestation,
and heroism which the world had never before seen, and we will depart out of your land and go into another
which must appear to such as consider it little asliort of country."
miraculous. So fiercely did they drive back that mighty The Prince, on receiving this letter, rejoiced exceed-
lioast that many even of the bravest and boldest were un- ingly, and both he and 'Abbis-Kulf KhAn swore on the
KkdV-i-sal(Miat. ]~Cur'Aii to respect the terms of the treaty, which contained

the following clause :-"To whatsoever place ye desire to
go, none shall let or hinder you in any way." Moreover
the Prince [sent a horse, and] expressed a great wish to
meet Jendb-i-Kudd,(ts, who, out of respect for the Kur'Aii
on which the oaths were sworn, agreed to the proposals
made, saying, "Although his object is evident '[and his
treachery clear to our ininds (for lie has made the Word of
God the instrument of his guile, and will in no wise abide
by the Kur'àn, or his word, oath, treaty, and covenant) yet
we would rather lose our lives than fail in respect for God's
Word, and will therefore accede to his invitation, and, of
our own free will, tread submissively this path of agony."]*
So the horse was sent for Jen(tb-i-Kuddi~s, and lie
mounted it, and came forth with such of his men, a-, still
survived, two hundred and thirty in all, walking on Iiia-,
right hand and on his left. Outside the camp a place had
been prepared for them, and there they alighted. Then a
inessenger came from the Prince to Je)?6b-i-.ffitddiis, say-
ing, " Either permit me to pay you a short visit here, or
else be kind enoihigli to come to me, that we may converse
together for a while, and arrange soiihie plan for your de-
parture." So Jewitb-i-Ii7iiddAs, with fourteen (or, as some
say, seven) others, came to the Prince's quarters.
After the iigiterchange of the usual compliments, the
Prince requested Jendb-i-Kuddq~s to order his followers to
lay down their arms, because these were a menace and a
cause of fear to the troops. This request he -urged so
persistently that Jendib-i-Kuddi~s finally sent orders to his
men to lay aside their weapons, which orders were cheer-
fully and willingly obeyed. Then the soldiers gathered
Tstill, that we fail not in respect for the Kur'dii, or
in. readiness to respond to his overtures, it is good for us, to
tread submissively this path of agony.J*
up the arms and weapons and bore them away. Before this
was done the Prince had ordered breakfast to be brought
for the BàbÕs. But when these sat down unarmed to
eat, the soldiers surrounded them and fired a volley upon
them, and then rushed in amongst the survivors, giving
them for refreshment the draught of martyrdom. Then
they seized Jenetib-i-KuddAs and those who were with him.
A strange hospitality and welcome did they sliew to these
poor people! After they had for three months suffered such
hunger that they would eagerly eat grass, and even that

failed them, they were bidden on the Word of God to a
feast, yet ere they had tasted a single nhiorsel their hunger
was appeased with bullets 1 And so much of their blood
Nygas collected in a hollow of the ground that the truth of a
tradition which affirms that in that land shall be such
bloodshed that a horse asliall wade knee-deep in gore was
made, manifest.
Next day the royalists fell on the Castle, aii&carried
Off as plunder all the goods and chattels which were there-iii.
After this they moved their camp from that place, carrying
with them in shameful bonds Jeiia'b-i-Kitddiihs, MÕrzà
Mul , iammad Hasan the brother of Jen('tb-i-Ba'bu'1-B('1,b,
MullA Muhammad SAdik of Kl1urAsAn*, HAjf MÕrzà Mu-
hammad Hasan of Khur6s6n, Sheykh Ni'matu'llib. of Amul,
HAjf Nasir of Kazvin, Mul1A Yu'suf of Ardabfl, AkA Seyyid
'Abdu'l-'Azfm t1of KhAylt, and several others. They beat
the drums to celebrate their victory, and displayed such
pride in their prowess that one would have supposed that
they had either retaken from Russia the territories once
owlied by Persia, or obtained some great victory over the
English, which had placed them in possession of India, or
IMÕrzà Muhammad SAdik of KhurAsAnJ*
t of MarAgha]t

annexed BalfichistAn, AfgbAnistin, Balkh, and BukhArA, or
recovered their captives from the Turcomails, or won from
the Turks Baghdad, KerbelA, and Neief, and brought back
with them as prisoners of war many a proud PAshA. and
great captain.
When these few half-famished men, who for three
months had suffered such pangs of hunger as can scarcely
be conceived, were brought in , the people
decorated the city and made great rejoicings. Jenaib-i-
Kudchis on his arrival in the city besought the Prince to
selgid him to the capital, to be dealt with by the Kin, him-
self, and to receive judgement according to the right. The
Prince at first acceded to his request, but when the 8a',Uz1'1-
'Ulavui heard that lie had done so, he sent him a message,
saying, " Beware that you meddle not in this matter, for he
is a plausible fellow and liath a specious tongue; should he
be suffered to appear before His Majesty the King, he will
assuredly succeed in misleading him. Send him tQ me,
and 1 will give you a tliouasand Wvz(tvs." . So the Prince
accepted the thousand (or, according to another account,
four hundred) Nnuins, and delivered over Jenaib-i-Kuddiis
to the SaVu'l-'Ulamd.
Now when Jena'b-i-Kztddi~s was broihight in before him,
the Sa'i'dit'l-'Ulanza' abused him right foully and entreated
him most cruelly. With his own hands he first cut off
both his ears, and then struck him on the crown. of the
head with an iron axe which lie held in his hands, which
blow caused his death. After that, a student severed Iiia%
holy head from his body in the inidst of the market-place*.
Then the 8a'&u'1-'U1anWt commanded that his body should
"'[And when they slew him no blood came forth from
his body. So they told this to the Sa'i'du'l-'Ulama'. And
lie a-,a~id, "He was afraid, and his blood left him."]*
be burned. So they tried to set fire to it, by kindling dried
rice-stalks. "[According to the account given by HAJf
Mirzd JAnf, not even the blazing fire thus kindled would
burn those holy remains. Some firmly believe this, and
regard it as an assured fact ; but the writer of these pages'
regards fire as a thing which must in its very nature bum,
and is essentially a consumer; that this natural quality
should be taken from it appears to him impossible. But
God knows best, and the reagponsibility for this narrative
lies on the narrator. HAjf MirzA Jd-nf further writes that

when they saw this they informed the 8a'Uu'1-'U1avza'.1*
Ile, fearing lest men might now condemn his action, bade
them go at once and cut the body in pieces and scatter
them in the fields. And they did as be commanded. But
at iiiglit t certain of the faithful, not known to men as
such, watched their opportunity, and came and gathered
up the fragments of the body, and buried them in a ruined
college. JHAjf Mfrzi JAI)f writes :-I " A believer whose
words are worthy of all credence -narrated as follows:-
'One day, before ever tllease matters were talked of, 1 was
in the company of that holy man. We were taking a walk
in the country, and in the course of it chanced to pass by
the gate of that same ruined college. He, speaking of the
JBut the fire would not consuine it. They secretly
told the  of this.1 "
t Jaccording to HAjf MÕrzà JAiii's accounQ t
1 A part of the passage from L. inserted here in the text has
been erased in the original MS. by a stroke of the pen; but, not-
,vithstanding this, it is easily legible. The erasure begins at the
words "but the writer (?nusawivid) of these pages ... ", and
extends to the words "Hijf Mfrzi Jinf further writes that . . . ".
Very probably the passage in L. is an interpolation of the
copyist, and was deleted by a former possessor of the MS., who
disapproved of such scepticism.

vicissitudes of the world, said by way of ilhistration, " This doin of the K6'im' with an iron pestle in F6r6n' of Tellerin.-
college, for instance, was once frequented and flourishing, And since Jen'b-i-Kuddits had arisen to proclaim this
teaching, lie was in a sense Lord of the Dispeliasation, even
and is now desolate and ruined. After a while some illus-
trious man will be buried here, men will come from afar a-, it runs in the tradition. And by " the bearded Sa'fda
jdu'1-1 Ulam i appears to be meant, for he lacked all
to visit the place, and once again it will flourish."' So the 8a' a
virtues of manhood and was probably effeminate in the
likewise in the yearof his martyrdom., before he went to
worst sense'. Ali d the " iron pestle" was that same iron
KliurAsAn, he chaiieed one day to pass with a companion
through the square in which lie suffered death. His eyes axe wherewith lie smote the head of his illustrious victim,
while as to his being a recent convert to Isl6in and of
happening to fall on a heap of dried rice-stalks, he re-
Jewish extraction there is no doubt, this fact being well-
marked, 'This very year they will aslay a certain holy man
in this very spot after the vilest fashion, and will attempt known " to all the people of MAzandar6n. Moreover, after
to burn his bod with these very rice-stalks, but the fire the martyrdom of Jen(itb-i-Yuddq~s the 8a'&u'1-'U1ama'
asiifferecl a grievous punishment. For God deprived his
will be ashamed to touch it, though tltia~ people will not
body of the element of heat, so that in mid-sumnier, even
be -asliained.' Then lie heaved a deep sigh aii(l was while the sign of the Lion was dominant, two iron chafing-
So likewise in the exhortation known as "the Eternal dislies filled with glowing fire were brought with him
whenever he went to the mosque, and, although lie always
Witness'," which lie wrote while on his way to KliurisAii
wore a sheep-skin cloak over his vest, and over the aslieep-
to JP)z('tb-i-Brtbu'1-B('tb, alid wherein, besides foreshadow-
skin a thick mantle, lie, would make haste to finish his
ing his own martyrdom, lie clearly made known to hini prayers, and at once return to his home. And on his
how lie should die together with seventy' just and
arrival there, they would put the chafing-dishes under a
rigliteoi.ias men, lie wrote, " I shall bury my body with illy
kursP and, cover him with igiiatiy thick quilts, yet still his
(wil liands," by which expression lie signified that iioiie'
body would shiver and shake under the kio-st' by reaason of
would bury him [but that one of themselves would succeed
in accomplishing his interment]. Again in that same year
b * [by diverse indications and signs]
lie had repeatedly said to his sister and his step-mother,
"This year all rnaiiner of troubles will befall you by re."on 1 "He who is to arise", ie. the Mahdf.
of the love ye bear me, but be ye patient and thankful 2 The arabicized form of the Mount Paran of the Old Testa-
when affliction coigiies and the predestined blow fialls, and ment. L.'s reading, Fdrd, seengis to be a mere slip.
display resignation and fortitude." There is also a well- 3 In the original, " wa ghdlibWl Z' an-tabi'at bfzdand."
authenticated tradition to the effect that a bearded wonian 4 The kur8i, much used by the Persians in cold weather, is
of Jewish extraction called Sa'fda shall compass the martyr- like a low table under which a chafing-dish filled with burning
1 See 1). 44, snpra. charcoal is placed. The legs are put beneath it, and the re-
2 See p. 44, n. 3, supra. mainder of the body, supported by pillows, is protected from ; the

3 i.e. 110 jjjjLSUlnjjjj. cold with rugs and quilts.

the cold. So by reason of his lack. of caloric and heat-
producing power also one may describe him as bereft of
virility and manhood.
At all events it appears that after the martyrdom of
Jendb-i-Kudd?~s, a pious divine, 1-16jf Muhammad 'Ali
Hamza'f by name, whose skill in exegesis and spiritual
gifts were recognized by all, secretly sent several persons
to bury the mutilated remains in the ruined college already
mentioned. And he, far from approving the Sa'i'du'l-
'UtaimV.3 conduct, used to curse and revile him, and never
himself pronounced senteigice of death against any Bdbf,
but on the contrary used to obtain decent burial for those
slain by the Salidit'l-WIam6t. And when men questioned
him concerning the garrison of the Castle, lie would reply,
"I do not condeiiiii t hem or speak evil of them." For this
reason half of BArfuru'sh remained neutral', for at first he
used to forbid men to traduce or molest the BAbis, though
later, when the trouble waxed great, he deemed it prudent
to be silent and shut himself up in his house. Now his
austerity of life, piety, learning, and virtue were as well
known to the people of M6zandarAn as were the irreligion,
immorality, and worldliness of the 8a'Qu'1-'U1a9nei.
The doctor oft of wisdom bath no share,
And is but wisdom's guardian, not its heir.
' TV14c1b bearetli bookS2,' saith God. A mere dead load
Is knowledge which is not by Him bestowed.
? sword in savage hands is not more dire
? danger than the knowledge fools acquire
Rank, wealth, authority, and scripture lore
In evil hands cause only strife and war.
I Literally "silent."
2 This alludes to Kur'* 1xii, 5, where the Jews are reproved
for their rejection of Muhammad in these words, "Those unto,
whom the Pentateuch was committed, and who observed it not,
are like unto an ass which beareth books, &c."
Wbene'er the unjust judge controls the pen,
Some MansAr I dies upon the gallows then.
Whene'er fools wield authority, God's Word
'They slay the proplIetS21 is a thing assured.113
Since an attempt to describe even in outline and in
the most concise manner possible all that relates to the
garrison of the Castle would lead us too far beyond our
original design, and would even then tell but a tithe of
what took place, we must perforce content ourselves with
giving for illustration brief and succinct accounts of some
few individuals only.

Amongst these was Mimi Muhammad Hasaii, the
[younger] brother of Jena'b-i-Ba'bu'1-Bab. The late Hdjf
Mimi JAnf writes, "I myself met him when lie waas bringing
his mother and sister from -KerbelA to Kazvfn and from
Kazvfn to TeherAn. His sister was the wife of Sheykli AbA
TurAb of Kazvfn, who was a scholar and philosopher such
as is rarely met with, and believed with the utmost sin-
cerity and purity of purpose, while such was his love agiid
devotion to the BAb that if anyone did so much as mention
the name of His Supreme Holiness (the souls of all beside
him be his sacrifice!) he could not restrain his tears. Often
Huseyn b. MansAr-i-HallAj (the wool-carder) was a cele-
brated SAff who wandered about teaching the most exalted
mysticism till he was finally sentenced to death by the I Mind at
Baghdad, and there hanged or crucified in the year A.H. 309
(A.D. 922). He was condemned on a charge of blasphemy,
because in one of his mystical ecstasies he had cried out "Ana
'1-H44 " (ie. " I am God").
2 Kur'àn, iii, 108.
3 This quotation is from the Hasnavi.

have I seen him, when engaged in the perusal of the writings
of His Supreme Holiness, become almost beside himself
with rapture, and nearly faint with joy. Of his wife lie
used to say, 'I married her three years ago in Kerbel6.
She was then but all indifferent scholar even in Persian,
but now she call expound texts from th - e KhLir'An and
explain the most difficult que9tions and most subtle points
of the doctrine of the Divine Unity in such wise that I
have never seen a mail who was her equal in this, or in
readiness of apprehension. These gifts sl-te has obtained
by the blessing of His Holiness the Supreme and through
converse with Her Holiness- the Pure' (upon wlioihii be the
splendour of God!). I have seen in her a patience and
resignation rare even in the most self-denying men, for
during these three years, though I have not sent her a
single dindr for her expenses, and she has supported herself
only with the greatest difficulty, she has never uttered a
w(rd; gtnct now that she has come to Telierdii she refrains
altogether from speaking of the past, and though, in accord-
alice with the wishes of An6b-i-B(tbu'1-BCtb, she now
desires to proceed to Kliuris6n, and has literally nothing
to put oil save the one well-worn dress which she wears, she
never asks for clothes or travelling-inoney, but ever seeks
reasonable excuses wherewith to set me at my ease and
prevent me from feeling ashamed * Her purity, chastity,
and virtue are boundless, and during all this while no
unprivilecred person hath so much as heard her voice'.'
But the virtues of the daughter were surpassed by
I Jendib-i-Phira) i.e. Kurratu'l-'Ayn.
2 This sister of Mulhit I * luseyn~s may perhaps be the same
who is known aniongst the Bibl's as Je720-i-Maryam, one of
whose poenis-an imitation of the ghazal of Sharns-i-Tabrifz
begiiiiiiii(h,, 'Bi-n'in6y rukh, ki bagh A gulistdnam dirzftst-is in
nly possession.
those of the mother, who possessed rare attainments and
accoignplisbments, and had composed many poems and
eloquent elegies oil the afflictions of her sons. Although
Jena'b-i-B6bu'1-Ba'b had warned her of his approa~hing
martyrdom and foretold to her all the impending cala-
inities, she still continued to exhibit the same eager devo-
tion and cheerful resignation, rejoicing that God had
accepted the sacrifice of her sons, and even praying that
they might attain to this great dignity and not be deprived
of so great blessedness. It is indeed wonderful to meditate
oil this virtuous and saintly family, the sons so conspicuous

for their single-minded devotion and self-sacrifice, the
mother and daughter so patient and resigned. When 1,
MirzA JAW, met Mirzi Muhammad Hasan he was but
seventeen years of age, yet I observed in him a dignity,
gravity, composure, and virtue which amazed me. After
the death of Jen('tb-i-.B('tbu'1-B('tb, H(qq-at-i-Kud-di'ts1 be-
stowed on him the asword and turban of that -glorious
martyr, and made him captain of the troops of the True
Kin,,,. As to his martyrdom, there is a difference of
opinion as to whether he was slain at the breakfast-table
in the camp, or a,,iiffered martyrdom with Jenetb-i'-Kudd~ts in
the square of BArfuru'sh." [But the more probable version,
which, indeed, amounts almost to a certainty, is that lie
suffered martyrdom with that holy man.]
I Although in this history the lower title of Jendb rather
than the higher title of Hazrat is generally given to Ha'j*f MullA
Muhammad 'Ali' of 13-6rfuru'sh, amongst the early BàbÕs generally
the latter appears to have been accorded to him. AS'ubl&-i-Ezel,
for instance, always spoke and wrote of him as _11azrat-i-Ifuddfis.

[Account of the noble Riza Kk6n, and his courage
and devotion.]
Amongst them also was RizA KhAii, the son of Mu-
hammad Khain the TurkmAn, Master of the Horse to his
late Majesty Muhammad ShAh. And he was a youth
graceful of form, comely of face, endowed with all manner
of talents and virtues, dignified, temperate, gentle, generous,
courageous, and manly. For the love and service of His
Supreme Holiness he forsook both his post and his salary,
and shut his eyes alike to rank and name, fame and shaine,
reproaches of friends and revilipgs of foes. At the first
step he left behind him dignity, wealth, position, and all
the power and consideration which lie enjoyed, spent large
sums of money (four or five thousand tI'Mins at least) in
the cause, and repeatedly sliewed his readiness freely to lay
down his life. One of these occasions was when His Su-
preme, Holiness arrived at the village of KhAillik near
TeherAn, and, to try the fidelity of his followers, said,
" Were there but a few horsemen who would deliver me
from the bonds of the froward and their devices, it were
not aniia-3,,3." On hearing these words, several tried and
expert -horsemen, fully equipped and ariigied, at once pre-
pared to set out, and, renouncingr all that they had, hastily
conveyed themselves before His Holiness. Amongst these
were MÕrzà KurbAn 'Alf of AstardbAd and Rizi KhAn.
When they were come before His Holiness, lie a-,miled and
said, " The mountain of &zarbaij&nl has also a claim on
me," and bade them turn back.
ie. Miku. on the frontiers of AzarbaijAn, which the Bib in
the Persian BeyAn generally alludes to as 11 Jabal-i-J&n the
Mountain of M.").
After his return RizA KhAn devoted himself! to the
service of the friends of God, and hish houseg was~often
the meeting-place of the believers, amongst whom both
Jena'b-i-Kuddis and ~Tendb-i-Ba'bu'1-Ba'b were -for a while
his honoured guests. Indeed he neither spared himself
nor fell short in the service of any of this circle, but, not-
withstanding his high position, strove with heart and soul
to further the objects of God's servants. When, for in-
stance, Jena&i-Kuddiis first began to preach the doctrine
iii MdzandarAn, and the SaVuVUlama", being informed
of this, made strenuous efforts to do him injury, RizA:
KhAn at once hastened to Mizandardn, and, whenever
Jendb-i-Kuddi'ts went forth from his house, used, in spite
of his high position and the respect to which he was accus-

tomed, to walk on foot before him with his drawn sword
over his shoulder; seeing which the malignants feared to
take any liberty. Whoever considers such behaviour fairly
and without prejudice will surely allow that it is in itself
a thing transcending ordinary experience and beyond the
measure of merely human strength. For no one would
without good reason voluntarily forego the consideration
and respect to which he is accustomed, incur the recrimina-
tions and reproaches of his fellows, and walk alone, bare-
footed and with drawn sword, before the horse of another
amidst a host of foes, thereby placing his life in peril, had
he not first clearly beheld the goal before him and recog-
nized an object worthy of his endeavour. 'Alf, with all his
might and valour, [and though it was well known to his
companions that if he did but put his hand to the hilt of
Zu'l-Fikdr' he would drive a multitude from the world of
~eing to the realms of non-existence, and that none could
withstand him, t and that when he went forth to fight in the
I The name of 'Alf's celebrated sword.
N. H,

field of battle lie regarded the population of the whole world
as naught and their existence as of none accouihit, standing
not in need of any help but God's, t nevertheless]' said to
his august companions :-
* [" Shave your heads, lay your naked swords across
your shoulders, and come, so that, according to your re-
quest, I may set myself to promote God's cause." In the
morning, of all those followers, who in word had been so
eager for that enterprise, only four came. to the door of
'Alf's abode. Of these four, only SalmAn had shaved his
head aigid girded on his sword (and that secretly beneath
his cloak); and yet he was accounted almost as one of 'Alf's
household, while his life was far advanced towards its
natural term, neither did lie en ' joy any aspecitl rank, power,
or authority. Moreover lie know 'Ali to be both wronged
and able to redress his wrongs, and yet he girded on his
sword beneath his cloak! As for the other three followers,
they were not even willing to give up the liair on their
heads !]* So, then, for one in authority and in the prime
of youth to renounce without constraint his life and all the
good things of the world, to run with drawn sword over his
shoulder before the horse of his beloved master, and to fear
not a whole city-full of obstinate foes, is a thing which
* T" Let seven (or four) inen accompany me to the
mosque with drawn swords." SalmAn, who was preferred
before the other followers in service and hODour, and who
knew 'Ali to be both wronged and able to redress his
wrongs, and to have been the victim of an unlawful usurpa-
tion, neverthe ess girded on his sword secretly under his,
cloak, and this though his life, had almost reached its
natural term, neither did lie enjoy any special rank, power,
or authority. I*
I This passage occurs only in L., the words enclosed between
daggers having been subsequently inserted in the margin.
transcends the strength of man, and hath not heretofore'
been heard or seen.
To continue. For some while Rizd Khdn remained
after this fashion in MAzandarAn, until he accompanied
Jendb-i-Kuddits to Mash-had. On his return thence he
was present at the troubles at Badasht, where he performed
the most valuable services, and was entrusted with the
most important and delicate commissions. After the meet-
ing at Badasht was dispersed, he fell ill, and, in company
with MirzA Suleymdn-Kulf of NAr (a son of the late Shai-
tir-b6sh'i", also conspicuous for his virtues, learning, and
devotion), came to TeherAn. RizA KhAn's illness lasted for
some while, and on his recovery the war of the Castle  had already waxed grievoiias. He at once deter-

mined to go to the assistance of the garrison. Being, how-
ever, a, man of mark a gnd well known, he could not leave
the capital without giving some plausible reason. He there-
fore pretended to repent his former course of action, and
begged that he might be sent to take part in the war
in MAzandardn, and thus make amends for the past. The
King granted his request, and he was appointed to accom-
pany the force proceeding under Prince Mahdf-Kulf MÕrzà
against the Castle. During the march thither he was con-
tinually saying to the Prince, " 1 will do this," and " I will
do that;" so that the Prince came to entertain high hopes
of him, and promised him a post commensurate with his
services, for till the ' day when battle was inevitable and
peace no longer possible he was ever foremost in the army
and most active in ordering its affairs.
But on the first day of battle he began to gallop his
horse and practise other martial exercises, until, without
I The Slidtir-bashi is the chief or superintendent of the foot-
men who run before the ShAh on state occasions and clear the
way for him.

having aroused suspicion, he suddenly gave it free rein
and effected a junction with the Brethren of Purity'.
On arriving in their midst, he kissed the knee of Jenaib-i-
tCuddfts, and prostrated himself before him in thankfulness.
Then lie once more returned to the battle-field, and began
to revile and curse the Prince, saying, "Who is man enough
to trample under foot the pomp and circumstance of the
world, free himself from the bonds of carnal lusts, and join
himself, as I have done, to the saints of God? I for my
part shall only be satisfied with my head when it falls
stained with dust and blood in this plain." Then like a
ravening lion he rushed upon them with naked brand, and
quitted himself so manfully that all the royalist officers
were astonished, saying, "Such valour must have been newly
granted him from OD high, or else a new spirit liath been
breathed into his frame." For it happened more than once
that he cut down a gunner as he was in the very act of
firing his gun, while so many of the chief officers of the
royalist army fell by his hand that the Prince and the
other commanding officers desired more eagerly to revenge
themselves on him than on any other of the BàbÕs. There-
fore, on the eve of the day appointed for Jendb-i-Kuddits
to surrender himself at the royalist camp, RizA KhAn,
knowing that because of the fierce hatred which they bore
him they would slay him with the most cruel tortures, went
by night to the quarters of an officer in the camp who was
an old and faithful friend and comrade. After the massacre
of the other BAbis, search was made for Rizi KhAn, and he
was at length discovered. The officer who had sheltered
him proposed to ransom him for a sum of two thousand
Wma'ns in cash, but his proposal was rejected, and though
lie offered to increase the sum, and strove earnestly to save
I _Tkhwdnu's-safd, a name still often applied by the Bibis to
themselves. L., however, substitutes, "Friends of God".
his friend, it was of no avail, for the Prince, because of the
exceeding hatred he bore RizA KhAn, ordered him to be
hewn in pieces.
Xen so, without a tear or smile, he sped;
One spirit woke to life, another fled."
< Account of Hurshid. >-
Amongst the garrison of the Uastle was another person
named Murshid, a notable scholar and mystic, remarkable
alike for his intellectual and moral excellence, who had
visited all parts of the world, associated with every class
and circle of society, and was familiarly acquainted with
the most distinguished men of the capital. On the day
when the royal troops took captive and massacred the
garrison of the Castle, violated their oath and covenant,
and made manifest their infidelity and disbelief in the

1~ur'An, Murshid was amongst those whom they brought
bound before the Prince. Now SuleymAn KhAn' was an
old and intimate friend of Murshid's, and, as soon as his
eyes fell upon him, he said, "How came you to be involved
in this perit? Thank God that I was here, else you would
certainly not have escaped.," Murshid answered, "If you
desire to do me a friendly service such that I may bear you
eternal gratitude, do not intercede for me and thereby
deprive me of the glory of martyrdom." Suleymin KbAn,
overcome with astonishment, strove by every means to dis-
suade him from this course, but he only replied, "I have
tasted to the full the bitter and sweet of life, its hot and
cold,-its ups and downs. I have trodden every path, held
converse with every claass, associated with men of every
I ie. Suleym6n KhAn Afshdr, who was sent to supersede
Prince Mahdf-Kulf Mirzi in the actual command of the besieging
force. See p. 85 supra.

sort and condition, and -
,,olight to fitthoin, every creed, but
i_^i, m +Iia Tnitli save ill this supreme
nownere -nave I
station) where I have seen with mine eyes and heard w
mine ears things passing description. For a while I have
walked with these in the path of love and with them have
trod its stages, and I would not leave them now. Suffer
me, then, to bear them company, and set me free from the
trammels of this life.
(I know for sure that this my life is death;
My true life opens at ngiy closing breath."'
So he would not stiffer himself to be moved by Suleymin
KhAn's Persuasions, but continued looking towards the exe-
cutioner and awaiting the death-blow ; wherefore, seeing
him so eager for the draught of martyrdom, they quenched
his thirst with the bright sword. And SuleymAn KhAn
and the other officers were amazed beyond description at
his asteadfastness.
So in like manner there was anotlier, a mere youth,
whom the a-,ol(liers had hidden to save frorigi death, [that
advantage might accrue to them from his family.] But
when his eyes fell on Jen t -i-Kuddiis, whom they were
leading away in fetters and chains, he was overcome with
e and cried Out, Would that I were
uncontrollable motion, ,
blind, that I might not see you thus Then he began to
weep and cry out, saying, " Lot me go to my master; " and
though they bade him hold his peace and not make known
his connection with the BàbÕs, he did but cry the, more,
" Do ye not see that I am one of them ? " until at length
the others perceived the true state of the case, and bore
him away to death. r-:4-1-ful -41- were. le
Now as to the remnant ot the
alive, they brought them in fetters and chains to BArfurAsh.
Some of them they sold, such as *EMullA Muhammad
~idikj* of Kliurdsin, AkA Seyyid 'Aem the Turk, HAji
[MÕrzà] Nasfr of Kazvfn, and MÕrzà Huseyn of Kum'.
Several were sent to Sirf, and there suffered martyrdom ;
others were put to death at BArfurfisli; while two more
Of these latter, ne was Mull.4 Ni'-
were sent to AmuL 0
iiiatu'llAh of Amul, a man skilled in philosophy and science,
and endowed with singular virtues; the other was MÕrzà
Muhammad BAkir Tof KA'inj of KhurAsAn, Nvho, apart
from his learning, was a man of many arts and resources
and very brave and valorous, and who had planned most

of the strategical movements of the garrison. MullA Ni'-
iiiatu'11411 was first slain with every circumstance of cruelty
and indignity, but when the headsman would have killed
MÕrzà BAkir and began to mock and revile him, his anger
blazed forth, and, calling to mind the Beloved of the worlds,
lie broke the bonds which confined his arms, plucked the
knife from the headsmaii's hands, and smote him so sharply
on the neck that his head rolled away some ten or fifteen
paces. The bystanders rushed upon him, but he despatched
several of them to the hell whence they originally came,
and wounded some others, until at length they shot the
brave youth from afar off. Men and women marvelled at
his courage and manhood, wondering how he was able thus
to burst asunder those strong links of iron and oppose so
fierce a resistance to a thousand foes all thirsting for his
blood. When lie had fallen, they searched his pockets and
found therein a little roasted horse-fiesh +[which had be-
come too dry for him to eatj t and many a heart was moved
at the thought of his courage and his afflictionS2.
* [JenAb-i-Mukaddas] *
t ~wliich he had not be"en able to eatj t
1 Cf. my Traveller's Narrative, p. 129, n. 2.
2 In the notes taken during one of my interviews with Subh-

[Account of Akd Se id Alimad of Semnin and his
yy a
Of the number of those brave warriors of truth who
were most eminent for their attainments was AkA Seyyid
Ahmad of SeminAn, a preacher of incomparable eloquence
and rare powers of diction and delivery, well known
throughout all Mizandarin for his godliness, simplicity of
life, virtue, and piety. When lie saw the faithful belea-
guered in the Castle of Tabarsf, and ascertained them to be
for the most part learned, wise, and virtuous beyond the
generality of their fellows, he was convinced by his natural
acuteness of apprehension that they would not have em-
barked on so hazardous an enterprise or have thus impe-
rilled their lives unless they had clearly recognized -_ in the
new doctrine > -something --worthy of their self-devotion:>.
This was in the early days of the siege, be-fore the garrison
of the Castle were subjected to a rigorous blockade. And
the inhabitants of Sh,,gth-Mirzi and Dasak-sar, two consi-
derable villages situated near to the Tomb of Sheykh
i-Ezel at Famagusta I find the following entry, which in some
measure confirms what is here related:-" Mirz6 Bikir, who had
been balf-starved, and had had his nose cut off, was shot on the
bridge at ~mul, but not till he had -wounded several of his foes
with a kDife."
I I am uncertain as to the correct spelling of this name,
which is not clearly written in either MS. In C. it appears to
stand as j- tL,3; in L. as a_j; but in either case the first
letter may be a 5 instead of a ,. Perhaps it is the same village
as that called in the Rawzatu's-6afd in the Ndsikhu't-
Taw6rikh and by Gobinean (p. 202) Daskk In the
TraveZle?s Narrative (vol. ii, pp. 177 and 190) 1 have trans-
literated this name as Vdsaks, but this is merely conjectural.
Tabarsf, moved by the same. considerations as had influ
enced AkA Seyyid Ahmad, resolved to enquire into th
matter, and waited upon him to unfold their views. "I also,?
replied he, " am filled with wonder at their behaviour, an
am much disposed to examine their doctrine, and discove
what object they have in view." To this the others replie4
" We entertain no doubt concerning your piety and wisdom,
and if you, having visited them, affirm the truth of their
claims, we too will join ourselves to them and help them,
so far as lies in our power, with men and supplies."
Now although at this time none dared so much as
speak of the BàbÕs, much less go to their stronghold and
converse with them, AkA Seyyid Ahmad, actuated solely
by his natural goodness and sincerity, manfully set out for
the Castle to ascertain the truth of the matter. And it

had been agreed that, so soon as he should have satisfied
himself, he should return and inform the others of the state
of the case, so that, if they held to their promise, they
might all join the defenders of the Castle, and furnish them
with supplieas. So Ak6 Seyyid Ahmad, shutting his eyes
to all worldly considerations, and impelled by zeal to dis-
cover the truth, set his feet within that vortex of affliction.
And when he was come thither, and had met and conversed
with Je)za'b-i-Kuddfts and others of the believers, the veil
of doubt fell from his eyes, and he saw plainly that which
he sought transcending the understandings of the wisest
amongst mankind. So he believed with his whole heart,
and thereafter turned not back from the path on which he
had entered.
Then he sent word to the inhabitants of the two villages,
That which my heart hath long essayed to find
Is found at length, concealed this veil behind.'

So the villagers began to make preparations to go to the
Castle, but just at that time the troops hemmed it in on all
sides, closing every avenue of approach, so that they were
unable to reach it. Surely, men care, naught for religious
truth, and are held back by the bonds of passion and self-
interest from taking thought of spiritual things, for of
those, whether wise or simple, who set themselves to en-
quire into the matter not one but was convinced.
"The physician of Love hath the healing breath of Christ, and
is prone to heal,
But how can he undertake the cure of a pain which thou
dost not feel?"
Yet more wonderful than the events above described is
the account of them given by 'Abbia-,-Kulf KhAn, with
many expressions of admiration, to Prince Ahmad MÕrzà.
The late HAji MÕrzà JMif writes :-" About two years after
the disaster of Sheykh Tabarsf I heard one, who, though
not a believer, was honest, trathful, and worthy of credit,
relate as follows:-'We were sitting together when some
allusion was made to the war waged by some of those pre-
sent against Hazrat-i-Kudd~isl and Je)?a'b-i-Ba'bu'1-Ba'b.
Prince Ahmad MirzA and 'AbbAs-Kulf Kli6igi were amongst
the company. The Prince questioned 'Abbis-Kulf Khdn
-about the matter, and he replied thus :-" The truth of the
matter is that anyone who had not seen Kerbeli would, if
he had seen Tabarsf, not only have comprehended what
there took place, but would have ceased to consider it';
and had lie seen MullA Huseyii of Bushraweyh lie would
1 See n. 1 on p. 95 mpra.
2 ie. the courage displayed by the Ba'bfs at Sheykh Tabarsf
and the afflictions endured by them resembled, but far surpassed,
the fortitude and the sufferings of the Imirn Ijuseyn and his
followers at Kerbeli.
have been convinced that the Chief of Martyrs' had
returned to earth; *Tand had lie witnessed my deeds he
would assuredly have said, 'This is Shinir come back
with sword and lance.'J* I swear by the sacred plume 2
of His Majesty the Centre of the Universe that one day
Mulld Huseyn, having on his head a green turban, and
over his shoulder a shroud, came forth from the Castle,
stood forth in the open field, and [leaning on a lance which
he held in his hand] said,' 0 people, why, without enquiry,
and under the influence of passion and prejudiced misre-
presentation, do ye act so cruelly towards us, agnd strive
without cause to shed innocent blood ? Be ashamed before
the Creator of the universe, and at least give us passage,
that we may depart out of this land [to Europe, or Turkey,
or India.]' Seeing that tglle soldiers were moved, I opened

fire, and ordered the troops to shout so as to drown his
voice. Again 1 saw t[him lean on his lance and cry, 'Is
there any who will help me?' three times],t so that all
heard his cry. At that moment all the soldiers were silent,
land some beran to weep], and many of the horsemen were
visibly affected. Fearing that th ' e army might be seduced
from their allegiance, I again ordered them to fire land
shoutI. Then I saw MOR Huseyn unsheath his sword,
raise his face towards heaven, and exclaim, '0 God, I have
completed the proof to this host, but it availeth not.' Then
lie began to attack us on the right and on the left. I swear
by God that on that day lie wielded the sword in such
*PA bbris-lCuli' Kluin's descrigion of 111.11116 Rusey2z's
entry into the field of balile.]*
t Ithat his voice was raisedl f
I ie. the ImArn Vuscyn.
2 Jika, properly the aigrette worn by the Shah in the front
of his kuldh.

wise as transcends the power of man. Only the horsemen
of MAzandarAn held their ground and refused to flee. And
when MullA Huseyn was well warmed to the fray he over-
took a  impossible for sword to cut so trueJ
therefore I forbade all who were aware of this thing to
mention it or make it known, lest the troops should be
discouraged and should wax faint in the fight. But in
truth I know not what had been shewn-to those people,
or what they had seen, that they came forth to battle
with such alacrity and joy, and engaged so eagerly
and gladly in the strife, without displaying in their
countenances any trace of fear or apprehension. One
would imagine that in their eyesa the keen sword and
blood-spilling dagger were but means to the attainment
of everlaasting life, so eagerly did their necks and
bosoms welcome them as they circled like salamanders
round the fiery hail of bullets. And the astonishing thing
was that all these men were scholars and men of learning,
sedentary recluses of the college and the cloister, delicately
nurtured and of weakly frame, inured < indeed >- to austeri-
*[knowing it to be the blow of Iiias hand]*
I i.e. be cut each of them in two.
2 (Ali b. Abf Tdlib, the first Imim.
ties, but strangers to the roar of cannon, the rattle of mus-
ketry, and the field of battle. During the last three months
of the siege, moreover, they were absolutely without bread
and water, and were reduced to the extreme of weakness
through lack of even such pittance of food as is sufficient
to sustain life. Notwithstanding this, it seemed as if in
time of battle a new spirit was breathed into their frames,
insomuch that the imagination of man cannot conceive the
vehemence of their courage and valour. They used to
expose their bodies to the bullets and cannon-balls not
olgily fearlessly and courageously, but eagerly and joyously,
seeming to regard the battle-field as a banquet, and to be
bent on casting away their lives'." ' "
In short, seldom has the eye of time beheld or the his-

torian been called upon to record events so wondrous or
afflictions so dire as those which befell these devoted be-
lievers in Mizandarin. And withal these men were for
the most part lionourable amongst their people, delicately
nurtured in the lap of luxury, accustomed to comfort if not
to splendour, highly considered and esteemed by their
neighbours, and in the enjoyment of fame, influence, and
high authority. Yet they manfully severed all worldly
ties, abandoned every hope and ambition of their own, and
for nine months were exposed to all manner of afflictions,
suffering sudh long stress of hunger that they were content
to eat grass and the flesh of horses and to drink each day 4
single cup of warm water. Yet, so far from complaining or
*ubh-i-Ezel informed me that on one occasion, when some
of the cle~gy of Mr began to revile Mullh Huseyn in the resence
of 'AbbAs-J~ulf Khdn, he said-
..U ~ :~ ,y. J6~_' ijla;  U
"There is no occasion for reviling: he was a brave man, who
slew and was-slain."

sorrowing, they endured patiently and even joyfully, not
swerving aside by so much as a hair's breadth from the path
which they so steadfastly followed, and attaining to heights
of constancy whereof the lowest degree transcends the
imagination of saints and apostles. The pen is powerless
to describe the full measure of their high-souled devotion
and heroism, but a sufficient hint of it has been given
in this brief narrative to prevent the uninformed from re-
garding this episode as a matter of small consequence, or
imagining that it was but men of mean position who,
misled by idle dreams, suffered themselves to be slain.
Let this much at least be known and recognized, that these
were men of consequence aihid the best of every class, and
that they, disregarding all worldly considerations, did,
being of full knowledge and understanding, voluntarily
and cheerfully lay down their lives in the way of the
Now these events took place in the fifth' year of the
Manifestation, corresponding to the year A.H. 12642 , and
the period of their duration [from first to last] was nine
months [or even more].
C. has "third". The fifth year of the Manifestation beoan
on the Nawr~iz Of A.H. 1264 (about March 21St, A.D. 1848). Cf.
Traveller's Yarrative, p. 425.
2 C. has "A.H. 1263". The troubles in Mizandarin began
towards the end of the year A.H. 1264 (autunin Of A.D. 1848)
and lasted till Ramaz'n or Sbawwa' A.H. 1265 (July or August
[Account of the Episode of the learned, virtuous, and incom-
' I
parable Aka Seyyid Ya~ya', the possessor of divine
gifts of the highest order, the strenuous striver ater
knowledge, who went to Feirs to seek after the truth,
and proved His Supreme Holiness, until at length he
reached the haven of faith ; and how he went thenice
to Yezd, and there set up the standard, and thence to
Ni`r'~; and of the circumstances incidental to all this.]
Yet more wonderful than the MAzandardn episode is
that which befell AkA Seyyid YahyA of Ddrgb, son of the
late AkA Seyyid ia'far-i-Kashff. And he was eminent
amongst divines and thinkers, divinely gifted with super-
natural faculties, notable for his sanctity, and unrivalled in
austerity of life and piety. Now when lie heard the report
of the Manifestation, he went to Shfriz expressly to enquire
into the matter. There he met with a certain eminent and
illustrious divine who is in truth learned in Divine Know-
ledge and wise in the wisdom of the Eternal, one whose

being is an ever-stirriDg sea harbouring ideas bright as
pearls. But men know him not by this name < of BàbÕ >,
for the All-Wise hath till now kept him under the shadow
of His protection for the - perfecting and training of His
servants, the guidance of such as wander in the wilderness
of search into the straight highway of knowledge, and the
deliverance from error of such as seek after truth. With
this illustrious personage and several other, learned and
pious believers did this thirsty pilgrim in the path of
enquiry meet on his arrival at ShfrAz. He was eager to
obtain forthwith an interview with the BAb, but per-
mission was for sundry reasons deferred, and Seyyid
YahyA spent this interval in examining some of the sacred

writings. Finding in them no ground for objection or de-
nial, he said in confidence to the illustrious divine already
referred to, " These luminous words bear witness to the
truth of the claim, and leave no room for doubt ; yet were
it permitted to me to behold some miracle or sign beyond
this, I should gain a fuller assurance." To this the other
answered, " For such as have like us beheld a thousand
marvels stranger than the fabled cleaving of the moon to
demand a miracle or sign from that Perfect Truth would
be as though we should seek light from a candle in the full
blaze of the radiant sun:
In presence of the sun's effulgence bright
Should we from lamp or candle seek for light,
'T would surely be an act as vain as rude,
A proof of folly and ingratitude.
The sun, in sooth, requires no further sign
Than the slant sun-beam's long-protracted line.""
So AkA Seyyid Yahyi set down in writing several hard
questions of his own devising, and one night, about five
hours after sun-set, sent this paper by means of the eminent
divine afore-mentioned to His Supreme Holiness. In the
morning the messenger brought the answer, wherein were
nearly three thousand verses of texts and explanations
sufficient to dispel all doubts. No sooner had AkA Seyyid
YahyA glanced at these than be was filled with wonder, and
said to that illustrious divine, " I have beheld a marvel a
hundred-thousand-fold beyond what I sought, for, with all
my learning and scholarship, I spent nine whole days in
writing one single page of questions containing not inore
than twelve lines. Most wonderful, therefore, does it seem
to me that over two thousand verses and illustrations of
such exceeding eloquence and beauty of style should be
revealed and written down during five or six hours of the
I This quotation is from the .1fasnavi.
latter part of the night, which is the time for His Holigne a ss'
When, therefore, AkA Seyyid Yal~yA had well consi-
dered that writing, *[and the solutions therein offered of
the hard questions which he had propounded, his doubts
were completely removed];* and, after a sojourn of some
little while, during which the honour of an interview was
accorded to him, he received permission to depart, and set
out for Yezd. The late HAjf MÕrzà JAnf writes, " A'kA
Seyyid YahyA, agreeably to the behest of His Supreme Holi-
ness, came from Yezd to TeherAn, and it was during this
Journey that I had the honour of meeting him. It was at a

season when snow had covered the earth, the air was bitter
cold, and snow and rain threatened travellers with destruc-
tion and rendered locomotion almost impracticable. Never-
theless I beheld in him a blitheness and content which knew
no limit. I once demanded of him in the course of conver-
sation what had been the means of his conversion, and how
he had come to believe. His answer was as follows:-'After
the report of the Manifestation had been spread abroad,
men would ask of me, " What say you of him'? " to which
I was for~ed to reply, " Not having seen him, what can
I say? When I have seen him, and ascertained somewhat
about him, I shall be able to impart to you what I have
-understood." After a while I -set out for ShfrAz to enquire
into the matter. In the first interview with His Holiness
wherewith I was honoured, I spoke, after the manner of
divines, in a somewhat arrogant fashion, asking numerouas
questions, and conducting myself haughtily, as men of
learning are wont to do. His Holiness answered ine; but,
* Jhe at once believed and prostrated himself in wor-
1 i.e. the BAb.
N. 11.

my eyes being still covered with a veil of egotism and self-
approval, his words found no favour in my sight. 1 began to
be somewhat sorry that I had troubled myself to no purpose,
and fruitlessly undertaken so long and tedious a journey,
though His Holiness smiled upon me, and treated ine very
graciously. On returning to my lodging, I said to some of
his disciples who were profoundly versed in knowledge,
" You are far wiser and more learned than this youth ; for
what reason do you acknowledge the truth of hisg claim. and
admit the cogency of his proofs?" "If you will but be
patient," answered they, " for a little while, you too will
confess and yield." I wished to return to my home, and
was actually iDtending to start, but my companions pre-
vented me, saying, " You too will be fully convinced."
I enquired on what grounds they based their belief. They
replied, " Experience has taught us that anyone whom His
Holiness receives graciously, and to whom he shews affec-
tion, is in the end invariably -persuaded, even though lie be
filled with antagonism and aversion ; while, on the other
hand, anyone on whom His Holiness looks not favourably
turns aside, even though at first he incline to believe."
" 'To be brief, one night His Holiness summoned ine,
and, after receiving me. very graciously, said, 1, What dost
thou. desire of ine ? " I replied, " I aiii a man of learning,
and learning is my daily bread. I have in mind several
questions, the which should you be able to solve I shall
know that the Point of Knowledge is yours." " Write
down your questions," said lie, " that I may answer thein
in writing." Now I had in inind three questions. Two of
these I wrote down and handed to His Holiiie,-,as, who It
once took a pen, and, without reflection or hesitation, wrote,
as fast as pen could travel, answer-, of agurpassing inerit.
Then lie took another sheet of paper and wrote, "The third
question which you have in your inind is this, and this is
its answer." When 1 had considered these full and sufli-
cient answers, and the reply given to the question which
I had in my mind (which I regarded as more weighty and
important than the other two, but deemed unanswerable),
I submitted so entirely to the power of attraction and influ-
ence which he possesses that at a mere hint on his part I am
proud and glad to undertake a journey in tghis cold winter
weather, my only hope being that he will of his grace and
favour accept me as the servant of his servants, and that
I may be permitted to shed even a drop of my blood in the
furtherance of his cause.'
" When, after the lapse of some time, I again had the
honour of meeting AkA Seyyid YahyA in Teherin,'I ob-
served in his august countenance the signs of a glory and

power which I had not noticed during iny first journey
with him to the capital, nor on other occasions of meeting,
and I knew that these signs portended the near approach
of -his departure from the world. Subsequently lie said
several times in the course of conversation, 'This is my
last journey, and hereafter you will see me no more,' and
often, explicitly or by implication, he gave utterance to the
same thought. Sometimes when we were together, and the
conversation took an appropriate turn, he would remark,
'The saints of God are able to foretell coming events, and
I swear by that Loved One in the grasp of whose power my
soul lies that I know and could tell where and how I shall
be slain ' and who it is that shall slay me. And how glorious
and blessed a thing it is that my blood should be shed for
the uplifting of the Word of Truth 1
So AkA Seyyid YahyA, after he had believed and made
submission, took leave of the Bib, and set out from Shiriz
1 Some reflections of the author, which merely serve to
interrupt the continuity of the narrative, are here omitted.

for Yezd. For a while during the earlier period of lii,,-
mission lie expounded the BAb's doctrines only in gather-
ings of such as were prepared and fitted to hear tlieligi-
But afterwards, according to the purport of the verse-
11 Prudence and love can ne'er walk hand in hand,"
and the Yerse-
"Love htiid fair fai-ne nitist waue eternal war;
0 10A,er, halt not at the loved one's door
lie began openly to proclaiiii the truth, and converted a
great multitude, besides leading many who -had not reached
the stage of conviction and the haven of assurance to
profess devotion and agyinpatliy. At length, through the
officiotisigiess of certain lihieddlesome and mischievous per-
sons, the governor of Yezd was informed of what was taking
place. He, fearing for himself, sent a body of men to arrest
Seyyid Yal~yA. A trifling collision occurred between the
two parties, and thereupon the governor prepared to effect
his capture by force of arms.
Seyyid YaliyA retired with a number of his followers
and friends into the citadel of Yezd, while the myrmidons
of the governor surrounded it and commenced hostilities.
At length the matter came to actual warfare, in the course
of which some thirty or more Jof the governor's men and
the roghlies and vagabonds of the city who had joined them
were killed, while sevenj of AkA Seyyid Yahy6's followers
[were also slain. and the rest were besieged for soi-ihie time,
till some], unwilling to endure ffirther disaster, dispersed.
Seyyid YahyA therefore determined to set out for ShfrAz,
and said one night, " If one of you could manage to lead
out my liorase, so that I might escape this disaster, and
convey myself to some other place, it were not amiss."
One Hasaii by name, who bad been for some time in
I  i
attendance on Seyyid Yahya4, and had displayed in his
service the utmost faithfulness and devotion (having wit-
nessed on the part of his august master inany a display of
miraculous and supernatural faculties), made answer, saying,
"With your permission, I will lead out the horse." "They
will capture and slay you," replied Seyyid Ya~y& " That,"

rejoined Hasan, "is easy to bear, if it be for I love of YOU2
and I have no ambition beyond it." So Seyyid YahyA
.suffered him to go, and, even as he had announced,;they
took the youth captive outside the citadel and brought him
before the governor, who ordered him to be blown from the
mouth of a cannon. When they would have bound him
with his back towards the gun, lie said, " Bind me, I pray
you, with my face towards the gun, that I may see it fired."
The gunners and those who stood by looking on were all
astonished at his composure and cheerfulness, and indeed
one who can be cheerful in such a plight must needs have
,great faith and fortitude.
Seyyid YaliyA, however, succeeded in effecting his
escape from the citadel with one other, and set out gfor
.SllirAz, whence he proceeded to Nfriz. After his departure
his followers were soon overcome by the governor. Several
of them were taken captive and put to death, wbile from
the rest, after they had suffered divers torments, fines of
money were exacted.
Now when Seyyid YahyA was come to Nfriz, where was
the abode of his family, and where lie had many adherents
(some of the country-folk being believers, others deniers,
and many halting undecided), the governor of that district,
though lie had formerly professed the most devoted attach-
ment, no sooner perceived that a struggle was imminent,
and that the government would pass out of his hands, than
lie sent word to Seyyid Yahyi saying, " I do not consider
it expedient that you should continue any longer in this

province. It is best that you should depart with all speed
to some other place." To this Seyyid Yahy& made reply,
" I have returned hither, after a prolonged absence, to learn
how matters fare, and to see my wife and family, neither. do
I wish to interfere with anyone. What makes you order
me to quit illy house, instead of affording me protection,
and observing towards me the respect which is my due?
Do you not fear God, and have you no sliame before His,
apo stle "
aw that Seyyid YaliyA heeded.
So when the governor s(
not his words and answered him sharply, lie was filled with
obstinate spite, and strove to raise a popular tumult, in-
citing si-icgli men of every class and kind as were most,
,vicked and mischievous to make a disturbance and drive
out Seyyid YahyA, who, perceiving this, repaired to the
mosque, and, after performing his devotions, entered the.
pulpit formerly occupied by his grandfather, and spoke asg
" Am I not lie whose opinions and prescriptions ye were,
wont to follow in all religious questions ? In your need&
and trials, as well as in all matters of doctrine and practice,
'used ye not to prefer illy word to that of any other ? Waas~
not lily belief, and the judgement which illy studies had led
me to form, the criterion of all your actions ? What has-,
collie to you that you meet iiie now with opposition and
eninity? What forbidden thing have I sanctioned, or what
lawful thing have I forbidden, that you thus without reasoiia
charge me with heresy and error ? I stand liere anioligst,
you wronged and oppressed for no other cause than that I
have, for your awakening and enlightenment, spoken true~
words and held faithful discourse, and that I have, out
of sympathy for you and desire for your welfare, made
known to you the way of salvation. This being so, let
each who slights or supports me know for a surety that,
whatsoever lie does, lie does in regard to illy illustrious
When he had spoken to this effect, some were sorry,
and some wept*bitterly, saying, "We still continue in our
former allegiance and devotion to you, and all that you
say we hold true and right."
Then Seyyid YahyA came forth from the mosque,
quitted the city, and alighted in a ruined castle hard by,
those friends who bore him company being not more than

seventeen in number. But even after lie had left the city
his malicious and ngiischievous persecutors ceased not from
their evil designs, for they followed bim with a great inulti-
tude, scouring the country in all directions until they dis-
covered his retreat. Thereupon they laid siege to the castle
and opened hostilities. Then Seyyid Ya~iyA commanded
seven of his men to go out and drive them away, and gave
them full instructions as to the ordering of the sally, adding
that whoever should occupy a certain station would be slain
by a wound in the breast, and that such as went in a certain
direction would return unhurt. One amongst those present,
a young lad of Yezd, good of heart and comely of coun-
teiiance, arose and said, "I pray you suffer igne to be the
pioneer of this nhiucli-wronged band and to precede illy
comrades in martyrdolu." And Seyyid YahyA kissed him
on the clieek, and breathed a prayer for him. Then the
defenders of the castle sallied swiftly forth, and attacked
that godless host of hypocrites, and ere long scattered them
and put them to flight. But the Yezdi lad, even as hiai
master had foretold, and lie had himself desired, drained
the draught of martyrdom, escaped from the bonds of earth'as
deceits, and gained the everlasting world and the life eter-
iial, But the rest returned victorious, having learned the
1 (Alf b. Abf Talib the first lm,,im.

meaning of "verily we belong to God, and unto Him do we
At the very time when these events were in progress,
Prince Firitz MirzA' came to assume the government of
ShfrAz, and was informed of what had taken place. He at
once collected a considerable force, which he despatched
under the command of Mihr 'All KhAn
soil of HAjf Shukru'llAh KhAii of Nfir, and Mustafi-Kuli
KhAn KAragtizlfi, colonel, to subdue and take captive the
insurgents. When this force reached the castle, the number
of Seyyid Ya~yA's followers had increased to seventy.
Several encounters took place. between the two forces, and
on each occasion the BàbÕs routed and dispersed their oppo-
nents and obtained possession of a goodly spoil. And all
this while the devotion, faith, and love of Seyyid YahyA's
companions were much increased by the many prodigies
which he wrought, so that each was fully prepared to lay
down his life. And when Seyyid YahyA had repeatedly
described to his COMPaDiOnS the circumstances of his ap-
proaching end, and all had, for the good pleasure of the
Beloved, washed their hands of life, and, quit of earthly
ties, were awaiting martyrdom, those who had come to take
them, being unable, notwitlistandina all their efforts, to
prevail by force of arms, and despairing of the final issue,
had recourse to treachery, and wrote to Seyyid Yahy6
expressing perplexity as to his mission, making excuses
for the past, declaring themselves to be desirous of enquir-
ing into the matter, and begging for instruction. They
further pledged them, with oaths plighted on the Word of
* [DfvAn-Begfl *
I Both C. and L. have 11 Prince Farbdd Mfrza'," an obvious
error. Cf. my Traveller's Narrative, vol. ii, pp. 183, and 257--8.
God, that if he would be good enough to come out to them,
they would agree to whatever terms he might propose.
So Seyyid YaVyA, out of respect for the Kur'àn , prepared to go forth. But his
followers surrounded him on every side, saying, " We are
fearful and anxious about your outgoing, for this host is
more faithless than the men of Kdfa'. No reliance can be
-placed on their oaths and promises, neither ought you to
believe their asseverations." To this Seyyid YahyA replied,
ic By God, I clearly perceive their perfidy, faithlessness, and
treachery, and I know it as well as my saintly ancestor'
knew the perfidy of the men of Ku'fa. But how can I resist

their wiles, these being in accord with divinely-appointed
destiny ? Because of what they have written and pledged
themselves on the Kur'Aii to perform, it is incumbent on
me to go and complete the proof Do you abide here till
you receive my written instructions." +TThen, having
wept a while with them, he mounted his horse and rode
So Seyyid Ya~yA came to the royalist camp, and there
alighted. And at first they treated him with all respect
and deference, [such respect as Ma'm-hn observed towards
the holy lm4,m 'Alf ibn Mfisi er-RizA while inwardly bent
on his death.] And they agreed to postpone all discussion
t[I'lien lie mounted his horse and took a last farewell
.of his companions, saying, " Verily we belong to God, and
verily unto Him do we return." And his followers wept
bitterly.] t
1 The people of KUM by their promises of support induced
the ImAni Huseyn to take up arms, but failed him in the day of
2 ImAni Huseyn, from whom, as a Seyyid, Seyyid YahyA
claimed descent.

of teriihis till the morrow, a,,iiid spent that night in conversing
on various topics. But when morning was come, and
Seyyid YahyA would have gone forth from his tent, the
sentinels prevented him, saying, " It is not permitted to
you to go out." So he remained a prisoner in the tent.
No sooner had tidings of this reached Seyyid Yah.),A's
faithful followers than, unable to restrain themselves, they
emerged from their castle, hurled themselves upon the
centre of the army, and, in the space of one hour, threw
the whole camp into confusion. The officers, seeing this,
hastened into Seyyid YahyA's presence, saying, "Was it
not agreed between us last night that there should be peace
and concord?" "Aye," said lie, "but your conduct this
morning provoked this reprisal." "It was done without
our knowledge," answered they, " and without our sanction.
Some of our men, who have lost kinsmen and relatives in
this warfare, offered you this insult ignorantly and without
our knowledge. You, who are merciful and generous, must
overlook their fault." "What", quoth he, "would you
have me do?" "Write", said they, "to these men of
yours, bidding them evacuate the castle and return to their
own homes, that the minds of our soldiers may be re-
assured; and we will then arrange matters as you may deter-
nhiiiie, and act agreeably to your suggestions."
So S eyyid YahyA had no resource but to write to his
followers, " Come what may, you must submit to divinely-
ordered destiny; aihid meanwhile there is nothing for it but
that you should gather up your own gear, leaving the spoils
you have won exactly as they are, and return to your own
homes. Let us wait and see what God wills." So these
poor people, being constrained to obey his behest, departed
to their homes. But no sooner were they coiihie thither
than their foes attacked their houses, captured them singly,
carried off their goods as spoil, destroyed their dwellings,,
and brought them in chains, bound hand and foot, to'the
Now there was with Seyyid YahyA a certain believer of
Yezd who had served him faithfully both at Yezd and
.L\'Irfz, renouncing all and suffering much for his,sake.~ And
when word was brought that the headsman was on his way
from the city charged with the execution of Seyyid YahyV,
this man began to make great lamentation. But his illus-
trious master said, " It is thee, not me, whom this heads-
man shall slay; he who shall slay me will arrive to-morrow."
When the morrow was come, about an hour after the time

of the morning prayer, he said again, "He who is to slay
.1) as-;
me is now come Shortly after this, a party offarr' he.
arrived and led out Seyyid YahyA and the Yezdf from the
tent. Then the headsmaii, just as Seyyid Yahyi had fore-
told, administered to the youth the draught of martyrdom
but, when his glance fell on Seyyid Yal.iyA, he said, " I am
asharned before the face of God's Apostle, and will -never
lift my hand to slay his offspring," neither would he, for all
their importunity, consent to do their bidding. Then one
who had lost two brothers in the earlier part of the war,
and therefore cherished a deep resentment, said, "I will
kill him." And he loosed the shawl wherewith Seyyid
Yahyi was girt, cast it round his neck, and drew it tight.
And others beat his holy body with sticks and stones,
dragging it hither ahd thither over the plain, till his soul
soared falcon-like to the branches of paradise. Then they
severed his head from his body, skinned it, stuffed it with
straw, and sent it, with other heads, along with the captives
to ShirAz. And they sent an announcement of their, victory
I L. has ein wqjh-i-_Rabb, "that Face of the Lord," ie. "that
apparition of the Divine." Wajlb (face, ngiask, apparition) was a
title assumed by the BAb, Ml'rzA YahyA &bli-i-Ezel, and, I think,,
others of the chief Bibis.

and triumph to Prince Nusratu'd-Dawlal, and fixed a day
for their entry . And when oil the appointed
day they drew near, the city was decorated, and the people
were busy enjoying themselves ai ' id making merry, most of
them having come out froin the town to iihieet the victorious
troops and gaze oil the captives.
The late HAji Mfrzi Jilif writes :-" One Kfichak 'Alf
-', the head-man and chief of the Bisirf' tribe of
ShfrAz, related as follows :-'After they had slain AkA
Seyyid YahyA, they came to take camels from our people,
intending to set the captives on bare-backed camels. I was
distressed at this, but could not resist the governor's order.
I therefore rode away fToin iigiy tribe at night and came to
SlifrAz, that at least I might not be amongst my people and
have to endure the insolence of the soldiers. When 1 was
come within half a parasang of SlifrAz, I lay down to sleep
for a while and so get rid of my weariness. When I again
mounted, I saw that the people of Shfriz had come out in
troops with minstrels and musicians, and were sitting
about in groups at every corner and cross-road, feasting
and making merry with wanton women. Oil every side I
noted with wonder drunken broils, wine-bibbing, the savour
of roasted meats, and the astrains of guitars and lutes.
Thus wondering I entered the city.
"'After a while, unable to endure the suspense, I de-
termined to go out and see what was taking place. [As I
1 The same Ffruz Alfrzi previously mentioned. L., constant
in its error, substitutes " Jfu'tamadn'd-Daula ", the title of
Prince Farhid AlfrzA, but this, as already observed, is a mistake.
2 L. omits, and C. reads "Nik", but this seems to be a mistake
for "Beg". The name occurs a little further on (in a passage
-omitted in C.) as here given in the text.
3 The BAsirf is one of the Xhamsa (Arab) noniad tribes of
Fars and LdristAn. See Curzon's Persia, vol. ii, p. 114.
came forth from the gate, I heard an old man asking anotherp I
" What has happened to-day that the people have thus left
their houses and gone out of the -town as though to see
some great sight, and why do -they thus make merry? "
The other, a youth, replied, " You must surely be a stranger
not to know about the heretic who renounced our faith and
creed and rebelled against His Majesty the King, and how
a great force of troops was sent against him. Well, they
have taken and slain him, and made captive his family and
his followers, whom they will bring into the city to-day."
" By which gate," asked the old man, will they ellter?"
"By Sa'di's gate," answered the other.

["'He was a wise old man,' continued Klhchak 'Alf Beg,
and had seen the world and read its history!' As soon
as I had heard what passed between him and the youth,
it at once recalled to me the story of Sahl ibn Si'id, how
he questioned the man of Damascus, and how just such a
dialogue ensued, and how the latter said, " They will enter
Damascus by the gate of SA'At'." I was much struck by
I The narrator means, I suppose, to imply that the old man,
struck by the resemblance between the episodes of Nfrfz and
Kerbela', intentionally asked this question to bring out this
resemblance more clearly.
2 In illustration of this narrative, I subjoin the translation of
a passage occurring in a manuscript collection of ta'ziya8 belong-
ing to the University Library of Cambridge (Add. 423, f. 631):-
"It is related on the authority of Ibn 'AbbAs that Sahl-i-Silidf
related as follows:-'I had gone on business to Damascus. One
day I arrived at a village in the neighbourhood of Damascus. I
found that orders had been issued for the village to be decorated,
and that the people were flocking out as though to see some
sight, with rejoicings and beatings of drams and kettle-drums. I
said to myself, " Surely these people must have some festival not
common to other men." I asked one what was toward. 'He
replied, "0 Sheykh, art thou then an Arab of the desert?" I

the coincidence, and my wonder increased. When I had
gone asompwliat further,] I saw such feastings and rejoicings
as I had never before witnessed. Most of the men were
engaged in sports and games, making merry and toying
with their lemans. After a little while I saw approaching
the camels, whereon there were set some forty or fifty
women. TMany of the soldiers bore on their spears the
severed heads of the men they had slain.J And till this
time the, towns-folk had been busy with their nierry-
makings, but no sooner did their eyes fall on the severed
heads borne aloft on spears and the captives-set on bare-
backed carnels than they incontinently biirast into tears.
cc C So they brought the captives thus into the bazaars,
which had been decorated and adorned, and though it was
no great distance from the bazaars to the citadel, yet such
was the throng of spectators (who purposely retarded the
passage of the captives) that it was after mid-day when
they reached the governor's palace. The Prince was hold-
im, a pleasnre-party in the surnmer-liouse called KuNih-i-
Firangt` and the garden adjoining it, lie sitting on a chair,
and the nobles and magnates of the city standing. On one
[Aiid by the side of each camel and captive was a
severed head stuck on the point of a spear.]
,ans am Salil-i-Silid' , m an our
, wered, " I i, and one of the co p ions of
Holy Prophet." The man heaved a sigh and began to weep and
make lhlmentation, saying, " It is wonderful that the heavens
do not rain down blood at this calamity." Then said 1, "Speak
more clearly." Then quoth lie, " The people of Damascus are
rejoicing and making merry over the blessed head of Irn-6tin
HLiseyii which they of 'Indtk have sent to Yizfd." I said, " From
which gate of the city will they bring forth that head?" He
answered, "From the Gate of S6'At."...'"
I "The European's bat." This surnmer-house was still stand-
ino, when I was at Shfriz in the Spring of 1888.
side was drawn a curtain, behind which hthe women of the
Prince's household were ensconced. And the captives [all
bound to one chain] were led in this sad plight into the
garden and brought before the Prince. Then Mihr 'Alf
Khin, MÕrzà Na'im', and the other officers recounted their
exploits and their glorious victory, with various versions
and many embellishments, to the Prince, who on his part
kept enquiring the names, rank, and family of the captives,
and throwing in an occasional, "Who is this?" and "Which
is that?" And all the captives were women, with the ex-

ception of one child four or five years of age who was with
them. "[And that sickly child was in truth a partaker of
the sufferings of these unfortunate women.
[" 'Now when the conversation had,been protracted-
for a long while, suddenly a very tall woman who was
amongst the captives cried out, " 0 son of MarjAna', hast
thou no fear of God and no shame before my ancestor'
that thou thus lookest on -his offspring before all these
strange men?"" Here K-ftchak 'Alf Beg would add an
oath as lie continued, 'The woman's words produced such
an effect on the hearts of those who were present that had
*JThen they dismissed the captives from the Prince's
presence, and, as it would seem, appointed them lodgingsg
in a caravansaray.1
1 See Traveller's Narrative, vol. ii, pp. 259-261.
2 i.e. Shimar ibn Jawshan, one of the murderers of IMAM
]Uuseyn. See Sir Lewis Pelly's Miracle Play of Hasan and
Huseyn, vol. ii, p. 258, and Tabarf's Annales, series ii, vol. i, p.
377,1. 6.
3 The Prophet Muhammad, or his cousin and son-ih-law 'Alf
b. Abi Talib, from whom the woman, as belonging toa family of
Seyyids, claimed descent.
4 ie. men beyond the circle of those whose nearness of
kinship to a woman eigititles them to look on her unveiled.'

the sight-seers and townsfolk been there and witnessed.
what took place there would assuredly have been a dis-
turbance and revolt. The Prince first ordered the woman
to be killed, but afterwards, seeing the temper of the
bystanders greatly changed, he grew apprehensive, and-
ordered the captives to be diiinissed.]*"'
On the night when the raid had been made oil ther
houses of the faithful  and they were taken
captive, twelve persons had succeeded in effecting their
escape. These, however, were subsequently captured in
Ithe neighbourbood ofj Isfaliki and brought to Shfriz,
where they suffered martyrdom.
But besides all this, tTas it would seem two years
later,lt they again waged a strangely protracted mountain
warfare with the believers , who, because of the
cruelties and exactioDs to which they were subjected, were
for a long while in hiding in the mountains with their
wives and children. -
jThis struggle lasted for a long while ; and that little
band, hemmed in as they were in their mountain fastness,
succeeded in holding their ground until a mighty host of
regular troops and volunteers from far and near bad been
gathered against them, and they had fought many a hard
fight, and won many a gallant victory. Often would a
company of seven or nineteen men come down with cries
of " Y6 8611 ib it'z-zamcitn 1 attack a battery, cut down all
who opposed them, capture the gun, and bear it away with
them to the mountain, where they would mount it oil a
t . ' '
,~after a tim(
Plie BAbis ~~,o)Tjlallt most gallantly and were always
victorious, until it 0 length, after a desperate resistance,
they were overcome, and suffered martyrdom. Their perse-
1 11 0 Lord of tihieAge!"Cf.j)j).69and7d4,s?ip?,a.
tree trunk and fire it morning and evening against the
camp. At other times they would make night-attacks on
certain suburbs of Nfriz inhabited by God's enemies, num-
bers of whom they would send to the abyss of hell-fire.
At such times none could withstand thein, or do aught but
choose between submission and flight.
TNOW Zeynu'l-'Abidfn Khin the governor of Nfriz had
taken the chief part in bringing about all these troubles.
He it was who had compassed the death of the much-
wronged Seyyid Ya~yA in the first war; he it was who
devised most of the stratagems, tactics, dispositions, and
arrangements of the army; lie it was who, both in the first
and the second war, provoked strife for the sake of securing
his position as governor and winning approval from the
government; he it was, in short, who had driven away the

BAbis from their homes and possessions, and caused them
with their wives and families to be beleaguered in the
mountains. So one day when this honourable governor
had gone to the bath, the insurgents attacked the baffi and
slew him.
TBut reinforcements of men and guns sent in rapid
succession by Prince TalimAsp MÕrzà (at that time governor
of FArs) continued to arrive and occupy the rising ground
adjoining the mountain. Yet, notwithstanding the great-
ness of their host and the -small number of the-besieged,
they did not venture to ascend the mountain and attack
cutors, having captured and killed the men, seized and
slew forty women and children in the following manner.
They placed them in the midst of a cave, heaped up in the
cave a vast quantity of firewood, poured naptitha over the
faggots strewn around, and set fire to it. One of those
who took part in this deed related as follows:-" After two
or three days I ascended that mountain and removed the
door from the cave. I saw that the fire had sunk down
N. H.

them. Even in their camp they were ill at case because of
the night-attacks and sudden onslaughts made UPOD them
by parties of their antagonists ten or twenty strong. These,
as is related, would oft-times rush into the camp, attack
the artillery, slay the gunners, and return, pushing the
guns with their shoulders, till they reached the mountain.
Then, because the gun-carriages would go no further, they
would dismount the guns, and, with shoulders and ropes,
push and drag them up the mountain. There they would
remount them on tree-trunks in place of carriages.
JSo when the royalist troops saw that they could effect
nothing, they sent into SAbAuAt, DArAb, and the other
. The BàbÕs, men and women alike,
defended tliei-na-,elves most gallantly, and everywhere dis-
played, both in defence and attack, the itioast desperate
courage, until most of them were aslaiii, and the few sur-
vivors, having exhausted their powder and shot, were taken
into the ashes - but all those women with their children
were seated, each in sol'fl'e corner, clasping their little ones
to their bosoms, and sitting round in a circle, just as they
were . Some, as though in despair
or in mournina had suffered their heads to sink down oil
their knees in garief, and all retained the postures they had
assumed. I N~'as filled with amazement, thinking that the
fire had not burned them. Full of apprehension and awe
prisoners. Then the people, swarming over the mountain
on all sides, seized the grief-stricken and distracted women
whose husbands had been slain, and brought them, together
with a few little children, to the camp ; and we call a Well
guess the treatment to which these women and children were
there subjected. After that the host of Jocal auxiliarieas
dispersed, while the regular troops broke, up their camp,
and, carrying with them their prisoners, and the severed
heads of the men, set out for ShfrAz, which in due course
they reached.
JTbe above brief narrative of these events is what the
illustrious Nabil, tile reviser of this poor history of mine,

heard when he passed through Nfriz from certain aged folk
who had survived that time and had full knowledge of all
that took place. And in truth the events of the second
struggle were by many degrees stranger and more remark-
able than those of the first, which took place in Seyyid
YahyA's lifetime.12 But -at that time the -BAbis were
subject to so rigorous a persecution, and matters went so
hard with them, that none dared so much ~ as ;utter their
name, or allude to them in any way, or enquire aught
I entered. Tilen I saw that all were bur h ned and chagrred to
a cinder, yet had they never made a movement which
would cause the crumbling away of the bodies. As soon
as I touched them with -my hand, however, they crumbled
away to ashes. And all of us, when we had seen this,
repented what we had done. But of what avail was this?"]
I I have relegated L.'s version to the foot of the page rather
as a matter of convenience than because I am disposed to regard
it a-, an interpolation. Indeed the longer narrative given by C.
would seem, from the closing words, to have been a subsequent
addition to the original text. Concerning MÕrzà Muliammad
Nabil of Zarand, called al-akhras ("the tongue-tied"), see iny
Traveller's Yarrative, p. 357 and note 5 at the foot of that page.

concerning the,,,. The full narrative of these events, there-
fore, would greatly exceed what is here recorded, but the
epitome of them here set forth is all that could be ascer-
tained. And these details. were for the most part related
by persons who were not believers, though candid and
truthful after their own fashion. E(xcellence is that
whereuntoftes testify."
Even this brief summary, however, will suffice for the
information of unprejudiced persons. The right of the
matter is, indeed, sufficiently indicated by a tradition of
JAbir, who, speaking of the promised Proof, says, "In him
shall be the perfection of Moses, the p2-ecio?ts?zegss of Jesus,
and the patience of Job ; his saints shall be abased in M6
time, and their heads shall be exchanged as I)resen ts, even as
the heads o the Turk avd the Deylamite are exchmiged as
prese??.ts; they shall be slain and burned, and shall be
afraid, fearfid, and dismayed; the earth shall be dyed
with their blood, and lanzeiitataioit and wailing shall prevail
amongst their women; these are -my saints indeed
Glory be to God! A thousand years before this Mani-
festation the signs and tokens whereby its saints might be
distiigigtiished were thus explicitly declared by the lm6ms
of our holy religion for the information of this misguided
people and their deliverance from error. The fulfilment
of these foreshadowings is now clearly seen ; yet still the
majority of mankind, so blinded are they by wilful preju-
dice, refuse to recognize this, and pay no heed to the
accomplishing of the prophecy handed down by tradition
from the ImAms of old. Yet have they clearly seen or heard
]low the heads of these true believers were sent as presents
from country to country, how they were slain and burned,
how their wives and children and those of their households
I See my Traveller's Narrative, vol. ii, p. 259.
were led captive from city to city, and how, just as the
ImAms foretold, tile earth was dyed with their blood. Yet
do many, accounting as sound reason their own erring and
wilful judgments, stigmatize as misguided or mad men such,
as these, who were in truth kings in the spiritual world,
gracious proofs of the Point of Unity, exemplars of .'Iwas
,a hidden Treasure, and I desired to be known, therefore: 1
created creation that I might be known 1,' to whom; moreover,'
such words as 'These are my saints indeed' were addressed.
And the greatest marvel is that before those who believed
in this sublime and holy faith had embraced the,, new
doctrine all men readily admitted their virtue, leaming,
sincerity, integrity, wisdom, and piety, and allowed them
to be incontestably superior to their contemporaries in
austerity of life, godliness, intelligence, and good, works.

Thus Seyyid Ya~yA, for example, was confessedly one of
the most eminent doctors of Islim, being remarkable not
only for his asingular holiness of life, but for his rare insight.
and miraculous faculties. Whenever he entered any town
within the lands of IslAin he was met by all the divines,
nobles, and great men of the district, and was brought into
the city with every mark of deference and respect. It was
considered an honour to serve him, and atwhatever houseg
he alighted the owner thereof would glory over his fellows.
In short, all men regarded his asociety as a privilege, i and
converse with him as a legitimate cause for pride, ~ But
when he had, after most careful and diligent enquiry,.
recognized the Lord of the world, and, actuated only by a
desire to please God, set himself to save from error those
who still wandered in the wilderness of heedlessness and
deluasion, and to guide them into the haven of peace and
1 This well-known tradition, according to Mubarnmadan belief,
embodies God'as answer to David's question, "0 Lord, wherefore
didst tbou create the world?"

assurance, then, because bat-like they hated tho light of
Truth, they acted according to their evil nature and their
ancient custoin, and, in return for his charity towards them,
stirred -up strife and blood-shed, persecuted and afflicted
him, stuffed his holy head with straw as though it had
been the head of a Turcoman 1, Belfich, or Deylainf, and
bore it from town to town. Then, just as the holy ImAins
had foretold, they grievously afflicted and slew his friends
and followers, cruelly burned their bodies with fire, and
sent their heads as a show and a gift from land to land,
as though to say, " This is the meaning of 'Love's portion
is affliction" and this the way of such as are permitted to
draw near to the courts of God!
'The guest whose place is highest in this banquet
They ply most often with the wine of woe."'
So they acted as they had done of yore in the time of
God's Apostle, dealing with these sorely afflicted people as
they dealt with the Chief of -Martyrs' and his followers on
the plain of KerbelA, and as they had erst dealt with the
Holy Spirit of God' and his disciples. But the cruelty,
hardness of heart, and unbelief which they had displayed to-
wards Moses and the other prophets of bygone tinie appeared
in this Manifestation with redoubled intensity, revealing to
all discerning persons the infidelity which permeated every
recess of these inen's being. For just as in every previous
age they slandered the prophets and saints, accounting it
a work of inerit to slay them, burn them, saw them asunder,
and crucify theiigi in blind obedience to their priests' coi-n-
mand; just as they reviled, cursed, and rejected them, and
1 Cf. Eastwick's Diplognate's Residence in Persia, vol. ii, pp.
2 Imaim Huseyn.
3 Jesus Christ, called by the Atuhangimadaiis'l~ft/?u'll(i./b', "the
Spirit of God".
convened assemblies to devise means for the shedding of
their blood ; just as they set in order proofs for the justifi-
cation of their own assertions and actions, and arguments
for the falsity of the claim advanced by those who an-
nounced themselves to be God's messengers; just as they
accounted their miracles naught but magic or jugglery, and
their revelations mere tales and " fables'of the ancients',"'
so in this Manifestation did they say and do more than
ever they had said or done in days of yore.
[Account of the Catast)-ophe of Zanjan, and q
.f His
Excellency 01hd1d 31uhammad 'AU 'Hujjatu'l-IslAm', who
bejbre the -41-a)?ifestatioii held the doctrine of the Akhba'rz's*

his conversion and public appearance in,Zanjain, and how
he laid down his life.]
Now after the Nfrfz catastrophe came the siege of
Zanj6ii and the martyrdom of Mulli Muhammad Alf
Zanjinf, a inoa-,t devout, learned and pious divine, whose
power of mind and holiiieasa-, of aspirit made him heedless of
* [He was' summoned to TeherAn several times. Never
had the eye of time beheld so incomparably learned a
doctor. One night the late Hiji Mimi AkAsf assembled a
concourse of divines, all of whom he silenced and discomfited.
He was ordered to remain in TeherAn, but after the death
of Muhammad Shdh he returned to Zanj in.] "
1 Kur'ain, vi, 25; viii, 31; xvi, 26; &c.
2 L. appends to this narrative three couplets from the'Mas-
navf as a; conclusion.
13 These words, included in the title, written partly in red
ink, which L. prefixes to the narrative of the ZanjAn rising, are-
relegated to the foot of the pacre because the do not in truth
1.3  y
partake of the nature of a title at all, but rather of a note which
has become incorporated in the text.

men's opinion, and to whom most of the people of ZanjAn
professed a devoted allegiance.'
t[Aild the manner of his conversion was as follows.
He was endowed with supernatural faculties, and foretold
the approaching Manifestation to the people of Zaiiiin
seventeen years before it took place, so that all were ex-
pecting it and keeping count of the years. And when at
length the year of the Lord's Manifestation was come, lie
a  -hadf Ahmad by name to Slifriz with several
sent one Mash
letters, in answer to which several epistles were brought
back. On the day when Mash-hadf Ahmad reached
Zanjdn, bearing nineteen epistles addressed to nineteen
different persons, Mul1A Muhammad 'Alf announced his
return, wherefore a great multitude assembled in the
mosque. Then MullA Muhammad 'Alf, when he had per-
formed the prayers, went up into the pulpit and said, " Lo,
even as I promised you the Sun of Truth has appeared an~l
slione forth ! " And lie invited the people , such of them as lie deemed capable of
receiving it, in secret; and sometimes he would say openly,
"The author of these verses claims to be the 114b, as < in
the tradition> 'I am the City of Knowledge, and 'Alf is
its Gate."' And he appointed one Mash-hadf Iskandar his
messenger, and he used to wait upon the Bib and bring
epistles . And so matters continued till they
.brought the BAb through Zanjin on his way to MAkfi.
The people, being apprized of this, gathered in crowds to
see him, but Mulli Muhammad 'Ali rest-rained them, and
wrote  as follows :-" May we be thy sacrifice!
Do you grant us permission to assemble in force and deliver

you out of the hands of the escort, or to enjoy the honour
of waiting upon you ? " This letter he concealed inside
a cucumber, which he placed in a basket with several other
cucumbers, and sent to the caravansaray. The guards
wished to seize it, but  would not give
it up. At -that moment the BAb came out from his room
and said, " Give up the cucumbers and come with me."
It was Mash-hadf Iskandar who had brought the cucumbers,
than the signs of a most extraordinary perturbation of
mind appeared in him, and so much disquieted was he that
lie could not continue his lecture, and was forced to make
his excuses to his audience. 'Fllea-,e, therefore) dispersed,
.save some few intimates, who remained and pressed him to
make known to them the cause of his disquietude. In
reply lie sliewed them the letter, saying, " The writer of
these vera,3es claims to be the BAb, and, so far as my know-
ledge enables me to judge without prejudice, they do not
resemble mere human words." This letter, in brief, led
him to make earnest search and enquiry; and, when he
himself was fully convinced, he began to impart his belief
to others. As his heart waxed stronger, and love gained
fuller sway over him, he grew by degrees less prudent and
cautious, and publicly preached the new faith to God's

and lie thereupon gave them to the guards and himself
followed the BAb. Then the BAb, without having seen the
letter, wrote in answer to it as follows:-- Your project
accords not with expediency,, for to-day strife is not - ap-
proved. Moreover they have summoned you to Telierdii,
and the governor has already despatched horseiigien to set
you on the road" (as will be described in connection with
the Bib's journey). Now a-,ince MullA Mul ' yaminad 'Ali
previously to the Manifestation had been an AklibArf', and
was continually engaged in disputations with the divines
and lawyers, these had appealed against him to Teherdai,
and lie had five times been summoned thither, kept for a,
while, and then suffered to depart, so that this was the
sixth time. For even as the BAb was setting out again,
horsemen came and bore away MullA Muhaininad 'Ali to
Telievin. There the late HAjf Mfrza AkAsf assembled
together the doctors that lie might dispute with them.
And when lie had silenced and discomfited thein all, they
afterwards again complained, declaring that he was stirring
up sedition in ZaiijAii. So they detained him in Teherin.
servants, till at lenth Ainfr A,~Uii Klidn the governor  was inade acquainted with the iihiatter. He, fearing
for himself, at once took measures to safeguard his au-
thority, and forwarded to MÕrzà Muhaimnad Tak, KhAn
A nu'll- i-.ffab h- a garbled account of tfie affair; for* lip, was
fearfhlil lest anotglier should acquire more influence than he
possessed, and so his authority and consideration should
be weakened. In consequence of his representations, Seyyid
'Alf KhAii, Lieutenant- Colonel, of Ffrfizkllh, received the
royal command to proceed with a numerous body of horse
and foot to ZaiijAn, and to arrest MullA Muhammad 'Alf,
who had retired with his followers (nearly five thousand
in number) to the citadel. On his arrival, Seyyid 'Alf KhAn
I For an account of the Akhba'rfs, see Gobineau's Religions
1116ilosoplties &c., p. 28 etseq.
[One night 1, by name 'Arif, entitled Zabih, in company
with Sheykh AbU' TurAb, met him at the abode of the
Most Precious Appearance' (the soul of the world be his
sacrifice !), and enjoyed the opportunity of observing his
virtues and knowledge. He there said, "Before the Mani-
festation I had no faith in Sheykh Ahmad Lahs.4'f' and
HAJf Seyyid KAzim, but His Supreme Holiness wrote that
they were men whom lie held in high consideration, so I
now account myself their slave." And he would read the
Bib's writings and verses, and weep over them. And he
was lionoured with an epistle from MAkfi in which the BAb
wrote as follows :- " Muhammad ShAh is about to die.

Do not you go away anywhere, but remain in TeherAn."
So he remained in TeherAii till Muhammad Shdh died and
His Majesty NAsiru'd-Dfn Shili entered the capital. Then
he waited upon the young king, who received him with
lionour, and was well pleased that he, being a prisoner , had not gone away; and asked him why he had not
laid siege to the citadel, and thus was the fire of strife
kindled, and day by day the number of those slain on
either side increased, until at length he suffered an igno-
minious defeat and was obliged to ask for reinforcements
from the capital. The government wished to send JaTar-
Kulf KhAn, Lieutenant-Colonel, the brother of I'tignadu'd-
Dawla, but lie excused himself, - and said to  Ann'2--i-KaUr, " I am not an Ibn ZiyAd' to go a~d
make war on a band of Seyyids and men of learning of
whose tenets I know nothing, though I should be
I Tal'at-i-Abh6; ie. Affrza' Huseyn'Alf Behdll'u'lldh.
2More commonly, and, apparently, more correctly, Ahsd'i.
Cf, Traveller's _Xarrative, Vol. ii, p. 234.
3 (Ubeydu'llih ibn ZiyAd, the governor of Kiffa under Muldviya,
and Yazid, whom, by reason of his severities and cruelties towards
the Imdni Huseyn and his friends and followers, the Shilites,
regard with singular detestation.

done so. " I awaited the honour of appearing before Your
Majesty," replied lie. So the king gave him permission to
depart. Din Mubaminad', who was always with him, ob-
served to him, " Now that you have the king's permission
to depart, there is no object in your remaining." So lie
departed from the capital.
[On the other hand Mash-hadi Iskandar came to ZanjAn,
bringing a number of epistles. Thence he came to Kazvfii,
intending to come to TeherAn. But in Kazvin they arrested
him with his letters, and sent him to TeherAn, where lie
suffered martyrdoin. Then the king was sorry that he had
suffered MullA Muhammad 'Ali to depart.
[But on the other hand, on the day when MullA Allu-
hammad 'Ali reached ZanjAn a great multitude caine out
to meet him, and they slew in his lionour as many as four
hundred beasts'. The clergy were jealous, and wrote an
enough to fight With RUaS.SiallS, Jews, or other infidels."
Other officers besides him shew-ed a disinclination to take
part in this war. Amongst these was Mir Seyyid Huseyn
KhAn of FirfizkAh, whom  the Ainh,
dismissed and disgraced so soon as lie became acquainted
with his sentiments. So also many of the officers who
This name, in the earlier part of Us narrative, appears as
I at first conjectured that it should be DdVi ffu/iammad;
the title Da'i (uncle) being not uncommonly prefixed to the
names of Persians. But an old Ba'bf, now resident at Famagusta,
who was in ZaDjin during the siege (though he was then but a
child of 11) wrote the name for me as Din Ifilham2nad or Dln-i-
Muhammad which spelling I therefore adopt. The
name also occurs in this form in the latter part of LA narrative.
2 It is Customary in Persia to sacrifice sheep or other animals
before a great man returning from a journey, especially when he
reaches his own town. Cf. Traveller's Narrative, p. 326 and foot-
1 141
account of the matter to TeherAn. Instructions Were : sent
to His Excellency Majdu'd-Dawla either to g pacify the
clergy, or to arrest and send  Mulli Mu-
hanimad 'Alf. His Excellency _41afflu'd-Dawla sent the
order to. MulU Muhammad 'Alf, and summoned him to
appear. Mull.4 Muhammad 'All said to his friends, " Let
two hundred men accompany me." So they girded on their
swords, and went with him and Din Muhammad to the
audience-liall of .41~.tjdit'd-Dct?gi~,la, and there remained with-
out, awaiting instructions. _41~7jdu'd-Dawla treated Mulli
Muhammad 'Alf most respectfully, and they agreed that the
followers of the latter should pay treble taxes so that the
governor ) s men might refrain from molesting them, and that

any one of the believers who did wrong should be sent be-
fore him. Then J1ajdu'd_Daw1a wrote to TeherAn declaring
that be had effected a reconciliation, and further requested
Mulki Muhammad'Alf not to repair to the mosque. So lie
uased to pray and to preach in his own house.
Were  'Alf-1161ifs, although they went
to the war, withdrew from it when they learned more of
the matter. For their chief had forbidden them to fight,
and therefore they fled. For it is written in their books
that when the soldiers of Wirin shall come to the capital of
the king, then the Lord of the Age (whom they call God)
shall appear; and this prophecy was now accomplished.
They also possess certain poems' which contain the date
1 The Ba'bfs profess to find in certain verses of several of the
mystic poets, notably ShAh Ni'matu'llih, HAfiz, and Pir of
Ardistain, foreshadowings of the Bdb's appearance. This is
especially the case with the first of these three, who is said to
have foretold the year (A.H.) 1260 as the year of the Malidi's
coming. This verse was shewn to me at Kirmhn, but when I
consulted the copy of Shah Ni'matu'llAh's works kept at his
shrine at MAhin I found that a different date was there given.

[At that time came the news of  MAzandarin, and MullA Muhammad 'Alf said to his
followers, "Let us equip ourselves and set oft' thither." But an epistle arrived < from the BAb > saying, " I t will ,
come to you there." One night one of the believers had spoken ill of the clergy in his own house. The neighbours
came by night and strangled him, and left him for dead; but lie was not dead. Din Muhammad was informed of this.
He at once went to the man's house, taking with him thirty of his followers. They found the man still living, and in the
morning brought him before 111ajdit'd-Dawla, who, however, paid no heed to their suit. So the BAbis went to Mulli
Muhaiigiiiiad 'Alf and said, "Because you remain within your house and go not to the mosque, our eneinies have
waxed bold." He answered, "Tell the believers to muster in force tomorrow, that I may eoihnplete the proof, and
afterwards go to the mosque." So his friends asseiiibled. Then lie addressed them as follows:-" You wish me to go
to the mosque. Do you not know that there will be a disturbance, that our enemies will make a riot, that there will be
slaughter and spoiling, that they will send word to TelierAii, and that guns and mortars will be brought against you ?
" All replied, " We are ready to lay down our lives." So he took from them an oath of allegiance, and said, " Bid all
the people of the city and those of the neighbouring villages come to the mosque on Friday, for
of the Manifestation, and these too came true. So they were convinced that this was the Truth become manifest,
and begged to be excused from taking part iii the war, which thing they declared themselves unable to do. And  they said, " In siibsequent conflicts, when the framework of your religion sliall have gathered strength,
we will help you." In short, when the officers of the army perceived in their opponents naught but devotion,
public prayer on Friday is obligatory."' So they bade them ; and about four or five thousand asa-,embled and
sacrificed about a hundred head of beasts'. Thus hoiiourably did MullA Muhammad 'Alf come to the mosque. And
when prayers were concluded he preached to them, - and then returned to his house. And His
Excellency0fajdu'dDawla and the'clergy were filled with apprehensions. h
[One day one 'Abdu'l-'Alf by name, a Bibi, had a quarrel in the market-place with certain of the enemy. These
complained to the governor, who sent and arrested him, and cast him into prison, contrary to the agreement . The. BAbis represented this to MuIIA Muhammad 'Alf. : He sent a
message to .31afflu'd-Dawla, saying, "Yield us up our man, and let them bring him to us." But he sought excuse,,
and said ' "The vizier imprisoned him; I 1now nothing about it." So they told this to Mulli Muhammad 'Alf. Then he
said, " Let them go to the priasoii and ~ bring him forth." So the BAbis went and brought him out from. the gaol.
 [Theii the clergy sent to Vajdit'd-Dawla, saying, " Thou
art no longer governor; the actual governor is.Dfn Mul~am-
mad." Thereupon 01ajdu'd-Dawla ordered proclamation. to
be made that all who were BàbÕs should ' withdraw to one
side -; ahnd the bazaars were closed. And
whosoever of the faithful had his dwelling:on that side  abandoned it and came to this side, and so like-
wise did the enemy. Thus were the true and the false
separated from one another; and the number of the BàbÕ&
was about five thousand.
[That night His Excellency fflajdu'd-Dawla quitted
Khamsa' to go into the surrounding country and collect
[Such was the position till Friday the first of the month
of Rajab, A.H. 1266'. On that day MuIIA Muhammad 'Alf
summoned Din Muhammad, and said to him, Take two
hundred men and go to the house of Mash-hadf Karim the
powder-maker, seize whatever powder he has, and bring it
away with you." So they went and brought it. Now the
enemy had arranged to go to the mosque and seize MullA
Muhammad 'Alf and take him prisoner. Near noon a ser-
vant brought word that they had surrounded the mosque on
all sides. Sheykh SAlili was in the mosque, and him, with
flattery and a show of weakness, they succeeded in seizing.
But lie clapped his hand to the hilt of his sword, and,
crying out, " Y4 86hib it'---z(gtma'it'! " attacked them. The
life kept watch and ward, and one of these was captain
over the others, and according to his bellests and forbid-
diijgs did they act. Five times each night did they pray
and read or chant the sacred texts of the now dispensation
with sweet and strange utterance. Then one amongst
1 Khanisa is the small province or district of which Zaiijain is
the capital.
2 May 13th, A.D. 1850. L. has "1267", which is certainly a
mistake (though the ist of Rajab in that year did actually fall
on a Friday), as is clearly proved by unimpeachable testimony.
Cf. my first paper on the Bibfs in the J. R. A. S. for 1889, pp.
511-512 and 524, and-my Traveller's Narrative, vol. ii, pp. 186-
3 Cf. pp. 69 and 74 supra.
enemy laughed,that one should think to fight with so great
a host, but on the other side one Mash-hadf Haydax also
rushed to attack them. Pah1avAn Asadu'lldh Zirih-pftsh
had fallen upon Mash-hadf Haydar, when Sheykh ~Alih
smote him on the head, so that the blow sbore through his
hat and clave his skull to the brow. Then all the enemy
drew their swords and charged. AkA Mir Silih had wounded
four men, when the other Bdbis rushed to the attack with
cries of " Yd 8d14bU'z-zama'?z," and surrounded the enemy,
who, being unable to withstand them, took to flight. The
Bdbis wished to follow them, but M,ulli Muhammad 'Alf
sent and forbade them, saying, " You have no permis-
sion to undertake a religious war; if they attack us we will
defend ourselves, and if we fall we shall die martyrs." It '

was then ascertained that Sheykh n T-dpchf, one of the
believers, had fallen a martyr, and that two others had
been wounded. On the other side four men had been killed
and twenty wounded. These occurrences were reported to
TeherAn by the other side, who declared themselves unable
to cope with the BAbis.
[Now there was near the citadel a castle known as the
Castle of 'Alf-MurAd KhAn, and this castle the enemy had
occupied. Oil one side of it was the quarter of the friends,
on the other that of the enemy, but the enemy held posses-
sion of it, and had placed in it five hundred marksmen, and
its towers were lofty. So the B.Abfs represented to MullA
Muhammad 'Alf that the enemy, so long as they occupied
this castle, would harass them sorely. Then said he, " Df n
them would repeat the words "AlIdInt -Abka" ",two and
ninety times, according to the number of the, letters in
Huhammad, and the other eighteen would respond "Al-
I Cf. my first paper on the Bdbfs in the J. R. A. S. for 1.8
pp. 498-9; and my Traveller's Narrative, vol. ii, p. xxxviii.
N. H.

Muhammad, send two hundred inen, and let them capture
the castle from the enemy." Now there was within the
castle a bath, and the doorway of this bath was toward the
quarter occupied by the believers. And that night two
hundred BàbÕs entered the castle by this bath. The enemy
had occupied the roofa-, all round about, and there were
within the castle teigi enclosures one within another, and
the roofas of these had the enemy occupied on every side,
and thereon had they posted sentries. All at once the
BàbÕs burst open the door of the bath and entered through
the bath into the midst of the castle. Then Amfr SAlili
with two others took the staircase and began to ascend
thereby, holding shields over their heads, and caring naught
for the bullets aimed at them. So these went up, their
comrades supporting them, and defeated the enemy, some
of whom they hurled down from the roof-tops, and some of
whom they slew with the sword, while the rest took to
flight. Seven hours of the night had passed when they
gained possession of the castle. Fifty-eight of the enemy
were slain, and the plenteous store of muskets and other
arms which were in the castle fell into the hands of the
BAbis. They then posted sentinels round about the castle,
to wit fifty men under the command of KerbelA'i Haydar and
.4d Fath-'Alf. And all the provisions which they had they
stored together in the castle. Three times during that day
did the enemy attack them, and each time they were
worsted and compelled to retire.
[At the end of the month of Rajabl, Seyyid 'Ali KhAn
Mkit Abh(V' in ignelodious unison. Thus were they wont to
engage in prayer and praise till morning, being filled wit],
ecstacy and joy. Now when the duration of the siege was
I The month of Rajab of the year A.H. 1266 ended on JuDe
11th, 1850.

came from the capital, bringing with him four regiments Of
soldiers and four cannons, and entered the town.: h In~ the
town they had made forty-eight ramparts, and half the,
town with three gates was in the hands of the enemy, and
half the town with three gates in the hands of the friends.
Seyyid 'Alf KhAn arrived there in the morning to reinforce
the enemy, and issued orders that they should that very night
attack  on all four sides. Din Muhammad told
off two hundred men to repel the enemyg and ordered the
rest to keep watch on the ra mparts. The night set in dark
with heavy rain. The enemy made a general attack, but-
were slain or overcome and put to rout
[Again they sought help from Teherin; but~ Din Mu-
hammad also was engaged in devising means of opposing
them. He had caused four guns of iron to be made (Seyyid
RamazAn the courier acting as gunner) in addition'to the
twenty camel-guns which the BàbÕs already had. And he
bad made an iron rod, wherewith any wall which he might-
indicate could be pierced, so that  went through
on that side'. So, in like manner, all night until,the morn-
ing he had miners' in the entrenchments, wgho dug - shafts
from the'midst of the street, so that they came! out into
long protracted, and the royal troops had the worstioNt
for the most part, Muhammad KhAn ofhGfIAn 'was i com-
missioned to destroy Zanjin and slay its inhabitants,. and
I This description is not very clear, but what seems to, be
meant is that an iron punch or boring-rod was constructed, by
means of which the walls could be loop-holed for musketry at any
point attacked. It must be borne in mind that the walls of
Zanjhn, like those of all other Persian towns, are made of nothing
stronger than sun-biked clay.
2 The word mughanni (properly' mukanni) regally denotes a
professional maker of the subterranean channels (~andt) whereby
water is conveyed to towns, villages, and fields in Persia.

i I
the iihi,,trket-place and there fought for they had ra, mparts and put down a saucer there, and placed in the middle of
round about, and these they mined. h the saucer some nuts. These moved, and by this he knew
[So matters were till KAsim KhAn, Lientenant-Colonel, that they were mining '. Thereupon he with-
came from the capital with four regiments of soldiersg) three drew his men from that rampart. In the morning they
gruns, and two mortars, entered the city, and established fired the mine. The upper room was blown up and over-
himself in the entrenchments. Then he wrote a letter to thrown. Seven of the, BàbÕs were blown into the air, but
MullA Muhammad 'Ali reqhliestiiig permission to visit him, remained alive, and were extricated with a thousand diffi-
Permission having been granted, KAsini KhAn with three culties . Then word was brou ht that
of his officers waited upon MullA Muhammad 'Ali, who Hiji GhulAm had constructed a box with double sides of
imparted to thorn the new doctrine. And they renlained planks and wood, behind which they had piled up earth,
with him till morning, and said to him, "We have two I and that they had mounted this.on a gun-carriage to serve
regiments of soldiers under our command; let us bring as a gabion, and were pushing it forwards from behind.
them, and imperil our lives with you." But he answered, Fire at this as they would, the BAbis could Produce no
Stay in your entrenchments, and order your soldiers not effect upon it. A'k6, Ahmad, the brother of Haydar Beg,
to charge their muskets with bullets, and -h:~iii appearance> taking with him nineteen men, went to'the rampart of the
continue to act with the other officers, lest hurt come to Akliu'nd's Mosque. Ascending the minaret lie cried out,
you. Act with prudence : God will cause you to attain to Bring pick-axes, and let us destroy this." One Huseyn
His Supreme Grace." by name went up on to a roof, took aim at '
Akal Ahmad) and
[On the following night  ngiade an attack
on all four sides, and fought on until the morning, the still for a long while (six month.-, according to one account,
strife continuing into the day until noon ; but at length e inonths after another version) the, citadel held out,
they were defeated, and fell back. In that day and night'a,3 though its defenders were only three hundred and, sixty
fighting twenty-eight of the friends fell martyrs, and three
A similar device is mentioned by Ferrier (Journeys in
hundred of the opposite side perished. A 1'ersia and Afglianistan, London, 1857, p. 156) as follows:-6'He
[Again  applied to Teherdn for re inforce [Yir Muhammad Khan] mentioned, however) in high terms ~the
ments, and for three or four days abstained from fighting.
bravery of the [Persian] troops, and furnished me with much
On the fifth of the blessed month  I they curious information respecting the siege [of Herit]; his mode of
ascertaining the direction in which the besiegers were carrying
made a mine under the ramparts. 2~kA Fathu'llih, who
was in an upper room, informed Din Mu'~ainiiiad, who came the galleries of their mines to reach the ditch of the place was
very ingenious. Plates were filled with as much small seed as
they would hold and placed upon the ground in those spots
set out, brincyinu with him fierce soldiers and murderous under which it was presumed the sappers were at work; and, in
guns. But tfiough the besiegers had now more than thirty
thousand horse and foot and nineteen pieces of ordnance, spite of all their precautions, the least concussion or blow from a
spade or pick brought down a few grains from the heap, and
I Ramaz6n 5thl A.H. 1266=July 15tb, A.D. 1850. discovered their position."

shot him, so that he fell from the minaret. The foe charged,
but the friends also charged, and the attack was repelled.
AkA Ahmad's bones were broken . The BàbÕs,
with a thousand difficulties, succeeded in obtaining posses-
sion of his body, which they buried. But Din Muhammad
rejoiced greatly, and the other BàbÕs congratulated him ;
for it was their custom when any one of the friends fell a
martyr to congratulate his relations.
[A few days only had elapsed  when Suley-
mAn KhAn arrived with five regiments of infantry, four guns,
and six thousand cavalry. The cavalry remained outside,
while the  regiments entered the city. Eii-
counters took place daily ; and if, for example, a hundred
BàbÕs attained the rank of martyrdom, five hundred men fell
oil the other side. One day a woman came out- with a black
pitcher in her hand to sprinkle water . The
BàbÕs seized her, and then discovered that she was really
a man . They asked him what lie was doing.
He answered, " The clergy of the town have repeated spells
over this water for forty days, and have given me twenty
tu'nzeins to sprinkle it, so that  people may be dis-
persed." Then they brought him before Mul1A Muhaiiiignad
'Ali, to whom lie said, " Six of the clergy have, read prayers
over this water for forty (lays and given it to me to bring
and sprinkle here." Said MullA Muhammad 'Ali, " Their
wickedness stands revealed, but no blame attaches to a
messenger." Then lie gave the mail a present, and dis-
missed him.
[The clergy daily sent letters sayiDg, " Come, let 11.9
make peace." MullA Muhaiiiiigiad 'Ali's reply to these was,
men, all divines or artizans, who had never before seen a
battle-field, and to whom the very name of strife, much
more actual war, was most distasteful. Yet, in spite of
My answer is the sword." The clergy and thegovernor
wrote to Teher6ii bringing malicious accusations against
KAsim. KhAii, whom they accordingly summoned. thither.
On his arrival they secretly put him to death. But his
two regiments continued to render services P
and to send them word when the besiegers intended to
make a night attack.
[At length one day it was arranged that the whole be-
sieging force should, in a combined attack, strive to capture
the BAbi positions. The attack was made simultaneously
on twelve different points. Several officers and nearly a

thousand soldiers, horse and foot, were slain, while of the
BàbÕs sixty-seven men fell, and the besiegers were utterly
routed. They again wrote to- TeherAn saying, They have
finished us." Muhainmad KhAn, Brigadier-General, was
sent to their assistance, and came bringing with him eight
regiments of soldiers, four guns, and two mortars. He
encamped outside the city, and fired on it daily to destroy
the towers. On the other side also they maintained a con-
tinual fire with cannons and camel-guns, and inflicted
great loss on the soldiers.
[one day the besiegers made an attack and captured
olgie of the towers, on which they planted a standard.
Haydar Beg had remained beneath the tower. The BAhis
made a charge and drove down the enemy from the top of
the tower. Din Muhammad was wounded in -the thigh,
and was confined to his house for some days, when, being
somewhat recovered, he again came out.
[One day Din Muhammad made intercession with Mulli
.Muhammad 'Ali for some aged men of the enemy who were
this, they fought so bravely throughout this long struggle
as to leave on the page of time a lasting record of their
valour, which must fill with wonder all discerning men,

in prison, and lie let them go. When they were gone, one. put the Kur'in in their hands, and sent them,to thegcamp,
of them, by name Kalb 'Alf, went to the camp, waited on ordering the ramparts, meanwhile, to be well guarded.
the Brigadier-General, talked with him, and obtained his [Aas soon as the old men were come to the camp they
consent to conclude a truce. Then he came back to Mulli seized them, thinking them to be the chiefs of the BàbÕs,
Muhammad 'Alf and submitted to him :-" You shall give  five crores ', and some of your old men, with a few chil- shots, to which they replied with guns and camel-guns.
dren, shall take the Kur'àn, and go and sit beneath one of The fight was fierce, but at length the troops were forced
the guns'. Then the Brigadier- General will send a de-
spatch to the Government to say that these have thrown to beat a retreat. It was ascertained that ~ on that day
themselves on its clemency. Then they will carry the nine hundred soldiers were slain.
vizier' before His Majesty the King, and the common [But the old men whom they had taken captive they
folk can go their own way. Dfn Muhammad carried ded and cast intog the  sun ' and
this proposal before MullA Muhammad 'Alf, who replied, there they lay, crying out continually for the thirst which
"You are a free agent; act in whatever way you think was upon them. When MullA Muhammad'Alf heard this, he
best." So Dfn Muhammad chose out sixty old men Of summoned D'D Muhammad and said, " I require of you the
eighty or ninety years of age and a few children, and i hostages." " With all my heart," answered he. So when
was night he took four hundred men, removed the earth
and ap ears little short of miraculous. For, while they with which they had stopped up the gates, opened the
thus triumphed, an incomparable cavalr , trained to war- gate, issued noiselessly forth,' and made a sudden attack
fare, and accustomed to victory, was continually put to
on three different points. When the besiegers became
aware of what was taking place, they loaded their cannon
i.e. 250 Mondns, or about X76, according to the present
0 with small shot and fired. The BàbÕs lay down, and, -when
rate of exchange. It seems incredible that five crores (two and the shot had passed, sprang to their feet and rushed for-
a, half millions) of any larger unit than the dind?, could even be
demanded by the royalist general. wards,  scattering an army of thirty thousand. - They gave
ary (bast) are still accorded in
2 The privileges of sanctu, water to the hostages, set them free, seized all the weapons
Persia to wrong-doers of any class who take refuge either in a and provisions on which they could lay their hands) and
holy city or shrine (such as Kum or Shih 1Abdu'l-1Az1'm), in the returned . Seyyid RamazAn suc-
royal stables, or in certain 'other places and objects specially
ceeded in carrying off a cannon, which he mounted on a
associated with royalty. A certain large gun which stands in gun-carriage lie had made. They also I brought back many
one of the squares of Teberain is "bast." The same virtue Muskets.
appears to be attributed here to the royal artillery in general.
3 It is not clear who is meant by "the vizier," but presumably
the BAbi chief MullA Muhammad 'Ali', or his lieutenant Dfn flight, although its leader was a soldier inured to battle,
Mubanimad is intended. brave, experienced, and capable, who had control over the

again applied to TeherAn, and continued
[The enemy ,
to devise schemes for the capture of the BàbÕs, until one
night Farrukh KhAn (the son of YahYA KhAn ,
and the brother of  SuleymAn KhAn) Lieutenant-
Colonel, resolved to come and take captive MullA Muham-
mad 'Alf. So he took with him two others clad in helmets
and coats of mail, and two of the enemy, who had been in
prison  and had escaped, as
guides. And about twenty thousand soldiers, whom Farrukh
KhAn and the other officers had maddened with drink,
took part in the attack. They first attacked HAjf Bann.4's
barricade, drove him into a corner of it, and surrounded
him' There were five men at that barricade, who, seeing
this, abandoned it and fell back on a house behind it.
[Ijaydar Beg relates as follows:-" While we were going
the rounds with MullA Muhammad 'Alf he said, 'I am
going home; do you go and win some good, and then come
to me.' So I went off. Then I saw that they had taken.
the barricade and were preparing to set fire to it. At that
moment MÕrzà Jalfl came up with nineteen men, and my
father also with a number of others. We besieged that
house, where a number  were in a room,
and cut them off, so that no more from the army could
come to their assistance. Then I entered the room, and
with fair words induced them one by one to come forth,
and our men stripped them of their weapons, saying, 'We
will take you before the Master,' until two and twenty of
them had come out, and Farrukh KhAn alone remained.
Notwithstanding all we could do, he would not come out.
treasury of His Holiness the Eighth ImAill', and lavished
money on the soldiers as though it had been but sand.
But no great while elapsed ere he suddenly fell from favour,
1 The Imim RizA, to whom Alash-had owes its sanctity.
One of the faithful named 'Alf Akbar entered the room.
Farrukh Kh6n fired at him with a pistol and killed him.
My father said, 'Do you stand still?' Thereupon I entered
the room. He fired at me, but hit my shield, so that no
harm befell me. Then I seized him tightly, and my com-
rades came, and took him, and led him out, and brought
him before Mulli Muhammad 'Alf. 'By gcommand of
what prophet,' said he, 'do you madden  with
drink, and attack the houses of God's servants, and kill
several?' Then he ordered him and the'twenty-two other
prisoners to be put to death'. My father and I, taking a
company of our men, also attacked a great bastion on which
were seven guns, and set fire to it. We likewise captured
and destroyed six barricades besides it, and came -back

and presented ourselves before MullA Muhammad 'Alf, who,
rewarded us with increase of rank and robes of honour.
["Two days after this, Mull6 Muhammad 'Alf ordered
tile to go to the Castle of 'Alf MurAd KhAn and bring to
him KerbelA'f HaYdar and.&k6 Fath-'Alf. So I went and
brought them. Then he said to them' ' You have betrayed
the people's possessions to the enemy for money, intending
to take flight yourselves. Why have you not gone? And
why have you given the people's possessions to the enemy?'
For a while they answered nothing; then they said, 'We
wished to know whether you would discover it or not.' - So
was disgraced, and met with the unishment which his
actions merited. And these three tundred and odd men,
who were no soldiers, who had neither treasure, nor artil-
1 According to Subh-i-Ezel, Farrukh KhAn was, or pretended
to be, a BAW ; and it was, no doubt, for this reason that he was
put to death so cruelly, being first skinned alive and then
roasted. (Cf. Kazeni-Beg, ii, pp. 217-220). His horse and
sword were brought to his brother YahyA KhAn, by whorn they
were offered to Subh-i-Ezel.

Mulli Muhammad 'Alf commanded them to be imprisoned;
and there were thirty-five of them'. Then he placed ten
other believers in the Castle .
[" Next day the other side made a fresh attempt, and
attacked the upholders of Truth at ten different points.
For a day and a night fierce conflict was waged. One
hundred of the faithful suffered martyrdom, and one thou-
sand two hundred and five of the enemy were slain.
[" But now orders were issued from the capital that His
Holiness the Supreme Lord' should be brought froin Cliihrik
to Tabriz to suffer martyrdom (as will be described in detail
at a subsequent page). News of his martyrdoin was brought
to ZanjAn, and they cried out at the barricades, 'They
have killed your ImAm! Wherefore do you imperil your
fives?' Mulli Muhammad 'Alf said, 'My Master is one
who lives, and death cannot touch him; yea, even tlioaqe
live who believe .'
[" Then the enemy wrote to Telierin, and  the Am&-i-Kabb- issued further commands, and
from LuristAn, and the districts of HainadAn and Tabriz,
regiment after regiment of troops, horse and foot, continued
to pour in and join the  army, until a host of
about thirty or forty thousand lay round about us, and
lery, nor stores and munitions of war, and who were asiip-
ported only by spiritual grace, stoutness of heart, and that
new power of endurance bestowed on them from on high,
It appears from p. 146 supra that the defence of the Castle
in question bad been entrusted to fifty men commanded by
KerbelO Ijaydar and kkA Fath-'Aff, and that thirty-three of
these had been guilty of making overtures to the enemy.
2 HaFrat-i-Rabb-i-A'16, one of the R'tb's titles. See Travellers
Xarrative, vol. ii, p. 229.
some of the friends took to flight, and some were captured
and slain.
[" Now the followers of MullA Muhammad 'Alf had
.nineteen barricades, and in each barricade were stationed
nineteen men. When it was night one of them used to
cry 'Alhihu Abka" ninety-two times, according to  Amb-i-KaUr 'I am not Ibn
ZiyAd to go to fight against a band of Seyyids and men of
learning, though I have no objection to wage war against
heretics such as the Turcomans and the like.' And some
officers who had gone did but feign to fight, such as Mir
Seyyid Huseyn KhAn of Firfizkfih, whom the Ami?--i-Kabh-,-
on discovering this, dismissed. So likewise did some officers
of the 'All-Ildhi sect who had gone to the war, so soon as
they became ~cquainted with the true state of the case; for
their Seyyid had forbidden them, therefore they fled. For
it is written in their books and traditions that when the
soldiers of GfirAn sliall come to the Capital- of the King
wrought during those days deeds which were an absolute
miracle, for they were always succeassful in repelling the
I The substance of this and the following paragraphs occurs
in C. also, as will be seen by referring to the translation of C.',s
text at the foot of pp. 139-146 supra. The writer of the L.
text has introduced them here nglost inopportunely, as the
paragraph which succeeds should clearly follow immediately the
paragraph which precedes them.

I j
then the Lord of the Age (whom they call God) sliall ap-
pear; and this prophecy was now fulfilled. They also
possess certain poems which contain the date of the Mani-
festation, and these too came true. So they were-con-
vinced that this was the Truth become manifest; but they
excused themselves from giving active help and support
, saying, 'In subsequent conflicts, when the
framework of your religion sliall have gathered strength, we
will help you.' I
[" Now when the eneiny discovered that there was no one
in the castle, they made a sudden and simultaneous attack,
and took the castle and some of the barricades and houses,
while the believers retreated from certain of their outworks,
and fell back. The troops then occupied themselves in
plundering the BàbÕs' property for one day, when they
again put forth their whole strength, and poured down like
A flood through every street and over. every roof The
believers, being but few in number, were unable, strive as
they might, to check their advance, and the enemy ima-
gined that they had gone to fight in the lower part of the
town. Four thousand soldiers with their officers had col-
lected behind the house of Hiiaseyn PAshA. A woman
brought word of this to Din Muliaihyiinad, who sent a body
of men into the upper story. These saw that the enemy
were boring holes underground at the back of the house,
which would come out in the coihirt-yard. Although I dis-
charged muskets and pistols at them, they would not move.
We therefore retreated to the court-yard to go out. One
foe, and held in check all army of thirty thousand. At
length one day when MullA Muhammad 'Alf had himself
mounted oil to one of the barricades, a chance bullet struck
1 Cf. the translation of C.'s text at the foot of PP. 139-142
mpra, and the preceding note.
of the enemy recognized Mulli Muhammad 'Alf and cried
out 'Seize him !' Another of them approached, intending
to lay hands on him, but he put his hand to his sword and
smote his assailant so fiercely on the right shoulder that
the sword came out under his left arm-pit, cutting him
clean in two. When the enemy saw this, they halted in
consternation, and we went out from the house. But others
of our friends, having been apprized of what was taking
place, rushed into the yard sword in hand, and the assault
was repelled." Three hundred soldiers were killed, and the
rest were routed and put to flight. Haydar Beg was wounded
with a sword-cut, and his maternal uncle was killed * , 4
[Ijaydar Beg continues as follows:-" One day I was go-
ing the rounds with His Holiness .

We came to a house the rooliia,3 of which had been destroyed
and in which there was no one. He said to'me, 'See
whether anyone is on guard here or not.' I looked, and
saw no one. Now there was a narrow embrasure between
two alcoves, and I looked through this to see whether the
enemy had a barricade at this point, intending to discharge
my gun, that they inight not imagine that there was no
one there., His Holiness was standing, his -cloak thrown
over his shoulder, opposite to the embrasure, when a bullet
fired from the other side came through it, and, as fate would
have it, struck his hand, shattering the bones' 'I render
praise to God,' ejaculated he, 'that I have not been disap-
pointed of this supreme blessing, that is to say martyrdom,
but have at length attained to it.' I took out my handker-
chief and bound up his wound, after 'which he went to his
house. 'Go,' said he then, 'bring hither your father Din
Muhammad.' 1 therefore went and informed my father, and
his hand, inflicting on him a grievous hurt. A few days
before this he had signified to the faithful that such an

and they bandaged
he came, bringing with him a surgeon,
the wounded hand of our chief
[" Now when the enemy learned that His Holiness had
been wounded by a bullet, they attacked us on all sicleas,
and ceased not for a momei~t to pour down on us cannon-
balls and bullets, as a cloud in spring-time . On every side they made good their advance, and
captured our barricades and houses. The houses which
they took they set on fire, carrying off the furniture as
spoil. Every day they took several barricades, until at
length they surrounded one of the houses belonging to His
Holiness. Bomb-shells would come and fall in the house,
bury themselves in the ground, again emerge, and burst,
killing several of the faithful. And now all the believers
had fallen ugiartyrs save eighty only, who still survived, and
continued to fight at the barricades and in the trenches.
[" It was now forty days since His Holiness had received
his wound, yet he used to come out every day. But one
room was his own private retreat. Round One side of that
court-yard the enemy had erected a stockade from which
they -used to fire cau-nons, so that the cannon-balls came
through the alcoves of the room. One day we went to
move His Holiness ai)d take him out. In an adjoining
room one of his wives, a woman of ZanjAn, had in her arms
a child still at the breast. A cannon-ball came and took
off the heads of both mother and child, so that both fell
martyrs, and were buried in that same room. While we
were carrying His Holiness out the enemy discharged
another cannon, and the ball entered the room. A girl
fell into the fire-place. and was burned.
["His Holiness had three wives, two of them igiatives of
urned back
injury was about to befall hiiigi. In brief, he t
from the barricade , and was for some days
Zanjdn and one a woman of Hamadin. The Hamaddiii,
with one son named Huseyn, was taken to ShfrAz, where
they still are.
P We had removed the carpets and vessels of copper
from one room, banked it up with earth, and converted it
into a barricade. That was during the days of the month of
Muharram 1. And when the enemy saw that they could not
prevail against us, they ordered large quantities of firewood
to be brought, and piled it up, meaning to set fire to it
suddenly and burn us. But when it was the night of the
twenty-fifth of Safar', five hours of the night being past,

His Holiness summoned Din Muhammad and three others,
and thus communicated to them his last behests:-,]t3
"' The time of my sojourn in this wretched world, which
is the abode, of disruption and strife and the home of woes
and afflictions, is ended, and my departure, is nigh at hand.
In this great trouble I enjoin on you patience and stead-
fastness. - Be patient for thre e- days more, for [three days]
after my decease a strong* wind will blow ~with great vio-
lencel. If you endure and are patient, after the wind falls
God will grant you Tvictory andl happiness. But if you
are not patient, and if dissension and discord arise in your
midst and ye become disunited, you will all be slain. Do
not forget my words, for if you act agreeably to them you
will see their fruit, and if you neglect them you will suffer
their hurt and will be sorry. In either case you will see
confined to his bed. Then he summoned three or four of
his chief followers and said:-It
I Muharraln A.H. 1267 began on November 6th and ended on
December 5th, A.D. 1850.
2 December 30th, A.D. 1850.
3 Here the L. and C. texts unite.
N. H.

that I have not spoken vainly.' Then lie bade them bury
him in the clothes he wore, adding to Din Muhammad, who
was his confidential friend, 'Suffer no one to remove the
diamond ring which I wear on my hand.' Being asked the
reason of this injunction, he said, 'They in-List ent off my
finger [as they did that of Huseyn ibn 'Alf] Tfor the ring
ere they can take it'~.
" So when His Holiness Mulli Muhammad 'Alf had
yielded up his spirit to the Lord of life, passed away from
this transitory world, and ascended to a throne of supreign(,,
and everlasting glory, his followers, as lie had bidden them,
buried his body [with its gear] in *[the same room where
they had buried his wives and his child],~" as above de-
scribed, and then betook themselves anew to ~tlie defence
of their stockades and~ the repelling of the enemy. And
the besiegers were amazed at their resolution and courage,
marvelling that they should be thus ready to imperil their
lives now that they were without a leader. They therefore,
despairing of being able to carry the position by storm,
began, after their wont, to devise treachery.
"And now a strong wind began to blow and rain to
fall, and the air grew dark and gloomy. t AslAn
KhAnT t Majdu'd-Dawla, TMuharnmad KhAnJ the Bri-
gadier-General, and the other chief officers, seeing that in
face of the rain, the gloominess of the weather, and the vio-
lence of the wind (which was like to blow down all the tents
in the camp) it was equally impossible to continue fighting
or to wait patiently, had recourse to deceit, and sent [Suley-
min KhAn with] a promise of amnesty plighted on the
Kur'àn to the BàbÕs. [Although Din Muhammad said to
them, 'You see what the wind is doing : be patient for
one day more!' they did but answer, 'Do you want them
*~a room near a wellj* t [His Excellency] t
to burn our wives and children V1 Then the besiegers
declared with the most solemn and binding oaths, 'It was
Mulli Muhammad 'Alf, not you, whom we sought to take,
Do not then seek to bring further sufferings on the soldiers
or on yourselves. Be easy in mind, for with you we have
no quarrel.' So these poor simple-minded folk suffered
themselves to be beguiled by the plighted Kur'àn and
these solemn oaths, and came before Dfn -Muhammad, and
said, 'Now that they desire peace, as witnessed by their
treaty and covenant, it is displeasing in God's sight that
we should reject their proposals and persist in continuing
the strife.' He answered, '[By God, they speak falsely,
and will shew iiag no mercy.] Do you not see what the
wind is doing Ito-dayl ? Be patient for two or three days
more, that God may give you deliverance.' Most of them,

however, because of their simplicity of heart, believed the
treachery of the enemy to be the promised deliverance,
and imagined that, they had plighted their word on the
Klir'An in all truth and sincerity, really wishing to conclude
the strife."
[But on the side of the enemy they did not wait for
the BàbÕs to come forth of their own accord, but eneoln-
passed them round on every side. The Brigadier-General
with his officers ascended the roofas, while an army of thirty
* TSo they came forth from the castle submissively,
hopefully, even joyously, and surrendered it to the be-
siegers. But when these had thus captured them (through
their respect for the Kur'in and the plighted troth) they
slew them with every species of cruelty and indignity, and
Here begins the second important divergence between the
accounts given by C. and L. of the Zanjin siege. The former is as
usual the shorter, the poorer in detail, and the more bombastic
and inflated in style, and is relegated for these reasons to the
foot of the page.
thousand poured into the houses, seized their occupant,,,
and cast some down from the roofs on to the ground. Din
Muliaminad and his friends and relatives were all gathered
together in - the room which had been occupied by His
Holiness the martyr . With
them were his wife' and children, several old men, and
their own wives. The rest of the BAbis were in their own
houses. The soldiers poured into the houses, stripped the
men, and carried off the women which these had with them.
HaydaT Be, relates:-" I and my father Din Muhammad
were in a room tin which was an ice-cellar wherein the
BANS had stored all the money and goods which they had
securechlt'. The women they had assembled in the house
of Huseyn PisliA. A regiment of soldiers surrounded them,
veiled as they were, and bore them off to the house of Mfrzi
Abu'l-KAsim. the nutitakid, to whose custody they coni-
rilitted them. Another regiment marched Din Mtihtiigima(l
with fifteen others out of the city to the caravansaray of
in most cases burned their bodies, all save some few ii'lioiii
they led forth in chains and fetters to be carried before the
Ami'?-. Then they fell upon their houses and seized all
that they had as spoil, took captive their women and chil-
dren, whom they sold for a small price, and exhumed the
corpse of His Holiness the Proof from the spot where it was
i.e. the HamadAni woman who alone survived of the three
2 The text is here so corrupt as to be almost unintelligible,
and I offer the translation enclosed between daggers as a mere
guess at the sense. The text stands as follows in the AIS.
UA ;j .1,1L A_,~ L5j 45- LSy.1 5 &A 4s- ,~j~, a!J,
.9 lj4.z yLl 5 aL eS' J  + 11
6~ 44;J_ ~)L. ;.)L, L 1j101 CjS~ 5 U 4
His Holiness MullA Muhammad 'Alf, stripping them,' so
that they had nothing but their shirts and drawers. The
rest of the, BàbÕs they left in the city, maakilig them find
sureties -.
[" Next day at sundown they sent and brought Din
Muhammad before the Brigadier- General, who said to him,
'Tell me where they have buried the corpse ?' My father answered, 'Since we shall
be killed in any case, why should we tell you?' All said,
'He speaks truly.' Then they brought the eldest son of
His Holiness , a boy of about
seven years of age named Huseyn, and questioned him.
He pointed out the spot. They dragged up the corpse of
His Holiness, and questioned the people of ZaiijAn . All said, 'It is the Master's corpse.' The
eyes of one of the officers fell on the ring. He drew his

knife, cut off the finger, and removed the ring. The
Brigadier- General remonstrated with him, saying, 'Why
did you cut off the fiDger of this corpse? For people will
say that even this detail is like what befell ImAin Huseyn'.'
According to what is related, they dragged the corpse about
the astreets for three days, and none knows what they did
with it at last."
[On the same day whereon two regiments of soldieras
had brought Din Muhammad and the other B6b1s to the
market-place in the morning, Din Muhammad's eyes fell on
buried. As they were doing SO, the eyes of one of these
just and righteous Musuli-nAigis fell on the ring on its finger,
and lie immediately drew out his knife, cut off the finger,
and removed the ring. Then it flashed upon the ngiinds of
Din Mulltiulgiiad and several others who were in chains
with him that the words which their illustrious leader had
Cf. Sir Lewis Pelly's Niracle Play qf Hasan and Husey2t,
Vol. ii, pp. 153--156.

the body of His 14oliness, froni which they had ,.,~evered the
finger, and he began to weep, and at once it flashed -upon
the others that the words which His Holiness had spoken,
at the moment of his departure, " They will cut~ off my
finger and take the ring " had come true. They therefore
entreated the Brigadi er- General, saying, " Order them to
kill us now, and send us to join him." The Brigadier-
General was beyond all measure astonished at their request,
and said,]* "What have you beheld in this house of oblivion'
that you seek thus eagerly after your own slaughter ? "
They replied, " May you never see what we have seen, and
may God never iigiake it your portion; please God you will
never hear what we have heard-
'We have seen what heretofore hath been seen by no i-nortal
[To us is the mystery, "I was a treasure concealed,'2 made
For 11 TVe, are nearer to yom", saith He, "than the jugnlar vein".,,
We marvel wherefore-the Truth ye still reject and deny!]"'
t[So two regiments of soldiers bore them away to the
uttered at the time of his death, 'They will' cut off illy
finger and take the ring' had come true. Thereupon they
began to weep bitterly, and urgently to entreat Muhammad
KhAD, saying, 'Kill us also, and send us to join that great
and holy man." Muliaminad KhAn was beyond all measure
astonished and said,l*
tISo they surrounded those poor victims also, and
I Fardinftsh-kh(ltnd ("House of Oblivion") is the name given
by the PersiaDS to a masonic lodge. See Gobineau's Religions et
PhilosolAies dans I'Asie Ceiitrale, p. 306.
2 Alluding to the well-known words in which, according to
Aluslim tradition, God inade known to David the object of crea-
tion:-'I was a Ifidden Treavtre, and I desired to be known;
thereforelcreatedereation that Ignight be knomb'. Cfp.133supra,
3 Kur'àn, 1, 15.
igiiarket-place, and there they blew three of thein froingtlie
ignouths of mortars, and the rest they impaled on spears.
Thus did they send them to join their leader.] t
[But they spared Haydar 'Alf Beg, seeing that he was
but a child, though lie continued to revile them, saying,-
"Kill me too!" For they thought that His Holiness must
have amassed treasure, and hoped, by tormenting the child,
to inake him point it out to them, therefore they refrained
from killing him. And God also willed to make manifest
His might. So they imprisoned the lad, and next day
brought him forth and said, " Make known to us the site
of the treasure." He answered, " There was naught but

what you have taken." Then they ransacked the room,g but
found nothing. Then they said to the child, " Why did
you not curse the BAb yesterday ?" He replied, " So that
you might kill me also." "Was it so great a thing to kill
you 2 " said they. "No," answered he, "but I would that
the merit of the act might be yours." Then they tied hi -in
to the poles; but, beat him as they might, he continued, so
long as lie had sufficient strength, to revile them. - And
after that they continued to beat him 'until they thought
he was dead, when they carried him away and cast him
on an ash-heap. About the time of the morning call to
prayer he came to his senses. Twice afterwards they
seized and imprisoned him. When the Brigadier-General
was about to return  he gave him toJfqjdu'd-,
Dawla, who repeatedly tormented him that he might point
out the supposed treasure, but, as there was none, he still
said nothing. Ijaydar Beg relates as follows:-"They
carried away the corpses of His Holiness Mulli Muhammad
'Alf and my father and cast them out into the moat. , At
struck blows at each one until the had t th
their leader.~t
J aZ3 V I. IL el-fi Co J 0111

night the gunners took away the four corpses and bihiried
them. Afterwards they summoned four others with the
wife of His Holiness to Teherdn." There were four of the
BAbi leaders who had survived (for though they had been
wounded they had not died), to wit: Muhaminad BAkir the
surgeon, 'Alf Muhammad, Hidf Beg, and Haydar Beg,
together with the widow of His Holiness. All tliease they
brought to Teherin. The widow of His Holiiiea,~s they sent
to ShfrAz'. The four leaders they sentenced to death. They
brought them to the foot of the execution-pole and slew
three of them ; " But for iigle, " says Haydar Beg, " they sub-
stituted another, one Abih'l-Hasan, whom they killed; for
HAjf 'Alf KhAn made representation to the King, saying,
'Since this one is a inere child it is not good that his blood
should be shed.' They sent me to the gaol, where I remained
for nearly two years. Then they set me free, and I came
out, and was for some years in attendance on him', until he
too suffered martyrdoin, while I survive till this day."]
After they had thus igliade an end of the BAbis, they de-
stroyed their houses with artillery so utterly that no trace of
them was left, and, having accomplished all this, turned back,
conquering and victorious, with deiiioiistratioliai of triumph.
Now the full details of these events are many, and
what has been here a-,et forth is but as one in a thousand
and a little out of much. I know not how it could be that
I See p. 161 supra.
2 It is impossible to say to whom the pronoun refers. As the
plural is used, and as the person designated is said to have
4csuffered martyrdoilhi" it is clear that some one of the Bibf saints
is intended. None who escaped the massacre of ZanjAn having
been mentioned, one can only conjecture that one of the BAbi's
put to death at Teherdn in 1852 inay be meant. No doubt the
unrecorded circumstances or the context of I ' laydar Beg's narra-
tive rendered the point clear enough to his hearers.
no wise statesman or prudent counasellor perceived -and
pointed out to His Majesty the King, that he ought to
take thought for his poor subjects, the prosperity of his
realms, and the freedom of his nation, and ought not~'
inerely on account of religious differences, to send armies
to ravage the land and destroy the people. Differences of
faith can only be removed by conferences and discussions
between learned divines, and the unbiassed investigations
of properly qualified persons, not by massing of troops
and massacre of the people. At the beginning of the
war His Holiness MuI14 Muhammad 'Alf, desirous of per-
fecting the proof, wrote the following letter to  A92u'r-i-A7abz'r:-t
" Your Excellency has been misinformed concerning this

inatter. It behoves a strono- and honourable government to
Subdue by force of arms rebels and disaffected persons who
seek to grasp for themselves independent authority, but
-not Stich as myself and this little band of devoted men,
who have trodden under foot all worldly ambitions and
hopes. We would discuss the signs whereby the recipients
of Divine revelation may be recognized with those who,
alas! have made their knowledge but an instrument where-
with to secure worldly consideration and the esteem of
men, It is not seemly to attempt the removal - of this
difference by armed force, injustice, and violence. Justice
and fairness rather demand that a conference should be
arranged to take place in the presence of Your Excellency
where we may discuss the matter with the clergy' ~ who are
responsible for the misrepresentations from which we stiffer,
and the war and strife which these have entailed. Should
this be done, either truth will be distinguished from false-
t[Account of tlie lette~- of His Holi2jeqs 'the Pi-oof' to
Jgl,~r;~-e't T(WKlidn Avz~i-i-Kab~7-.]t

hood Tin which case the establishing of the former and the
suppression of the latter will be easily effectedl, or you can
give us leave to depart into foreign lands without strife and
The A mz'r-i-Kab bl, however, notwithstanding his desire
for the welfare of the state, and his great administrative
capacity, was so blinded by selfish interest that he paid no
heed to a single word of this address, and became the cause
of terrible devasbation of property and destruction of life
both amongst the troops and the people, until at length he
received his deserts. Even the representatives of foreign
powers, actuated solely by humane and philanthropic mo-
tives, pointed out to hiin at the beginning of tllease events
how ill it beseemed the majesty of the Sovereign to send
his troops to destroy a number of his own subjects, for the
most part men of learning, who had neither injured nor
molested anyone, nor been guilty of any treasonable action
towards the government, merely on the groLind of a differ-
ence of belief between thein and the rest of the clergy.. - -
Their representations, however, proved inefficacious, and
deeds were done which ill befitted the kingly dignity.
[Account of the letter addressed to His 111(tjesty the ICing
by the Letter J.]1
In like manner some while ago one of the most pro-
foundly learned, earnest, and virtuous of divines addressed
to His Majesty the King a letter to this effect:-" Through
the machinations of the clergy, and at their command, these
By "the Letter J."  I conjecture that AkA Jernil
of Burlijird, one of the most learned and influential of the
(BehA'f) BàbÕs resident in Persia, is meant. Tbat be was fin-
prisoned for sorne tirne in Teherlin (see pp. 172 and 180 infra) I
know from one who shared his captivity.
people'have for a long while been visited with the scourges
of wrath and anger. If tliia-, bitter animosity and these harsh
measures arise from the fact that the clergy regard them
as heretics and infidels, then convene an assembly in the
presence of some few persons who enjoy the confidence both
of the government and the people, so that I your petitioner
may make it clear by irrefragable proofas that the clergy are
in error, and may banish these dissensions from our midst,
in order that His Majesty the King may henceforth refrain
from molesting these much-wronged and innocent people."
Certain passages of this document which bear most on
the topic before us are as follows :-" Is the measure of peace
agnd security granted to humble and unobtrusive folk to be
dependent on the whims of sectarian zealots steeped in
selfishness and prejudice and thinly disguising their greed

of worldly lucre under a veil of sanctity? Or is it to be
dependent on the judgement of His Majesty's trusted ad-
visers, the requirements of the national well-being, and the
principles of a just administration designed to increase the
prosperity of the country, to suppress sedition, and to
promote the welfare of mankind ? If the former, then ere
long neither state nor people will remain, and we had best
abandon forthwith our lives and property, and depart to the
realms of non-existence. If the latter, then wherefore all
this strife and disputation? I know not what advantage.
cunning and spiteful men obtain from religion. 1 swear by.
God that religion cannot be combined with worldliness, nor
true faith with greed of gold. From old time proneness to
strife and discord hath been one of the characteristics of
the worthless and ignorant. In matters of faith and
doctrine hatred alid malice should have no place, for re-
ligion is a hidden mystery appertaining to the heart, and
cannot be placed in dependence on any man's will. The
I ie. the BàbÕs.

Most Merciful God hath endowed every soul with the
means of recognizing Him, and hath rendered it inde-
pendent of all else. Blind subservience to authority hath
never been right, nor are vain fancies a sufficient guide.
E,very soul must attain to a knowledge of the truth by its
own earliest endeavour."
It was therefore decreed by His Majesty the King that
-t disci
-ission should take place in the house of one of the
ministers of state, between several prominent members of
the clergy oil the one hand, and the learned petitioner on
the other, in order that some colgicliisloigi iigiight be reached
as to the validity of the claims advaihteed on either side.
After iigiucli discussion, and re-iterated demands oil the
part of the clergy for reasons why their - authority was
disputed, some left the rooin in anger, and the others
declared that they would no longer remain in the saine
city with their opponent. In consequence of this the King
imprisoned that learned and saintly man for a whole year,
merely to propitiate the clergy, and to protect the state from
the sedition which they would otherwise have stirred up.
The learned BàbÕ, oil his part, wrote an account of the
discussion which took place between himself and the clergy
in the Arabic language. A perusal of this document will
convince all fair-minded persons that the clergy were
actuated solely by a selfish desire to retain their supremacy,
and that the niotive which led tl-tenhi to reject the Lord of
the Age was a fear lest their authority might be weakened
and their commands and prolilbitioigis ihiiade of none effect.
To make this clear, we append a translation of this account,
rendered in the Persian language by that eminent scholar
At~6 Mfrzi Abu'l-Fazl 1, originally of
and illustrious divine A
I C. introduces this account with a songlewhit different form
of words, and suppresses the name of MirzA AVVI-Fazl~ concern-
GuIpAyagdii, without either addition or suppression. F,~ The
account, as rendered by the MÕrzà in Persian, runs aas
follows :-
" This is a true account of what passed between this
oppressed servant of God on the one hand, and two factions
of the mighty ones of the earth' on the other, when they
brought me in to their assembly with malice and great
injustice. When I had entered and seated myself, they
first demanded what I sought and intended by the petition
which I had submitted to His Majesty the King, and the
complaints which I had therein made against the clergy.
When they had finished speaking, I answered them as
" 'A tradition which hath been handed down from the

holy ImAms and the pure ones of God's chosen family
saith, " When heresies appeaq- amongst mankind, then let
the wise man shew forth, his knowledge." - Now since I do
clearly perceive that heresies and falsehoods have appeared
in your midst, and since 1 find you all pursuing the path
of error, I am come to shew -forth such knowledge and
wisdom as it hath pleased God to bestow upon me, to warn
alike the ministers of state and the clergy of their errors,
and to call your attention to those ordinances of the Book
of God which you have ignored.
"'Now what I have to say to the representatives of the
government is this, that kings and rulers have no right
to exercise control over anything beyond the outward body
of the world. Their function is to maintain order in
their realms, to strive to secure the prosperity of their
lands, to suppress sedition, to seek after the amelioration of
men's condition, and to be diligent in the furtherance of all
ing whom see my Catalogue and Description of 27 Bdbi 31-anu-
scri]pts in the J. R. A. S. for 1892, pp. 442-3, 663-5, and 701.
1 ie. the representatives of the government and the clergy.

measures conducive to the tranquillity and welfare of the
coiiingli-iiiity and the increase of the national wealth. But
kings have no right to interfere with the religious opinions
of their subjects, or to seek control over men's beliefs.
Because the King hath done this, enmity and war have been
rife for nearly thirty years', during which time nearly a
hundred thousand souls have been slain or scattered abroad
in distant and foreign lands. Had these been spared, the
number of thein and their offa-,pring would now have
amounted to five hundred thonsand, and thereby the pros-
perity of the country would have been greatly increased,
for how much may be effected with even a hundred thou-
sand !
" 'To the clergy I have three things to say. First of
all, if one appears in great glory and power summoning
men to God, if he be not from God does it rest with God
to confute him and bring him to naught, or with men V
They answered, It rests with God.'
"' Then,' said 1, 'what say you of him who appeared
in the year A.H. 1260, with great glory and cogent proofs,
calling men to God, and directing them to the divine law ?
For the Lord did in no wise confute him, but, on the con-
trary, exalted his doctrine, made manifest his deeds, and
rendered clear his proofs, so that his verses are dissemi-
nitted throughout the world, and his writings found in every
region and quarter.'
11 They answered, 'Learned divines, who are God's
representatives amidst ineigi, turned away from him and
rejected him, even as we also reject him.'
" 'Are you then,' asaid I, 'the representatives of God,
I From this it would appear that the discussion here described
took place about A.H. 1290 (A.D. 1873). Cf. my Re?narks on the
Babi texts published b~l Baron Rosen &e. in the J. R. A. S. for
1892, p. 281.
the elect of the Sure Faith, the guides to the 1 Straight
Path-you, who are devoid of the very rudiments of wisdom,,
who know no method but conjecture and imaFination ?
How can such as have no certain conviction in minor
points of religion and jurisprudence, who can pronounce no
final decision, and who regard the Gate of Knowledge as
shut', think themselves entitled to decide on the highest
questions relating to the Divine Unity, or to recognize
those well-springs of holy inspiration who are the channels
whereby God's grace is conveyed to mankind? How can
they consider their acceptance or rejection of God's apostles
and messengers as a thing to be greatly heeded ? Can one
so blind that he cannot see his own foot, but stumbles into
the pits of error and strays in the valleys of destruction,

claim to distinguish between truth and falsehood, or to be a
measure for the knowledge of Him who created the heavens,
the Lord of the Names and Attributes?'
" When my discourse had reached this pointh, all were
silent in wonder and amazement, and I continued : I'Let
us descend, however, from this level, and suppose that
these people are in error. Even in this case, what right
have you to regard them as unbelievers and to sanction
the shedding of their blood, seeing that they make the
same profession as the Muslims in what regards the pro-
phetic office of the prophets, the sanctity of the saints, the-
sufficiency of the Book of God for a proof, and the binding
nature of its commands and prohibitions? Yet have you
unjustly slain these holy and spiritual men with- such~
cruelty as hath not been witnessed or heard of in any of
the heathen tyrants of bygone time.'
' This sect,' answered they, 'maintain that that Holy
ie. who deny the possibility of any further revelation, or
the existence of any open channel of communication between
God and men. Cf. my Traveller8Narrative, vol. ii, pp. 243-4.

Being whose coming hath been promised to us liath been
borigi in this time, which assertion is contrary to truth.
With those who hold such a belief we will have no
"'By what proofs,' I demanded, 'do you make good
this assertion ? For, according to the established principles
of your religion, this is not unbelief.'
C" The proof,' replied they, 'is the self-evident necessity
of the matter in the eyes of all adherents of our faith ; for
if you enquire of even the common folk and tradespeople,
they will unanimously declare that the promised advent
cannot possibly take place in this age.'
" 'Great heavens!' I exclaimed, 'I 111arvel at  a proof so flimsy and weak that a child would
laugh at it ! The common folk and tradespeople are a
branch from your stem ; their beliefs are gathered from
your.discourses and their errors learned from you. And
now you regard these beliefs of theirs as " fundamental
principles of fagith " which are necessarily true, cling to
figinents more unsubstantial than a spider's web, and cast
yourselves adrift from the "Strong Rope " and " Most Firm
Hand-hold 1 of the Lord.'
When the discussion had reached this point, they,
being unable to justify their deeds, sought to repudiate
them, saying, 'We have not pronounced the ban of infi-
delity against this sect, nor have we seen in them any evil,
nor do we seek to shed their blood. The author of this
bloodshed and these imprisonments, and the cause of this
terror and persecution is the King.'
CC( Why then,' I retorted, 'did ye not enjoin on him
the right and forbid him the wrong, seeing that in the Book
of God ye are bidden to suinnion igiieii into the way of
I Kur'àn, ii, 257; xxxi, 21.
177 hg _
righteousness and salvation, and not to hide from them the
divine ordinances V
" Finding my arguments stronger than their own and
my faith more firmly established, they remained silent, and
I continued, 'There is another point to which I would'eall
your attention. To day the Manifestation of God's com-
mand and the Well-spring of His inspiration is apparent in
the world, and, with God-given power, hath proclaimed his
mission, summoning the great ones of every people and
the kings of every nation to enter the Straight W and t
embrace the Firm Faith'.
ay  0
Ite believers should not march forth all
blessed verse, " T  Agreeably to the purport of the

together; and if a troop of every division of them march
not forth, it is only that they may study religion," was it
not incumbent on you to enquire into his doctrine, that
your uncertainty might give way to assurance and full con-
viction ? 0 assembly of divines, why do ye keep men back
from the fount of the sweet water of God, and shut them
out from the Straight Way of the Lord? Why do ye, hide
the truth with falsehood, strive to extinguish God's Light,
and sell religion for the world ? Answer fairly: can Almighty
God, under whose absolute control are the souls of all man-
kind and the uttermost parts of the earth, patiently suffer
anyone to maintain successfully a false claim to saintship
and authority in such ise that the most discerning minds
and the keenest intellects should submit to his sway, as
you have seen them do in this case 2'
Since the BAbi apologist at the beginning of his discourse
(p. 174-supra) spoke of his fellow-believers. as having been sub-
jected to persecutions "for nearly thirty years" it is evident that
Beh,Vu'llih is here intended. The concluding words in the
sentence can hardly allude to anything else than his Epistles to
the Kings (Alwdh-i-Sald.tin).
2 Kur'an, ix , 123.
N. H.

Aye,' said one of those present, 'men submitted to By Him in whose control my spirit lies,' g said . I,
his attraction, allowed his claims, believed in him, and 'I hold myself as nothing more than a believing servant of
made him their refuge, but without proof or token.' the Lord of Unity, neither do I claim aught beyond this.
Then,' answered 1, 1 to God is the greater glory for But answer me fairly: what greater miracle can there be
endowing His Manifestation with a majesty so unap- than that I should thus fearlessly confront you, expose
proachable and a power so supreme as to be in himself a your errors, and dispute with you, undeterred by fear,of
sufficient proof. He is the realization of the blessed word your malignant hatred, or your notorious eagerness to shed
the blood of such as hold this certain truth 2 For every man
0 Thou whose esse??ce proveth Thine essence," the mirror of
the glorious truth ,High is He above all likeness to the of discernment well knows that any one of you who should
have reason to believe that lie had incurred the enmity of
manifestations of Ilis Xames and Attributes", tile fulfil- a powerful noble or high officer of the King would be over-
ment of the word " Exempt is Ile from particil)ation in
the 92ature of His creatures ", inasmuch as He is independent come by that dread, and fearfulness which are the constant
of all else than Himself and of all which men denote by portion of the erring, and would hasten to hide himself
like a timid girl.'
the term " thing 11 When the discussion had reached this point, my ad-
" They replied, qu proof of your assertion shew us versaries dispersed from before me and assembled in another
some miracle the like of which no man can perform.'
" ' I am but a humble servant of God,' said 1, ' and a place, whither they summoned others of God's servants
believer in the King of kings : yet if all of you, great and whom they had arrested and imprisoned with me, and - began
small, prince and peasant, learned and simple, will agree, to ply them with questions. Then they called me into
their presence a second time. When I entered, I saw the
respecting the sign you desire, and will publicly notify it to
friends of God sitting abashed and confounded before them.
all men, and appoint a day for its exhibition, 1, by means of
'Tell me,',cried 1, 'of what wrong towards church or state
that instrument known as tile telegraph whereby commu-
nication can be established with distant lands, will, oil the these poor innocents have been guilty, that in the land of
day so appointed, pray him who is the Manifestation of KAsliAn they should have been exposed to the malice and
Divine Power and the Well-spriug of Revelation' to shew spite of a pack of scoundrels, and that you, instead of suc-
couring the afflicted and protecting the oppressed, should
you what you desire.' punish and imprison them V
" Perceiving by the confidence with which I advanced Then a certain divine of K.4shAn oversteppi . ng all
SO bold a challenge that I stood on firm ground, they
replied, it was you who first provoked this contest, and it is bounds of decorum, cried out at me, 'What hast thou to
do with these, that thou seekest to defend them and darest
therefore incumbent upon you to shew -us soine,-,igihi on your
own part, that we may admit the validity of your claim.' call learned and eminent divines " tyrants " and " scoun-
drels " V
TI-ieihi was 1 filled with wrath, and sat down on my
i.e. Behi'u'll* who must at this time have already taken
knees, and thus spake 'Such words beseem not thee and
up his abode at Acre iiii Syria. See n. I on p. 174 sitpra.

such as thee, who are unworthy to speak of higher thing,-,.
It is only the ignorant who dare show discourtesy to those
superior to themselves alike in birth and position, and
none but fools fancy thernselves wise in the absence- of all
learning and culture. How can one ignorant alike of the
decencies of society and the amenities of discussion, and
neglectful of the ordinary rules of good breeding incumbent
upon all, account himself wise in matters of faith, and com-
potent to decide as to the repudiation or acceptance of
God's elect? ' "
Repeated attempts were subsequently made at KerbelA
and Nejef to compass the death of this learned apologist,
but these were frustrated by the justice of His Majesty the
King, who, to put a stop to the trouble, subjected him to
a temporary confinement. No one can blame the King for
acting tIlUa3 ; for such is the influence which the clergy
enjoy, and -so great is their power in every department of
the state, that they have nullified the sovereign's au-
thority in exactly the same way as they have destroyed all
but the name of religion and law. Through their successive
encroachments and usurpations of power the King is re-
duced to the semblance of a lifeless body, or a half-killed
bird whose struggles tell but of approaching death .... The
King cannot issue ally command or take any step opposed to
their views, and they imagine that lie exists but to maintain
their authority and to give effect to their decisions. Thus
should any governor or minister, however powerful, issue
any order or take any steps to secure the well-being of those
subject to him, or to proinote the national prosperity, with-
out first consulting them, they will, by a mere hint, incite
the people of his province or city to harass, vex, and thwart
him till they have driven him out, after which they will
fall to plundering men's property and carrying off their
wives, without the least respect for the authority of the
King or any other person. That they should so act towards
governors is indeed a common-place scarcely worthy of
mention, for they have always behaved in the same un-
seemly fashion towards the most powerful monarchs of
former days, not suffering them to take any step in accord-
ance with their own judgement, or to adopt any measure
for the good of the nation ; and, at the least opposition or
offence, inciting the people to rebel against the royal au-
thority. Down to the present day they have continued to
hold the government and the people in subjection to them-
selves, and have,at all timep been the cause of national

decay. All history bears witness to the truth of this as-
sertion, on which it is unnecessary to expatiate further; but
at no previous time have any clergy possessed such power
as is now wielded by the mullds of Persia, who regard them-
selves as the representatives of the ImAms, and call their
kings " dogs of the Imims' threshold." If some effectual
means be not soon adopted to disperse this hierarchy, nul-
lify their power, and destroy their authority, they will ere
long bring about the fall of this empire also, seeing that
they ha~e now waxed exceedingly bold and powerful.
On the return of His Majesty the King from Europe' they
not only clamoured for the dismissal of the Prime Mi-
nister, circulating false reports of his atheism; but also
prevented the introduction of railways, which would have
greatly conduced to the prosperity of the country and the
freedom of the people. Had the King not adopted the
I Nisiru'd-Din Shih set out from Teherin on his first journey
to Europe on Saturday, the 21st of Safar, A.H. 1290 (April 20th,
1873), and acrain set foot on Persian soil on Saturda , the 13th of
ZD  y
Rajab of the same ear (September 6th, 1873). This allusion is
important, as giving some indication of the date when this
history was written.

wise policy of conciliating them by acceding to their deg-
mands, they would assuredly, as they had openly declared,
have refused to let the Royal cavalcade enter the capital, or
the King take his seat on the throne. In short, if effectual
steps be not taken to check these mischief-makers, they
will, for the attainment of their own selfish ends, so destroy
and blot out this dynasty that no trace of its existence
shall rernain on the page of time, even as they destroyed
the mighty monarchies of bygone days. Even towards the
great kings of the Achwineiiian dynasty they behaved in
a manner which it is a shame even to mention. Did not
rash and inconsiderate priests persuade ShfrAy6 to kill
King Parviz in order that he might becoiihie king in his
stead, and afterwards induce him to put to death twellt3T-
one of his brethren, each one a prince of the blood royal?'
Yet even then, notwithstanding his obedience to their will,
they would not suffer hiiihi to govern according to his own
["Would'st thou know the many ills obedience to a priesthood
brinas I
Read the records of the world, and search the stories of its
Did not the territory of this saine Persia once extend
eastwards to Transoxania and the mountains of Thibet and
China, westwards to the river Euphrates, southwards to the
Gulf of Oman, and northwards to the Aral Mountains?
Even in the time of Kliusraw Parviz, notwithstanding all
the troubles and revolutions brought about by the priests,
the revenue of what remained of the Persian Einpir(,~
amounted to eight hundred and twenty-nine crore~-' ~of
1 See Tabarf's Annales, series i, Vol. ii, pp. 1058- -1060, and
Noeldeke's Geseltichte der Perser und Araber z2o, Zeit der 8Ctsa;1,j_
den, pp. 379-383, and n. I at the foot of the latter page.
2 The Persian crore is half a million.
Jinairsj of red gold, while in might, majesty, and power they
had no rival. All the kings of the earth rendered homage
to the monarchs of the Acheemenian dynasty and were as
naught beside them, just as at the present day Persia is as
naught beside the nations of Europe, but is like a dismissed
governor or a cancelled edict, heeded by none. This abase-
ment is the outcome of the learning of these divines, these
upholders of religion and law, and the result of their undue
power and influence. By the troubles which they have
stirred up Persia has been made desolate and reduced to a
few empoverished and deserted provinces, the total revenue

derived from which at the present day only amounts to
seven crores ', and even of this, were the
taxes fairly levied, not half would comp into the royal
Shame on the people of Persia for their lack of spirit!
By God, they have not a spark of patriotic or manly feeling;
they have grown habituated to cowardice, falsehood, and
flattery; they acquiesce in tyranny and oppression, and,
relinquishing the position of free agents, have become mere
passive instruments in the hands of the clergy' Do they
forget that in days of yore their glory and honour, their
wealth and prosperity, were the envy of all peoples ? Do
they not ask themselves why they have now become a
bye-word amongst the nations for abject misery, meanness,
and baseness ? Moreover did they not once excel all
mankind in every art, trade, and handicraft? Why are
they now sunk in savagery, poverty, and ignorance, and
notorious for their utter want of generosity, justice, and
wisdom ? Do they never reflect why it is that their science
is now restricted to such things as purifications, washing
the orifices of the body, dyeing the beard, clipping the
1 Between a million and a million and a half pounds sterling.

moustache, disputing about payment of tithes and alms, the Dominant" "to whom belongeth dominion"'. -Well
atonement for wrongs', ImAm's money, and the like, for says Hdfiz,
the determination of which things even it does not suffice?
"These preachers, who, when in their pulpits, of virtue make
Yet so heedless are they that, they do not perceive that such a display,
most of these divines originally spring from the rustic Behave, I assure you, in private in quite a dissimilar way.
That they put any faith in the Judgement they preach one
population or the scum of the towns. They enter our can scarcely believe
cities and colleges with a snhiock and a staff, and feet full When Him who shall judge them they daily attempt to out-
wit and deceive."2
of asores encased in coarse socks and ealivas shoes. There,
by the alms and votive offerings of the people, by begging i  Most people, however, have not sufficient sense to per-
from this one and that one, by prayers and fastings paid ceive from what sources all these luxuries, powers, shops,
for at the rate of two Winains a year, by reading through the villages, lands, aqueducts, possessions, and moneys which
whole Kur'6n for a kr(b?., ~and by fees obtained for the the clergy possess are derived. Have they skill in working
performance of devotions, they manage to live in extreme mines ? No. Do they traffic in the merchandise of India,
wretchedness and poverty. After reading a few books, China, America, or JEurope ? No. Do they traverse land
learning Arabic, filling their minds with all manner of and sea, or cultivate fields which lie waste ? No. Have
doubts, hesitations, and vain scruples, and developing they amassed their wealth by the discovery of new arts ?
their obsolete superstitions and prejudices, they leave No. This luxury and opulence results, as all, wise or
college, take their seats in the chair Of -tile Law and simple, may plainly see, fro in -the plunder of rich and poor,
the Intimate, and forthwith become the absolute arbiters from payments for legal decisions written or pronounced,
and law-givers of the nation, the controllers of all moil's from the profits of writing, " I decree this", or saying, " I
lands and possessions, the owners of horses, mules, gold, and tness to this " and "it is thus and thus", and from the
silver. They then think themselves entitled to set their
hire obtained for the use of their honourable seals. Such
feet on the necks of all mankind, to lord it over the noble, being the case, what folly it is to take as guides men so
to maintain troops of horses and retinues of servants, to notoriously evil and hypocritical-, '-to follow their opinions,
claim to be the vicegerents of the ImAni, to receive his to be governed by their decisions, to cringe to them, atter
titlieas, and to make atonements for wrongs. They account them, beseech their favour, and reckon them, forsooth, as
themselves the most noble amongst all creatures and the the repositories of learning! For uglystics and thinkers alike
most perfect, the generality of men as "like cattle"', and recognise three degrees of knowledge and three classes of
the common folk as "even more astray"'. They become learned men, corresponding to the Truth, tghe Path, and
dead men's heirs, consumers of endowinelIts, and collectors
of tithes and thirds", and usurp the station of " the One, 1 Kur'àn, xl, 16.
See the foot-notes on P. '17 szipra. 2 For the original text of these verses, see Rosenzweig-
2 Kur'an, vii, 178; xxv, 46. Schwannau's edition of the Divdin of VdfiF, vol. i, p. 342, first
3 lbid. and fourth couplets.

the Law'. Knowledge obtained by divine illuiihiiiiatioii and an atheist. The second class are trees without fruit,
through the fulness of God's grace, without effort or study wise in theory but not in practice. These also, although
on the part of the recipient, is called " Imparted " or " Im- they have no real eminence, and reap none of the fruits of
mediate Knowledge"'. Knowledge revealed after long search  their knowledge, should still, in consideration of the form
and striving on the part of the recipient, but not arrived at of wisdom which they possess, be treated with respect and
by induction or reasoning, is called " Ecstatic " or " Dis- deference, and to speak slightingly of them is a grave fault.
closed Knowledge"'. Of neither of these kinds of know- As to the third class, who deliberately disobey God's com-
ledge have the clergy any share. As to the third kind of mands, and act contrary to what they know and teach, it
knowledge, obtained by toil and study, it is known as can be easily seen that they are no better than thieves and
"Acquired" or "Ordinary Knowledge"", and comprises traitors clad in a garb of knowledge, who pollute the whole
knowledge of the Law, and of the means whereby happiness world with their foul deeds and words, use their science as
in the life to come and disregard of worldly objects may be 11 an instrument for plundering mankind, and make of legal
secured. By it are the faulty perfected and the erring quibbles and fictions of their own devising steps to secure
guided. By it are men taught the way'of salvation and their own advancement. The wickedness of their nature
the mode of performing acceptable service to God. By it prompts them to practise every species of treachery and
are they rescued from the abyss of error and led to the deceit, to give free rein to their wicked lusts, and to yield
loftiest heights of sanctity and blessedness. Those who an unreserved allegiance to the devil. These are in very
have this knowledge are also divisible into three classes. truth hypocrites and liars, inasmuch as their outward
The first class are such as put it into practice, regulate appearance is at variance with their actual life, and their
their conduct by it, and thus asectire the results above enu- hearts agree not with their lips. God hath called the
merated. To call in question the conduct of such as these hypocrites accursed and rejected in all the sacred books,
is downright infidelity, and lie who does so is an unbeliever  and so, wherever in this history allusion is made to their
I Rakikat, Tarikat, Sltari'at. The Law is incumbent on all evil qualities, it applies only to this third class, and no
believers, and contains the commandments revealed as necessary general condemnation of learned doctors is intended. A true
divine was the late Sheykh Murtazg' (whose station may
for the direction of their conduct. The Path is the higher ethical
and moral standard to which such as would know the Truth-the God exalt!), for he renounced all worldly pomps and
inward mystery of Being-must conform. "Live the life," says luxuries, would not on any pretext take from anyone a
a well-known aphorism of the in stics, "and thou shalt know tthle single dhzair, and [during the earlier part of his life] lived
doctrine." contentedly in poverty *Tsuch that at his death the total
2 '112a-i-vahbi or laduni. This is the knowledge of the
prophets. value of all that he possessed did not amount to two and
3 '11nz-i-zawk1 or kash . This is the knowled e of the
'fl, 9 *[although in hia-, later days the fees paid to him for -his
mystics, saints, and SUM&
4 '11m-i-kasbi or rasnii. This is the knowledge of divines, 1 See my Traveller's Narrative, vol. ii, p. 86 and footnote, and
p. 129.
doctors, and scholars. I

twenty tqbnains'~*. So also, when I was in 18fithill, one of
my friends told me of the piety and virtue of a lately deceased
divine's brother, whose honoured name has through lapse
of time escaped my memory. ' For when the people be-
sought him with much importunity to accept the position
rendered vacant by his brother's death and to act as their
spiritual director and leader in prayer, refusing to accept
his apologies and excuses, and finally compelling him by
their urgency to accede to their request, he stipulated for
three days' grace. When these had elapsed he repaired to
the mosque and assumed the functions thrust upon him.
One of his intimates enquired of him the reason why lie
had demanded the three days' grace. He answered, "I
had in my house fifteen maunds of barley. Generosity
and justice alike forbade that I should have by me pro-
vision for fifteen days while some lacked for two days'
food. During those three days I distributed this barley
amongst the deserving poor, and only when I had done this
did I feel myself entitled to perform divine service."
Men such as these one may indeed describe as earnest
and learned divines, but not those who in a year of famine
daily saw a thousand dying for want of a morsel of bread,
and yet refused to sell the corn hoarded in their granaries
for forty tqimaiiis a kharvair. Such was actually the case in
TeherAn, where one of the clergy living in odour of sanctity
and enjoying universal respect had in store enough corn to
satisfy all the people of the city, the season for a new
harvest being, moreover, nigh at hand. The King wished
to buy his corn at forty tibn6ins the kharvrtr and sell it at
a cheap rate to the people, so that they might not perish
lectures enabled him to live on a somewhat more liberal
I At the present rate of exchange less than R7.
of hunger. But this reverend, religious, righteous ~ ex-
ponent of the Law withheld the people's food in the hope
that its value might rise above forty t7ima'giis ! May such
as these be the sacrifice of VAtil the Armenian merchant,
who, some years ago, during the famine at H.6jf Tarkhdn,
procured through his agents in neighbouring countries
a sufficient quantity of corn at twenty-five roubles per
sack of five poods', imported it to HAjf TarkhAn, and sold
it to his fellow-townsmen for ten roubles the sack rather
than suffer them to know the meaning of famine.
Men of sense are fully alive to the wickedness of these
hypocrites, and well know that the existence of such a body
is a menace to the order and well-being of the community
and the stability of the government; but the fear of
forfeiting their position, their property, or even their lives,
keeps them silegnt. Let none take exception to what we

have alleged, or shall hereinafter, as occasion arises, allege
as to the malign influence of this body on the government,
and let all know that herein no particle of blame attaches
to His Most Sacred Majesty the King, although in general
kings are held accountable for all that takes place within
the scope of their authority. But these clergy, by reason
of their evil nature and their anxiety to retain the
authority which they now enjoy, are continually seeking to
impair the strength of the government and to encroach on
the sovereign's powers, and though they describe them-,
selves as " praying for the continuance of the state," there
are in truth none who wish it so ill. They are ever bent
on securing sole and supreme sway, becoming dominant in
every department of affairs, and absorbing every prerogative
of the king, even as they already regard their own decisions
as superior in authority to those of the civil courts, dis-
I The Russian pood is equivalent to about 36 lbs.

regard the commands and prohibitions of the functionaries
of the state, and stigmatize all government officials as
tyrants and oppressors. Yet the respect and consideration
which they enjoy are in truth theirs only through the
King's bounty, and they are but one class of his servants,
differing from others only in this, that while all others
perform services commensurate with the wages which
they receive, and exhibit gratitude and devotion pro-
portionate to the favours bestowed upon them, they do
but devour the public wealth and substitute treason for
During the quarrel which arose in the reign of the late
King Fath-'Alf ShAh between the Persian and Turkish
governments and the war consequent thereon', His High-
liess the late NA'ibu's-Saltaua was engaged on the frontier
in repelling the attacks of the Ottoman forces. The clergy
of Tabriz, regarding his absence as their opportunity, began
to stir up sedition and create disturbanc&s. The NA'ibu's-
Saltana wrote to his deputy a letter expressing his views of
their conduct, part of which we shall quote as bearing on
the subject before us.
[Copy of t1w N(Fibit's-Sal.tana's letter to his deputy.]
"It is your pilaws of sugar and beans and bowls of
broth and syrup which have made these gentry so vicious.
The Arab steed will not eat more than its due measure of
barley, and the Cossack gelding, though it should eat ten
maunds of corn at a feed, does not go mad with exuberance;
but the wretched pack-horse, if it gets a trifle more barley
I ie. the war of A.H. 1237 (A.D. 1822). It was in May of that
year that 'Abb6s Mimi the Nd'ibu's-Saltana marched from
Tabriz against the Turks.
than usual, or is allowed to graze unhindered in the paddock,
first bites or kicks the groom who tends it.
The gardener's feet, 0 rose-bud sweet,
Were the first to feel thy thorn!'
From the time of the Moghul invasion, when the
Sheykhu'l-1slAm Eof TabrfzJ declared it to be expedient for
the MusulmAns to take oaths of allegiance, until to-day,
whether under Jihin-ShAh, the Muzaffars, the Safavf Kings,
Nddir Shdh, Karim Khin, the Deylamfs, or Ahmad KhAD,
never have the clergy of Tabriz and of Persia generally
enjoyed so great a measure of respect, honour, considera-
tion, and power. It is through our fortune and by our
favour that they have waxed so great ; and now for that
good they return us this evil ; for to-day, when we are
arrayed against a hostile army, leaving our unguarded
property to the care of the people of Tabriz, they create
disturbances, close the shops and bazaars, go off to Seyyid
Haniza and the Bigh-i-Mfsha, and furthermore publish
abroad their exploits, some in the Russian dominions, some,

like Safi KhAn, at the Court, others in Turkey. The faces
of the people of Tabrfz are indeed whitened! I-lad Fath-
'Ali KhAn possessed a particle of self-respect, or the elders
of the city a grain of ihnanhood, an ignorant fellow like
FattAh would never have dared to act thus. That these
gentry should not be sated with broth and pilaw is only
natural, but how is it that you have not yet had enough of
the hypocritical piety of these mulVis ? Books enough
have been written about religious warfare ; the divine
mission of Muhammad has been sufficiently demonstrated
we are tired of the wrangling of the colleges
Yet still to your darling you render
The worship and service of yore.'
If one-hundredth part of all this talk about religious war-

fare had been addressed to armed men instead of to peaceful
citizens, by this time there would not be a single infidel
left to necessitate champions for the true faith. Hence-
forth, at all events, you had best invite to your Thursday
and Friday banquets the elders of the city, the magistrates
of the different quarters, persons worthy and honourable,
and men of position and sense. Away with tables spread
for hypocrisy -and cant! Learn to recognize base and
spurious Coin '.1
'Coin which bears the Sulff superscription
Is not always pure and unalloyed;
Many a dervish-cloak is only worthy
In the blazing fire to be destroyed."
Hitherto no advantage has accrued to us from our
perusal of this page or our pursuance of this path ; oil the
contrary, all these troubles which beset us are the outcome
of the Friday prayers and Thursday evening devotions of
these mulbis. If you desire the society of the learned, have
you not in your city accomplished scholars like Hijf Fizil
and HAjf Razzdk Beg, who work much, eat little, and live
reasonably, honestly, and soberly? God is our refuge! Where
ten mullris are met together, there is God! However often
you ask, 'Art thou full ? 12 they answer 'Is there any
more?" like lazy over-fed pack-horses, which are consumers
-of chaff and demolishers of barley. May they be the sacri-
fice of the Turkish Efendfs and the Frankish priests!
They have neither learning enough to write a confutation
of the latter, nor zeal and entliuagiasm enough to decorate
their mosques and roads with bunches of flowers like the
former. Let them call upon the people, to defend their
country and protect their faith, in like manner as they
were wont to do in our presence. But when they do
I Hdfiz, ed. Rosenzweig-Schwannau, vol. i, p. 474, first couplet.
2 Kur'àn, 1, 29.
muster up courage to unsheathe the sword, it is not against
the Ottoman troops, but against Mimi Amin of IsfahAn!
To hunt tame animals and conduct themselves like mad-
men seems to be their creed. But since they are grown
so bold, and have armed themselves with clubs and swords,
let them at any rate be good enough to employ their
weapons against rebels. Herein we delegate to you our
authority by these our letters, and empower you to act as
you may think best in all matters. Farewell."
If these clergy, who make such pretensions to learning,,
who regardAliemselves as the wisest and most competent
of men, who have obtained the control of every department
of state, who give effect to every command which they
issue, and who consider all men bound to submit to their

decisions, were even men of sense and intelligence, who
would educate and develop the people instead of reducing
them to beggary with their legal quibbles and tricks of
priest-craft, it would not so much matter. But, -as a- matter
of fact, their stupidity, ignorance, and folly are absolutely
unparalleled; though the common people, sunk as they
are in brutish ignorance, give them credit for faithfulness
and virtue. Thus it is related that a thief was brought
before a certain eminent divine of Isfaghin, and made con-
fession of his crime, saying, " I went to the man's house a,
little while before midnight with the intention of robbing
it. Till near dawn I was occupied in forcing the doors of
rooms and wrenchino, open boxes. When the day began to
dawn the occupants of the house discovered my presence
and effected my capture." "Accursed wretch!" exclaimed
the learned divine, "If thou wert engaged in theft from
midni lit until mornino, when and where didst thou
9  0)
perform the night-prayer?" The atmosphere of the
college and cloister had so disordered the poor divine's
N. H.

I  I
brain that lie did not so much as perceive that thieves are
not in the habit of paying much attention to their devo-
tions, and that they do not as a rule perforin the obligatory
prayers of the day, much less the supererogatory prayers of
night !
"Never bath college or cloister yielded a man of agense;
Perish these hornes of folly, whose learning is all pretence!"
A certain wise and learned Persian has unsparingly
exposed the evil lives and vicious practices of these vntll(ts,
supporting his assertions with forcible proofs and eloquent
arguments, and sliewing that the disordered state of Persia,
the decay of its government, the wretchedness of its people,
and the decline of religion are directly traceable to them.
He points out, amongst other things, that religion has been
brought into contempt by the mass of spurious traditions
and absurd fables which they have fabricated, whereby
other traditions which are authentic are brought int - o dis-
repute, - Thus they assert in their -books that the sun
turned back in its course thirteen times for His Holiness
the Chief of believers', in support of which assertion they
adduce a thousand traditions, being too ignorant of science
and too devoid of sense to understand that such retrogres-
sion of the sun is an absolute impossibility, and that
furthermore, even could such an impossibility have taken
place, all men would have observed it, and would have
sought to discover its cause. For assuredly, had so in-
credible a prodigy occurred, all would, without further
hesitation or delay, have embraced the religion of IslAm,
and at least they would not have failed to record in their
chronicles so remarkable an event.
So again they do not hesitate to attribute to his Holi-
ness the Chief of believers' the same neglect of religious
I Ulf ibn Abi Tilib, the first InAm.
duties which characterizes themselves. For they say that
one day he overslept the season of mid-day prayer, and
did not awake till sundown to discover his neglect. Well
says Jaldlu'd-Din Ru'mf in answer to this absurd and sense-
less fiction-
"A wakeful heart a hundred sights espies,
Though slumber overcome the weary eyes.
The Prophet said, 'My eyes are closed in sleep,
Yet my heart faileth not its watch to keep'.
Of this heart-watch to tell the meaning true
A thousand ffasnavis were all too few."
Notwithstanding all their toilsome studies and pre-
tensions to profound learning, they do not yet understand
that for the sun there is neither rising nor setting, but that

evening becomes morning and day night by the movement
of the earth, so that the day of Persia is the night of
America, and vice versa'. For the sun has a motion of its
own, but not round this earth ; rather its attraction causes
the earth to revolve continually round itself at a speed of
sixty thousand miles an hour. For it to turn back in its
course, then, the earth would need to perform a retrograde
movement until it reached the point which corresponds to
the post-meriaian.
So also they say in their books that on the day of the
'_.4shAra` noon lasted seveDty-two hours, never perceiving that
every man of sense and asound reason must deride such an
assertion, and will suppose all the rest of their traditions
to be as false as this. For it is perfectly evident to every
rational being that had the forenoon of that day really been
prolonged to seventy-two hours the whole order of the
world would have been disturbed, and all men must needs
I The tenth day of Muharrani, on which the battle of Kerbeli
was coigicluded, and the martyrdom of Itnim Huseyn and his
companions consunimated.

have observed it and recorded it in theirhistories~. Secondly,
as is plain to the most simple, were an Arabian sun to
a3hitic continhliously for seventy-two hours the sand on the
plain would become like fire, the blood would boil in the
veins, and no living thing could survive. Thirdly, men of
science have ascertained that anyone deprived of sleep for
seventy-two hours of necessity dies, iihiore especially if, in
addition to this, he partakes of no food. How then could
that host of horse and foot burdened with their harness
and weapons of war continue to fight for seventy-two hours
in that scorching Arabian desert without eating, sleeping,
or drinking ? No man could do this ; and these were not
lindins whose holy nature might endow them with ini-
raculous powers of endurance.
'I-JIn truth, any man of discernment has but to consider
attentively the sayings and doings of these nudVis to per-
ceive that their folly exceeds ill bounds and surpasses all
conception. When, for instance, in the reign of SultAii
1juseyn the Safavi, in the year A.11. 1135, the Afghans, led
by Mfr MahmAd GliilzA'f, invaded Persia, and drew near
to IsfahAn (at that time the capital), the clergy reassured
the king, promising to proclaim a religious war, and de-
claring that, fortified by the Holy Law and their own
sanctity, they would not suffer a single Afghan to escape
with his life. When the Afghans had encompassed IsfaliAlt
and laid siege to it, the clergy assembled to drive them
away with cries of " Verily there is no god but God", and
these cries were the sole outcome of their religious war.
It is indeed a matter for astonishment that iiotwithastaiidiiig
their excessive folly these people dare lay claim to be
spiritual guides and representatives of the lindius, and
consider themselves the most discerning and virtuous of
jSo, too, in the reign of the late King Fath-'Alf Slidli, ill
i  i
the year ', when strife waas impending with
lliiassia, the clergy urged the government to make war.
Sheykh Ja'far the Arab and Mfrzi Masih were most im-
portunate in this matter, saying, "We will proclaim a
religious war, and our courage shall rend asunder the veil
of Russia's lionour; we will invade and occupy the whole
of that prosperous kingdom, and, fortified by our Holy
Religion, will take captive all their soldiers, or make them
food for the mace and the sword. " But in the end their
religious war resulted only in disgrace and humiliation to
Persia, while the Russian troops occupied the whole pro-
vince of AzarbaijAii and its dependencies, and advanced

as far as TurkmAn-chAy, which is but a few stages from
TeherAn. Had the Persians not concluded a peace and
agreed to all the Russian demands, the Russians~ would
have occupied Telierin, and perhaps the whole of Persia.
Indeed it was only the attitude of the E uglish government
(which will not allow RiiaSsia to interfere with Persia, be--
cause they regard it as a barrier between the ltuasasian terri-
tories and their own) that induced ltiiaiasia to consent to
peace, because, had she not done so, aslie would have been
abliged to fight the l~,ii,liasli. Whoever reads with attention
the articles of the treaty concluded at TurkinAn-chAy will
be filled with pity for the utter hell)leassness of Persia and
her readiness to make any concesasion for the sake of peace.
Thus a religious war kindled by a few ignoraii,t wretcl~es
resulted in the loss of the half of Persia, and the destruction
A.D. 1826. The date is left blank in the ms.) I and is asupplied
by myself from the JVdsik-A?t't-Taw(!rikh, in which, Under the
year A.H. 1241, a full account of the rash folly of the vadlas in
provoking the war will be found. See also Watson's History of
Persia ftom the beginning of the Nineteenth Century till the year
1858, pp. 208--209; and my Traveller'sNarrative, pp. 118--119,
and n. 3 on the former page.

of her power; whereas, had Persia not entrusted her lionour
to these dolts, and had she fira-,t cast out the foe within,
the foe without would not have ventured on such high-
handed aggression, she would not have been so humbled
before her neighbours, and foreigners would not have
leagued together to take possession of her land. But these
household foes have now waxed so strong that, if matters
continue as they are, God only knows what disaster may
befall Persia through thein.J'*
[How Ris Supreme Iloliness (the lives qf all beside him be
his sacrifice !) made knomw his religion; how he sent
j4ithful converts into the regions round abotit to
announce his mission; how he bade Jendb-i-Beibu'l-
Bab go to Isfah(in ; how Jewilb-i-JIttkaddas of Khard-
. at Is/4 (t
setin, who was a professo? h 'n and a leader
of divine worship, beliered on. seeing God's revealed
verses; how he was sent to Ye--d and Kir9nain, that
qf~er preaching the doch-hie there lie might come to
and how Hgii Moliness proceeded to Mecca
returned thence to Bushire.]
Now in the year A.11. 1261', when the appearance of His
Holiness the BAb (whom the BAbis call " His Supreme
Holiness") had, by means of those learned men. who had
*[At all eventas it is best for us to ceaase from this dis-
course, and to narrate in detail the history of His Supreme
Holiness (may the life of all Contingent Being be his
sacrifice 1). And our sole object is to aa~et forth the truth
of the matter.]*
1 A.D. 1845. See my Y'raveller's Aarrative, pp. 251-252,
where I have striven to fix the dates of this and other events
connected with the earlier portion of the Bib's mission as nearly
as possible.
charged themselves with the promulgation of his doctrines,
been noised abroad throughout all the provinces, and had
in Shfrdz especially obtained the fullest notoriety, His
Holiness returned from Mecca, whither he had gone to
proclaim his religion, to the end that the fame of the Mani-
festation might be more fully diffused through all countries.
Thus writes the late HAjf MÕrzà JAnj 1 :-"A certain pious
and trustworthy person belonging to the mercantile class,
and noted for his virtue and sincerity, on his return from
Mecca related as follows : 'I beheld the Lord of the world
performing the ceremony of circumambulation at the Holy
Mosque with such an air of solemn ecstasy, reverence, and
humility as filled me with ainazemeDt, so that I knew for a
surety that this must be either He who is to arise out of
the family of Muhammad', or else one of the Guardians'
who ashall accom any him. On returning to my lodging

I related what I had seen to my companions, confirming it
The discovery of this passage on ff 866-8711 of the Paris ms'
Awl. Pers. 1071) first led me to suspect that it might contain
the actual text of Hgjf MÕrzà JAnf's history. The merchant
whose narrative is quoted is there described as a "fellow country-
Man" of the author of the history ,," ~i :-_,Y.~ j-i ~j). A
marginal note added in another hand gives his ~ame as Hiji
Mubammad Rizd, the son of Hijf Rahfm the velvet-maker
and states that he lived for twelve years after his
conversion, suffered much at the hands of the unbelievers, was
repeatedly imprisoned, and finally died in the year A.R. 1274
(A.D. 1857-8). ~ubh-i-Ezell whom 1 questioned on the subject,
wrote to me that the person intended was probably Hdjf Muham-
mad RizA of Isfalidn' merchant, who died in prison about the
year A.H. 1270. It was given out by his gaolers that he bad
committed suicide by strangling himself.
2 ie..the Mahdf.
3 Concerning the " Guardians see Traveller's Narra-
tive, Vol. ii, pp. 303-4.

with an oath, because of the fullness of my conviction. I
subsequently enjoyed the privilege of iigleetiii, hill, at
Medina, where, according to the ineasure of my fitness, I
saw what I had to see, drew from it Iny OWD inference,
and confessed the a-,tifficieiicy of the proof revealed by His
To be brief, His Holiness returned by sea to Bushire.
t[He despatched a letter to Jenrtb-i-_Mu~wddas of KhtirisAii,
bidding him perform divine worship in the Sword-inaker's
Mosque at Sli1rAz and insert these words in the call to
prayer:-"l bear witness that 'Ali  His
,servant is the Remnant of God'." This was at the time
when Jen6b-i-111hekaddas, having met J(?)14b-i-B(ib?t'1-.B('f1b
at IsfitliAii', and having been converted by an- examination
of the sacred verses and prayers, had been commissioned
by His Supreme Holiness to go to Yezd and Kirniiii. There
lie attempted to convert 116jf Alulialinuad Karlin MIMI',
who, by reason of his overweening pride and presumption,
-repelled his attempts, and issued orders for him and MullA
'Ali Akbar of Ardistin, who was in his company, to be killed.
But the governnient protected them, as did also AkA Seyyid
Jawid the nutjt(thid', and they escaped to Nfrfz, and came
I See Kazern-Beg's last article on the Bibfs in the Journal
Asiatiq?ie for December 1866, pp. 486-488, especially lines 8 and
9 on the last page.
2 See pp. 40-42 s?tpra.
3 The chief of the modern Sheykhf school. See igiiy Travel-
ler's Yarrative, vol. ii, pp. 241-244.
4 ~kkA Scyyid Jawid of Kerbeli, a protihiinent member of the
clergy at Kirm6n, was himself a Bibf. When the schism be-
tween Subh-i-Ezel and Behi'u'lllih took place, he followed the
former. To his care h were many of Subh-i-Ezel's books and
papers entrusted. (See Traveller's Narrative, p. 342, n. 2.) He
was, as I have lately learned, the author of both volumes of the
thence to Slifriz, where they awaited the arrival of,-His
(t 'a
Holiness. As lie had been commanded, Jen ib-i-MuX ddcts
used there to perform the prayers in the inoasqiie which
is asituated near to the BAb's house in the sword-inaker's
bazaar, and Mulli 'Ali Akbar used to act asintt'ezzin and
to insert the new clause in the call to pragyer. The clergy,
greatly incensed, went before the governor and complained.
Ile accordingly sent to summon the ma'e,-,zhi into his
presence, but Je?ietb-i-Kuddqis' came first, and held a pro-
tracted discussion with him. The governor at length
ordered him to be smitten with many blows and to be cast
into prison. When the nut'e,=in was brought into the
govertior'as presence, lie asaw th em leading away Jena&i-
Kuddiis with a night-cap' on his head to prison. On

entering, he saw a number of the clergy and merchants
sitting round. He took his seat on the bare ground with-
out a carpet. The governor loaded him with reproacllea3,
.and bade lifin repeat the clause which lie had inserted
in the call to prayer. He did so. The governor then bade
his servants lead him forth from the assembly, bind him
to the triangle, and scourge him. So MullA Muhammad
SAdik received four hundred lashes with the whip'. One
Hasht Bihisht. (See my Traveller's Xarrative, vol. ii, pp. 351-
.364; and my Catalog?te and Description qf 27 Bdbi 3fanuseripts
in the J. it. A. Sr. for 1892, pp. 680--697.) The comparative
strength of the Ezelfs at Kirmin is probably largely due to his
influence. He died about 1884.
I For this and what follows cf. Traveller's Xarrative, pp. 5-6.
2 Cf. the account of the Bib's execution A P. 321 of my
Traveller's -Yarrative. The shab-kuldh, or night-cap, serves also
by day as a basis for the turban, which is wound round it. The
removal of the turban is a mark of disrespect.
3 This is the ecclesiastical method of inflicting castigation
(~iadd). The bastiDado on the soles of the feet is the form of
punishment generally resorted to by governors and civilians.

of his friends named MullA Abii TAlib, who had come to
the garden' to see what was taking place, was also aseized,
and scourged with four hundred lashes. Then they tied
up MullA 'Ali Akbar and inflicted on him two hundred
lashes, when, on the intercession of a certain merchant,
they desisted. Then the governor ordered a lighted candle
to be held under the beard of Mulli Abfi TAlib (which was
of great length and thickness) till it was burned, whereby
his chin also was severely scorched'. They likewise burned
the beard of Jen6b-i-.J1ttkaddas, which was also very long.
Then they were committed to prison.
[Next morning four executioners led them forth from
the prison, so that they were convinced that their martyr-
dom was at hand. Leading-ropes' were attached to them,
and, in the very height of summer, they were led barefoot
round the bazaars and the different quarters of the town
from morning till night, while the people spat on their
faces. They were then expelled from the city, and twelve
horsemen were sent by the governor to bring His supreme
Holiness from Bu shire.] t His Holiness had already started
from Bushire, and fell in with them on the road one dark
night. They did not recognize him, and would have passed
f~At this time Huseyn Khdn the governor 
Sent several horsemen to Bushire to seek -out .~T'
1 Probably the same garden to which the Nfrfz captives were
brouaht, as described at p. 126 supra. It adjoins the governor's
palace, and in it is situated the stimmer-house called Kuld/64_
2 Cf. Traveller's Narrative, pp. 5-6.
3 Mahdr is the leading-rope attached to the nose of a camel.
It is not clear whether the noses of the BAN missionaries were
pierced, or whether the ropes were attached in some other
manner, as, for instance, round their necks.
him by, but he called to them, saying, "Since you have
come in search of me, turn back, and let us go together."
So the horsemen, observing his behaviour, escorted him
with all respect to Shiriz, and made known all that had
happened to the governor, who, abandoning certain ideas.
which he had entertained, issued orders that after three
days all access to the BAb should be denied to his friends,
and that he should be prevented from writing or receiving
any letters. But however men may strive to hide the Sun
of Truth with the clouds of formal restrictions, its radiance
becomes but the more apparent; even as these people', the
more they are arrested and slain, do but continue to multiply
the more. So, although to all appearance the believers
were denied access to their Master, they still continued

to submit to him their questions and difficulties, and to,
receive repliea,;, for it is incumbent oil the generous to
answer him who ask S2, more especially when his questions.
refer to religious matters, and his demands are for guidance
and direction into the path of salvation. A number of'
people from the surrounding country also came to enquire
into the matter, and these likewise submitted their ques-
tions, and received, each according to his own capacity, full
and satiasfactory answers, whereby they too were brought
to believe.
The opponents of the Truth, however (according to the----
verse, " Verily t1w devi&- inspire tlieh- ftiends"), became.
cognizant of this, and informed the governor, who issued
orders for the Bib's arrest; and on the eve of Ramazin
I i.e. the BàbÕs.
2 Suppl. Pers. 1071, f, 871 et seq. From this point onwards thoh
correspondence between the Paris ms. history and the Tarikli-i-g
Jadid is very close.
3 Kur'àn, vi, 121.

21st ' some of them [attacked] his house,
seized him and his venerable uncle *[HAji Seyyid 'A] f 2
(an old mail eighty years of age, very pious and en-
lightened, and greatly respected amongst his fellow iner-
chants), and brought them before the governor'.]* The
governor addressed them most discourteously, confiscated
all the Bib's property and liouaseliold goods, and inflicted
the bastinado on his uncle. t Then lie committed His
Holiness to the custody of 'Abdu'l-Hamid KhAn the chief
Now at this time the Ocean of the Divine Wrath was
stirred for the warning and awakening of iihleii, and a,
grievous pestilence, which raged with especial fury in
Slifniz, fell upon the land of Persia. Great multitudes
perished; and a prophecy handed down by tradition fore-
telling the "White Plague" and the "Red Plague" as
signs of the new Dispensation was fulfilled. For the
Jscaled the wall ofj
*Tand brought them to the house of Huseyn KhAt,
tTSo likewise lie inflicted many astril)es (11 Ifen4l)-i-
,Kttd(hii~s, aild M11111 'Alf Akbar of
Ardist,in, caused them to be led through the batz,,t,,trs with
I eadin g-ropes, and expelled them from the city.1 t
I Sept. 23rd, A.D. 1845. See Traveller's hiVai-i-at~ve, vol. ii, pp.
10-11, and 262.
~', See my Traveller's Yarrative, pp. 2 and 6, and Note B at
3 This persoti I have in my tran8lation generally designated
the governor"  by which title he is generally
mentioned in L., nor hhtve I deemed it necessary to note every
1)1,g.tee where G. substitutes his name, Huseyn KhAti, or his other
title, _KZ(12n?6,d-Da?v1a.
4 Deirrigha.
5 Suppl. Pers. 1071, f. 88,1.
f. 88a.
"White Plague" was what they now experienced; and the
"Red Plague", which signified sword and bloodshed, ap-
peared in MAzandardn and Zaiijdn and Nfrfz. And it
chanced that the son of 'Abdu'l-Hamid KhAn the chief-
constable fell sick of the pestilence and came nigh to
deatil'as door, and 'Abdu'l-Hamid besought the BAb, who
prayed for him, and he recovered. When 'Abdu'l-Hanifd
KhAu belield such evidence of spiritual power, lie believed,
and said to the BAb, "Depart whithersoever your holy
inclinations may lead you, and 1, so far from hindering
you, will assist you in every way that lies in my power." ' So

His Holiness W summoned AkA Muhainmad Huseyn of
Ardist6ii, and gave him fifty Wvuitns, saying, " Go to the
market-place, and there buy three horses with such-and-
such marks and distinctive qualities; and when you have
bought them, take them to the Mausoleum of Hdfiz, and
bring word to me." Muhammad Huseyn was - somewhat
surprised and puzzled at this precise description of the horses,
wmidering what he should do if three such horses should
not be immediately forthcoming, or if they should refuse
to let him have them for fifty tkmains, and why their
signs shm~ld be thus specified. In this state of wonder
lie went to the market-place, and saw a mail with three
horses exactly such as had been described to him. These
lie bought and brought to the Mausoleum of Hdfiz. Then
the Bdb, having bade farewell to his wife and r his rela-
tions, repaired to the #dfi;iyya, and thence] set out for
I sfall ill.
 Iiii company with A'kA Muhammad Huseyn of Ar-
distibi, who was one of his aisciple's,j ~
This passage, omitted in C., is found in Suppl. Pers. 1071,

The late HAjf Mfrzi JAiif writes':-- Whell HiaS 811-
preme Holiness was at Miku', the afore-mentioned A'kA
Muhammad Huseyn. was all old man with a white beard,
enfeebled and bowed down. with extreme age. When: I
met him he was proceeding on foot to MAkA, and, iiot-
withstanding his age and debility, such was his extreme
love and enthusiasm that his countenance betrayed lio
sign of distress, weariness, or fatigue, but rather excessive
joy and ecstasy. In the course of our conversation 1
questioned him as to the incidents of the journey to IsfaliAn,
and lie related to me as tollows:-' At one part ot our
road we came to a place notorious as a haunt of robbers,
whereby lione dared to pass save with a large company.
No sooiler had we reached it than we saw a nuinber of
robbers waiting oil the side of the hill. I was overcome
with fear, for I made sure that they would strip us and
perhaps inflict on us some injury. It chanced to be the
time for the noon-day prayer, and His Holiiieass alighted
from his horse and engaged in his devotions, which he
protracted to all unusual length. I was so preoccupied
with anxiety that I forgot to replace my socks and garters:)
(which I had renhioved for the performance of lily ablution),
and instead placed them in. my pocket. Wheii His Holi-
ness had again mounted, and we were some cousiderable
distance froiihi the robberas, lie turned his blessed couil-
teiiance towards me and said, "Why have yo'Li not put oil
Yo Lir inittens ? " I all swered that I had lost tlieilgl. " You
have iiot lost then)," said lie, "but through excessive terror
you put theiihi in your pocket, being overcome with fear.
Yet you see that the thieves did not strip you."
1 Suppl. Pers. 1071, f. 88".
2 Snppl. Pers. 1071, f. 8811,1. 9.
3 VItell-piell
I am indebted to my friend 11flazd
Huseyn-Kulf Kh6n, for the explanation of this word.
"' So 'on another occasion, it being an extremely
dark night, sleep overtook me on the road. When I awoke,
I missed His Holiness. I urged on my horse for some
considerable distance, but, advance as I might, I could
discover no trace of him. After proceeding some way,
I saw AkA Seyyid KAzim. Tandl the muleteer, who had also
been overcome with asleep. I awoke them and asked them
about His Holiness, but they too knew not what had
become of him. I was much amazed aud disquieted, but,
even as I wondered, I heard the voice of His Holiness over
against me, saying, "AkA Muhammad Hasan, why are

you troubled? Comell" I looked, and saw the form of
His Holiness erect in the a,,addle like the Alif  of the Divine Unity, [while a continuous
flow of light hung like a veil round about him and rose
heaven-wards. And this light so encompassed him, form-
ing, as it were, a lialo round about him, that the eye was
dazzled by it, and] a state of disquietude [aihid perturbatioli
was produced. Oil beholding this, AkA Sey id KAziM
I  y
uttered a loud cry and swooned away. The iigiuliteer,
however, observed nothing. Then His Holiness dismounted
and said, "Make some tea." And he took AkA Sevyid
Kizim's bead on his bosom, and fed him with the tea until
lie was somewhat recovered; yet lie was never again the
same as before, and continued thus fey, until, as the-effect
of that vision of glory, lie yielded up his spirit fil IsfaliAii
to Him who is the Lord of Glory. His Supreme Holiness
was present at his funeral, and alone read the prayers over
This same AkA Muhammad Huseyn [took part] in the
MizalidarAn war [, joining himself to the people of truth,
I Suppl. Pers. 1071, f. 89".
2 C. ) by an obvious error oil the part of the copyist, omits the
words enclosed in brackets, so that its text gives no meaning.

and] fell wounded by a bullet oil the field of battle. Being
carried to the royalist eanip and interrogated' as to tile
state of the garrison of the Castle, lie refused to give any
inforiigiatioii. At length they said, < " If you do not tell
US> we will kill you." " How great an honour," answered
he, " and how great a happiness ! " They asked Iiiin in
what way he would be slain. He answered, " In whatever
way is most painful." Then they put the muzzle of a
gun to his right eye and fired. Thus did he attain to
Now when His Holiness reached the outskirts of Isfallin,
he sent a message to < MinAchihr KhAn > the Illet'tamadit'd-
D(tivlct saying,' " If you will grant me permission, but not
otherwise, I will tarry for a little while in your govern-
iiient." His Excellency the Jlu'tamadu'd-Dawl(t, who
was a statesman wise in tile affairs of the world, actuated
alike by his own goodness of disposition and the dictates of
wisdom, sent word to the lnia'i)z-Jg-tti?z'a saying, " He who
claims to be the Gate to the ImAni (upon whom be peace) has
come to this country; send servants to wait upon him and
convey an invitation, that perchance lie may come to your
house." The lim'On-Jum'a did so, and His Holiness
alighted at his abode and tarried there forty days, during
which time the Ividni-JumV behaved towards him with
every appearance of friendship and respect. Many persons,
gentle and simple, enjoyed the honour of meeting him, and
propounded to hiiii hard questions, to which they received
full and satisfactory answers easy to -understand, so that
many accepted his doctrine. His Excellency the fflu'ta-
madu'd-Dawla also came to see him, and His Holiness
returned tile visit. The Tm6m-Jzt?n'a had demanded of
I Suppl. Pers. 1071, f. 90a.
2 Cf. Kazern-Beg, i, p. 352 and n. 2; and Traveller's Al'ar-
rative, vol. ii, pp. 263-4.
L  I
him, " By what sign do you establish the truth of your
claim?" "By verses," answered he, "for, without pause of
the pen, I can, in the space of three hours, write a thousand
sentences on any subject that I please." "But," objected
the lindin-Jum'a, C(you may have considered the matter
previously." "I will write," replied he, "on any subject
you like." "Then," said the Lnetm-Jtim'a, CC write for me
a commentary oil the s2ira beginning W47-'ap', even as
yoLi wrote for AkA Seyyid YaliyA of DArAb a commentary
oil the 87iratu'1-1Cawthai-'." So His Holiness began to
write, and in three hours wrote a thousand verses.' Then
the 12n(im-Jum'a was convinced that such power was from

God, being beyond the capacity of man.
The late A[Wtanzadu'd-Dawla likewise requested a
treatise on the Special Prophetic Mission of Muhammad,
which, accordingly, the BAb wrote in such fashion as to
excite the wonder of scholars and men of learning.
Now when His Holiness returned the visit Of the Mu'-
tanzadu'd-Dawla, AkA Muhammad Mahdf the son of the
late HAjf Muhammad Ibrahim KalbAsi, and the son of
Mulld 'Ali of Nu'r chanced to be present in his house.
These put forward many hard questions touching the
nature of the Divine Unity and other problems of philo-
sophy, to all of which they immediately received full and
conclusive answers; wherefore they were wont for some
while to speak of His Holiness to their associates in terms
of the highest praise. But when they saw the people
disposed to admit the truth of his claim, then, fearing to
lose their authority, they began to disparage him, tore up
his writings, and strove to stir up opposition. Then the
1 Kur'àn, ciii. See ray Catalogue and Description of 27 Bdb~f
Manuscripts in the J. R. A. S. for 1892, pp. 637-640.
2 Kur'àn, eviii. See my Catalogue &e., pp. 643-8.
N. 14.

ffl-u'ta?2zadit'd-Da?vla sent them a message, saying, ' " Where-
fore do ye now hate, envy, and malign one in whose praises
ye were formerly so loud? It is unreasonable to reject a
doctrine into which you have not enquired. If ye be
indeed seekers after truth in niatter-g~ of religion, then
meet the Bib, either in the Im(un-Jum'a's house, or in
my house, or in the Masjid-i-ShAh, and confer with him.
If lie can satisfactorily establish the validity of his claim,
then you shall acknowledge it, so that the clergy of Persia
shall not oppose it causelessly, nor, without reason, turn
aside from the truth. If, on the other hand, he fail to
make good his claim, then shall you be the first to refute
it, whereby dissensions shall cease and the world be at
rest. But it is a stipulation that I myself be present at
the discusasion and that only one of you speak at a time,
for, if wrangling and clerical wiles be resorted to, the
matter will only be obscured."
The clergy very unwillingly agreed to this proposal,
and arranged that the conference should take place on a
specified day in the Masjid-i-ShAh. Ere the appointed
day, however, one of their principal men sent a message,
to his colleagues to this effect:-" We have committed a
great mistake in consenting to this arrangement, for this
man pretends to be the Proof, and declares his verses to be
evidence of the truth of his claingi, saying, 'Produce the
like of this if ye speak truly". Now there is none among
us who can do this, wherefore, our inability becoming
evident, his claim will be established. Should we then
still withhold our belief, the people will raise a clainour
against us; while if we make confession of faith how shall
we answer to the King and to such as do not believe ?"
I Sitppl. Pers. 1071, f. 91a.
2 Cf. 1~ur'6n, ii, 21.
These reasonings seemed to the rest sound and forcible,
and so, when the appointed clay came, they, with their
usual dishonesty, and in violation of their agreement, began
to wrangle and dispute contentiously. When the Bib
perceived this, he charged them with deliberately intending
to suspend the discussion, and proposed that both sides
should conjointly invoke God's curse on whichever of them
was in error. This, however, men afraid of fair argument
naturally declined to do ; and, to be brief, these learned
doctors, instead of enquiring into the matter, addressed to
HiJf MÕrzà Akisf an appeal, wherein the facts of the case

were grossly misrepresented, and the most unseemly charges
were advanced against that Sun of Holiness. To such a
pass did they bring matters that the 2111u'tamadzed-Dawla,
actuated solely by a desire to avert the possible conse-
quences of their malice, transferred the Bib to the royal
Palace of the Sun', continuing to shew him every attention,
and striving in every way to protect and shield him. So
steadfast, indeed, was his devotion that he paid no heed to
HAjf MÕrzà AkAsf's demands for the surrender of the Bib,
to whom he repeatedly made the following proposal. " If,"
said he, " Tyour religion needs the support of the sword
for its advancement, I will assemble more than fifty
thousand men, both horse and foot, of the Shih-sevan and
other tribes devoted to my interests, and will march with
all speed on the capital to make war against the King of
ISIAM, should he persist in rejecting your mission. If, on
the other haDd,J the propagation of your religion is to be
effected by policy, I will accompany you to TeherAn, and
will so explain the nature of your mission and doctrine to
His Majesty that lie shall accept them and bestow on you
one of his daughters in marriage. Your position being
1 Suppl. Pers. 1071, f. 92a. Cf. my Traveller's Xarrative,
Vol. ii, p. 13, n. 2.

thus strengthened by an alliance with the Royal Family,
you may safely make public announcement of your claims."
He likewise placed at the BAb's disposal his treasure-chests
and all else that he possessed,, [remarking, " I have no
children, and 'whatsoever the hands of the slave possess
belongs to his master."'I
To these proposals His Holiness replied as follows
"Tho diffusion of God's truth cannot be effected by such
means, but rather by the. figithftilness and constancy of His
servants, who, disregarding alike hopes of gain and fear of
loss, shall support the faith, proclaim God's Word, and,
with eyes averted from all worldly objects, walk in the way
of the Lord, for Him, and in Him. Thus shall these holy
spirits continue to bear witness to the Truth, until the -,in-
cerity of their belief shall be attested by their martyrdom.
'. . . . The Lord is able to cause His religion to prevail and
to defeat the devices of the froward: we await His will and
His good -pleasure, and seel~ help from none other: we
carry our lives in our hands Tand stand alte(tJflt-Itly Coll-
fronting our eneinies and awaiting martyrdoiii~. And for
you also the time to quit this low world is nigh at hand. " 2
I A tradition describing the attributes of God's saints is here
quoted from the Lawli-i-Fatima (see my Travellers Narrative, p.
123, n. 1), but the text is so corrupt that I have been compelled
to omit it.
2 Hijf MÕrzà JAnfs history (&ppl. Pers. 107 1, f. 92b-93a)
here inserts an account of the iniraculous transmutation of a
-cover (sar-pftsh-i-kaly(ln) into goldat the B'Vs touch,
metal pipe  a
and adds that the Bib foretold MinAchihr Khin's death 19 days
before it took place to two of his disciples, one of these being
-kk,'t Seyyid Yah ' of Wrib, who was then in Yezd. Then
ya a
follows the author's narrative of his meeting with ikki Seyyid
Yahyi, and the account given by him of his conversion. (See p,
113 supra.)
A few days after this, even as the BAb had announced,
the .3111'tamadiN-Dawla quitted this transitory abode for
the mansions of eternity.
After this, Mfrz6, Gurgfn Kh6n' the Deputy-governor,
anxious to perform some service pleasing to HAjf MÕrzà
Akdsi~ in return for which the government of Isfalign might
be bestowed on him, and forgetful of the injunctions
of his benefactor, spoke to the BAb as follows:-" The
clergy are bent on opposition and strife. Should I deliver
you into their hands, I should betray the trust reposed in

me by my benefactor, and bring injury on one whom he
held dear. If, on the other hand, I refuse to'surrender
you, they will write to Teherin, Hijf MÕrzà Akisf will
demand you at my hands, and I shall have no choice but
to submit, seeing that I have not strength to resist like the
ff1_u'tamadu'd-Daw1a. So the best thing is that you should
leave this place, and, if such be your wish, withdraw to
KliurdsAn." And in his letter to HAjf MÕrzà Akisf he set
forth what he had done, and strongly emphasized the value
of the service he had rendered in sending the BAb away.
But His Holiness, being well aware of his treachery, said,
" Please God,'thou wilt fail to attain what thou desirest;
as in fact eventually happened.
His Holiness, therefore, left IsfahAn with an escort of
*[seven]* horsemen. When he reached KAshdn-, two be-
lieving brothers [, HAjf Muhammad Isma'11 surnamed Za-
bi'li, and HAjf MÕrzà JAnfJ 2, men widely respected and noted
* JsiXJ *
1 Suppl. Pers. 1071, f. 9WI.
2 C. ornits these words, which enable us (provisionally) to
identify the Zabih previously cited in the account of the siege of
Zanjin (p. 139 supra) with HAji Mimi Isma'fl, concerning whom
see my Traveller's Yarrative, vol. ii, p. 332.

for their piety, being infor-ned of his arrival went and saw
the horsemen, and, by means of bribes, obtained permission
for His Holiness [accompanied by five of the escort] to be
? guest at their house. H6jf MirZd JAUf gives in his book
? full description of all the wonderful things which they
witnessed in those tTtwolt days and nights, at the conclu-
sion of which he says, " If I should seek to narrate in detail
all that took place during those tTtwolt days and nights, it
would fill a large volume," TThis is the exact expression
of which lie makes use in his book.1' Since 
the object is not to describe wonders and miracles ff it is
,sufficient to mention one incident.
[Mir 'Abdu'l-B6kf the Principal of the Madrasa-i-Shdh,
a scholar of eminence, and a man of remarkable sanctity
and learning, was a believer in the BAb.  Zabili craved permission from His Holi-
ness to acquaint him with his arrival. This was granted,
on condition that he should not be informed who would be
present. "We invited the reverend doctor to supper",
t [three] t
ffhe has ornitted all mention of the events of those two
I I -include in the body of the text the additional particulars
given by L. merely as a matter of COnVeDience-, for all that I-14ji
Mfrzd Jdnf actually says about the BAb's stay at KAshAn (Suppl.
Pers. 1071, f. 96a) is as follows:-.)3 u3 *- ~A i J *
_~,* ,C~ Ac i5
)5j p 5
"And he [i.e. the Bib]
did not again eat food save only in KAshAn. And in Kaish~n he
abode two days and two nights. Wondrous and marvellous signs
were shewn by that Sun of Truth. A full description of these
would form a book by itself." It is the last sentence to which
allusion seems to be made in C.
< says the narrator> " but told him nothing till the night
when he met His Holiness, who had exchanged his turban
for a lamb-skin hat, and ceded the corner-seat to his com-
Panions, Jeiia'b-,i-'Azgl'?n', ikA Seyyid Huseyn the amanu-
ensis, and Mull.4 Muhammad 'Hu'allim'. In-consequence
of this, Mir 'Abdu'l-B.Aki failed to recognize him, walked
straight to the corner of the room, and seated himself by
the side of Jena'b-i-8heykh-i-'A_tM'. After the customary
greetings had been interchanged, His Holiness turned to-
wards Mir 'Abdu.'1-134~f and said, 'I hear that you believe

in the author of these doctrines, and publicly expound them
in the mosque.' On receiving an answer in the affirmative,
he continued, 'By reason of what sign have you believed
in him?' 'By reason of his verses, I answered the other.
I I too,' replied His Holiness, 'can write verses.' ' By reason
of his commentaries and supplications and homilies,' said
the divine. 'These too I can write.' I By reason of his
exegetic knowledge, then,' said Mir 'Abdu'l-BAlki. - 'You
may ask of me what you please,' said His Holiness, 'and I
will answer you.' The learned doctor was overcome with
amazement, but did not fall down in adoration saying,
'Thou art'the man!' All he said was, 'I know of none
under heaven more learned than myself, and I know not
who amongst those here present wieldas that spiritual power
which has taken from me what I had'.' For since His
Holiness had said, 'He shall not know me', he departed
without having recognized him, notwithstanding all the
hints whereby we, ignoring the fact that this Word had
9 days and nights during which the BAb was in KAshAn, lest
it should result in prolixity. And during those two days
ie. Mulli Sbeykh 'Alf.
milar experience of Mulld Huseyn's, p. 36,
2 Compare a si

been created an active force, strove to apprize him of the
truth. on his way home, however, the truth suddenly
flashed upon him. He wished to return, but decided not
to do so, because of the lateness of the hour, Next morning
he came as soon as he had left the mosque, but our visitors
had already departed. Then was he very sorry when sorrow
was of no avail. And he was a man of great learning and
ascetic life, thoroughly versed in the doctrines of Sheykh
Ahmad Alisd'f,
C' Now since that Holy Being was, as it runs in the tra-
dition, 'a dark, dreadful, dire calamity',' on the day of his
arrival at KAshdu he had said, 'If one could deliver me
from these guards it were not amiss.' So after the two
days, when lie was about to depart, 7,abi'li said to him, 'It
would be possible to bring you forth from lience - we pray
you therefore to accord us permission,] and you can go
whithersoever you please, and we will attend and accom-
pany you wherever it be; for we will thankfully and gladly
giv - e up our lives, our wealth, our wives, and our children
for your sake.' But he answered, 'We need the help and
support of none but God, and His will only do we re-
gard. ' " ~
After leaving KAsliAn, the BAb came to KhAnlik', a
village distant about Tfive or~ six parasangs frorn TeherAn
which had belonged to the, late 310amadu'd-Dawla.
Thence the escort sent word of their arrival to HAJI Mfrzd
AkAsf. Now the late king Muhammad ShAh was desirous
and nights they repeatedly entreated His Holiness to flee,
saying, ' It is now possible,J
2 A quotation from the Jfasnavi is here omitted.
3 Sitppl. Pers. 1071, f. 96". KhAnlik is there described as
((near KinAr-i-gird".
of an interview with His Holiness, but the-114ji, influenced
by certain absurd fancies (for he regarded the BAb 'as ~a
magicianj skilled in gaining sway over men's hearts), and
actuated by considerations of self-interest, would not suffer
it. For he feared that in a single interview the BAb might
bewitch the King, or that his followers might determine on
revolt and raise an insurrection. He therefore appointed
twelve horsemen to conduct him to *TAzarbaij4nJ*. But
while he was still at KhAnlik many persons of note visited
him. Amongst these were His Holiness BEiik (may the
lives of all beside him be his sacrifice 1), RizA KhAn the, son
of Muhammad KhAn the Turcoman, and many others.
A full account of all that took place on this occasion would
form a narrative of surpassing strangeness, but would tran-
scend the comprehension of common folk, besides involving
undue prolixity'.
The late HAjf Mirzi JAnf writes :-" The chief of the

twelve horsemen appointed to conduct His Holiness - to
MAkfi was Muhammad Beg Cha'Pairchi4a'sht", whom I sub-
sequently met on his return from that journey. He was I a
man of kindly nature and amiable character, and so sincere
and devoted a believer that whenever the name of His
Holiness was mentioned he would incontinently burst into
tears, saying,
I scarcelv reckon as life the days when to me thou wert all
But by faithful service for what remains I may still for the
past atone.'
1 L. here inserts some verses from Jlfasnavi.
2 Chief postman or courier. This narrative occurs on f. 966
et seq. of Suppl. Pers. 1071, and corresponds almost word for
word with that here given.

In the course of conversation I enquired concerning what
passed during the journey, whereupon he related as follows.
" ' When I received orders to escort His Holiness to
Tabriz under guard of a company of horsemen, 1 was very
reluctant to undertake the duty, for, though I had not as
yet recognized the truth of his claim, I had heard that he
was a Seyyid of distinguished merit. I therefore feigned
illness for two or three days, hoping that perhaps this duty
-in truth a blessing, though in appearance an affliction-
might be delegated to another. For I little know how
signal a blessing the Divine Bounty had apportioned to one
so unworthy as myself. My excuses, however, did not
meet with acceptance, and 1, much against my will, was
compelled to set out.
["' The horsemen placed at my disposal had already
gone to take charge of His Holiness the night before
I joined them. And since such men, inured to deeds of
violence, are accustomed, -especially at the outset, to adopt
a harsh manner, calculated, in their opinion, to inspire
respect, they acted on this occasion with undue rigour.
One of them locked the door of the room occupied by His
Holiness on the outside, lest perchance that Central Point
of the universal circle might effect his escape. In the
morning he saw the door which he had locked standing
open, and the BAb tranquilly performing his ablutious by
the brink of the stream, whereupon he cried out angrily
and discourteously, "By what means did you open the
door which I locked ? " " I did but lay my hand upon it,"
answered the BAb, " and it opened." The other then
began to behave witl) violence, when all of a sudden he was
attacked with so sharp a pain at the heart that even he
was admonished, and rolled in the dust demanding pardon.
Thereupon His Holiness consented to overlook his fault,
and he was at once restored to health. On iigiy arrival
I heard of this event, andj' according to the measure of my
insight, I perceived the signs of the glory and greatness of
His Holiness, towards whom I continued to act deferentially
until the day when we reached the Estonel caravansaray
fEatjt ZanjAn, where we halted. For our instructions
were to avoid bringing His Holiness into any city; theTe-
fore did we halt at that caravansaray outside the town.
We were wearied after a long day's march, and I had
many matters to attend to, when a messenger came from
the governor of ZanjAn [bringing word that he wished to
see the BAb. I was so busy that I omitted to convey
this message, and. it subsequently passed from my mind.
11" As soon as the people of Zanj An became aware of the

Bib's arrival]" they began to approach in companies, with
a reverence and respect which baffle description, to wait
upon His Holiness. [His Reverence Mulli Muhammad
'Ali had addressed to him a letter, and concealed it inside
a cucumber, which he placed in a basket full of cucumbers.
His messeDger brought the cucumbers to deliver them ~ to
His Holiness. The guards would have taken them from
him, but he refused to give them up. While they were
disputing, His Holiness cried out from his cell, " Give up
the basket of cucumbers, and come hither." g So the mes-
senger surrendered the basket to the guards and was ad-
mitted to the presence of His Holiness, who had written
an answer as follows :-" It is not expedient. This very
night a horseman will come to take you to Teher&n. Such
is your affair."]'.
t[outside the town oflt
I C. omits this passage, which, however, occurs in HAjf Mfrzi
JAnf (Suppl. Pers. 1071, f. 96b).
2 C., by an evident slip, omits these words.
3 This incidentl omitted in C., has been already related some-

"' Now the guards, with a view to their own profit,
were contesting the entrance of' all who approached, and
these  were giving ungrudgingly
such sunis of money, copper, silver, and thmins, as they
had u on them. And when the press and throng of people
p  n
had waxed very great, the governor, being alarmed, sent a
U  '7'
inessa- e to ine, saying, " You must proceed on your journey
at once, for if you remain here to-night a general rising
will assuredly take place." Hard upon this messenger came
another, urging us to mount with all speed. I was therefore
obliged to inform His Holiness that, although neither he
nor the guards were yet rested from the fatigues of the
road, there was no choice but to go oil. He arose, saying,
" 0 God, be Thon witness of ]low they are dealing with the
descendant of Thy Prophet! " Then lie repeated the mes-
sage which 1 had forgotten [to give Jilin], saying, " This,
notwithstandino- the niessaae which lie sent oil in first
zn 0  y
arrival! What is his present action, and what does it
mean ? 11 Thereat was I exceedingly ashanied and con-
fused, because I had neglected to deliver the message ; and
thenceforth, perceiving that lie knew all iiien's thoughts
and could read their minds, 1 continually exercised the
most unremitting vigilance lest I should be guilty of any
overt or covert disrespect towards him.
"' So we mounted and rode oil till we came to a ~brickj
caravansaray distant two parasangs from the city. Thence
we proceeded to MflAn, where iigiany of the inhabitants
came to see His Holiness, and were filled with wonder at
the majesty and dignity of that Lord of mankind. [In the
morning, as we were setting out frorn Mfl6n, -in old woman
brought a scald-headed child, whose head was so covered
what more clearly and circumstantially in connection with the
siege of Zanjin. See pp. 137--8 suy)ra,
with aseabs that it was white down to the neck, and entreated
His Holiness to heal him. The guards would have for-
bidden her, but His Holiness prevented them, and called
the child to him. Then he drew a handkerchief over its
head and repeated certain words ; which he had no sooner
done than the child was healed.] And in that place about
two hundred persons believed and underwent a true and
sincere conversion. In short [our object in entering into so
prolonged and detailed all account was to narrate how, on
leaving Mildii, while we were oil the road His Holiness
suddenly urged his horse into so swift a gallop that all the
horsemen composing the escort were filled with amazement,

seeing that his steed was the leanest of all. We galloped after
him as hard as we could, but were unable to come up with
him, though the horsemen were filled with apprehension lest
lie should effect his escape. Presently he reined in his
horse of his own accord, and, so soon as we came up to him,
said with a smile, " Were I desirous of escaping, you could
not prevent me." And indeed it was even as lie said; had
he desired in the least degree to escape, none could have
prevented him, and] under all circumstances he shewed
himself endoWed with more than human strength. For ex-
ample, we were all practised horsemen inured to travel,
yet, by reason of the cold and our weariness, we were at
times hardly able to keep our saddles, while he, on the
other hand, during all this period shewed no sign of faint-
ness or weariness, but, from the time when lie mounted till
he alighted at the end of the stage, would not so much as
cliallgO his posture or shift his seat. s
" ' The instructions which I had received were to convey
His Holiness to Tabrfz, whence Prince Bahman Mfrz6 was
to send him to Aldkii. Now I hoped that the Prince would
keep him at Tabrfz, and that, should he decide to send him
to M6ku', I inight be permitted to attend him thither.

I made known this inward desire to His Holiness, who
replied, " I do not wish that you should accompany me
beyond Tabriz. I did desire inwardly that you should
come from the capital to Tabriz, but from thence to MAU
I desire it not, for it will be a journey of wrong, and I like
not that you should enter into the company of the wrong-
doers. 1" Then he continued, "I On our arrival within one
stage of Tabriz Tdo thou go on before us and explain the
matter to the Prince, for if he can keep me in Tabriz it is
better, while, if he will send me to MAU, God will take
vengeance on him." Now when we were come within one
stage of Tabrfz~' I had a severe attack of fever, and while
I was thus prostrate His Holiness summoned me and said,
"Go on to Tabriz. " I replied, "I cannot move while the
fever in me runs so high." His Holiness, who was drinking
tea, handed me his cup, saying, "Drink this." No sooner
had I drunk it than I was restored to health. So I went
that very night to Tabriz, and laid the whole matter before
Prince Bahman MÕrzà, who replied, " It has nothing to do
with me; you must act according to the orders which you
received in the capital." I therefore turned back to meet
His Holiness with a heart exceeding sorrowful, and told
him all that had happened. He heaved a deep sigh and
said, " I acquiesce in God's decree, and submit to His com-
"' I brought His Holiness to my own house, situated
outside the town, and there he tarried for some days. On
the day fixed for his removal to MAkfi the horsemen ap-
pointed to attend him thither came to him, saying, " Come,
mount! " He answered, " Let Muhammad Beg go once
again to the Prince and complete the proof to him, telling
I L. omits, probably by a mere slip resulting from homceote-
him that I do not wish to go to MAk-6, Eand bidding him fear
God and not persist in this determinationl.  " I accord-
ingly went as he bade me, and represented the state of the
case, but the Prince again refused to incur any responsibility,
and I returned so grieved at heart that on reaching home
I was once more prostrated with fever. The horsemen
continuing to press for an immediate departure, His Holi-
ness came into my private apartment to bid me farewell,
and then mounted. I wept much at his departure, and was
ill for two months.
" ' After this I went to M.Aku' for the express purpose of
visiting His Holiness. On entering his presence I fell at
his feet to ask for pardon, for I had seen how both Ashraf
KhAn the -Governor of Zanj An and Prince Bahman MÕrzà,
because they had been guilty of some slight disrespect
< towards him >, had in a little time been visited with

severe punishment. Therefore was I much troubled, and
entreated His- Holiness, saying, " If I have inadvertently
been guilty of any shortcoming in my service, or committed
any fault by reason of which I merit reprobation and chas-
tisement, forgive me!" He replied, "Muhammad ShAh
and his minister' have dealt with me thus unjustly, yet
have I not cursed them. I desire not evil for mine enemies,
much less for my friends."
" 'He then questioned me concerning Ashraf KhAn the
Governor of Zanjin, and I related to him in detail the
indignities to which he had been subjected by the people
of ZanjAn. In brief, the history of these is as follows.
Ashraf KhAn had conceived a passion for a certain woman
of ZanjAn, and sent men to carry her to a place which he
 [and let him press his suit urgently, and threaten him
with God's vengeance]. 
ie. HAjf Ilfrz6 AkAsi.

had appointed. Her husband, being apprized of this, in-
foriihied his relations and friends, who assembled in full
force, attacked Ashraf KhAn's house, and carried off as
plunder the furniture and ornaments. Ashraf Khdn him-
self, who was fair of skin and smooth of cheek, they en-
treated most foully, even ngiakidg use of sticks;' then they
blackened his face, put a paper cap on his head, mounted
him on a bare-backed ass, and thus ignominiously expelled
hiiihi from the city. When His Holiness had heard this, he
said, " 1 (lid not wish that it should be thus, or that he
should be so grievously shanied." Then I related to him
the punishment which had overtaken Bahman MÕrzà, and
his disgrace, whereon lie remarked, " The True Avenger will
sooner or later, as His wisdom determines, take vengeance
on such as contemn the Truth and slight or injure God's
servants." ' "
MÕrzà 'Abdu'l-Wahhdb related as follows:-" During
the journey to Aizarbaijdnl, together with Mulld Mu-
hammad 'Jht'allim', and Akd Seyyid Hasan, the brother
of AkA Seyyid Huseyn the amanuensis, accompanied His
Holiness with circumspection, following him, according to
his instructions, at a distance of some two tlioua,~and paces.
[And when we reached our halting-place, we used to take
up our quarters near to his, but elsewhere.] But AkA
Seyyid Huseyn and Akd- Seyyid Murtazi with the twelve 2
1 This passage, which differs somewhat in the two texts, I have
slightly modified in my translation. The text of L., which is the
more explicit, runs as follows :-'ICk(ob safid-anddign va sd&-
rukhsdr bfid, ba'd az lizodit kardan bd islidn, bi-'aldva ekkbi ham
bi-qnak'ad-aA firri kardand " . . . &c. Hijf Mfrzi JAnf's version,
substantially identical with that here given, occurs on ft.
1006-10111 of Suppl. I'ae2-s. 1071.
1 C. has the absurd and obviously erroneous reading 11 twelve
mounted guards always rode by him. And we, on reaching
the end of our day's journey, used always to contrive some
fresh excuse or pretext for approaching hii-D, so that Mu-
a Z_ Z
hammad Beg the Cka'P,rch'bdsh' and the other horsemen
composing the escort might not notice it or perceive that
we were the devoted followers of His Holiness. When we'
were within two or three stages of Tabriz, however, Mu-
hammad Beg, who had charge of the escort, discovered by
divers indications, both overt and covert, our deep de-
votion to the Master. One day, therefore, in the course of
conversation he observed, 'During this journey 1 have come
to regard myself as worse than Shinir and Yazfd.' 'Why,'
I asked, 'do you think thus, and *~in what connection do

you say it?~*' 'Because,' said lie, 'they have commis-
sioned me to do their work, and because I have witnessed
on the part of this holy man things so passing strange that
they cannot be uttered or heard.' ['What new tliiDg have
you seen,' I demanded, 'to cause you such astonish m-ent V
He replied, 'Amongst other things which I have witnessed
during these days was this. When we set out from the
capital he entrusted to my keeping a box of gezl, which I
consigned to the care of one of my men. Every morning
he asks for it, and gives a piece to each of the escort, and
to his own companions, and to my servants, in addition to
which he generally bestows a piece on each of you. i And
throughout the whole journey that same box has been in
my keeping 1"'
[AkA MÕrzà Muhammad 'Ali the martyr, who consum-
mated his martyrdom in the presence of His Holiness at
Tabriz, related as follows :-" When His Holiness reached
*[why do you say what you should not. say?]*
A sweetmeat made from the manna yielded by the tamarisk.
The best quality is manufactured at IsfahAn.
N. H.

Tabriz he took up his abode in the house of Muhammad
Beg, whose next-door neighbour had a garden adjoining
his dwelling. One day His Holiness desired to take his
afternoon tea in this garden., When, in accordance with
the permission readily granted to him by the proprietor,
he had gone thither, one Mash-hadf 'Ali by name entered
the garden in a state of great trouble, saying, 'Three of my
family are sick, and I despair of the lives of two of them,
since there is no hope of their being restored to health;
but the third, whose recovery appears possible, I pray you
to heal.' 'Be of good cheer,' answered His Holiness, 'all
three will get well.' After a while the man departed, but
next morniDg he came to me, saying, 'On arriving at my
house I beheld all three sitting up in perfect health, as
though they had never been ill.' This man became a
sincere believer, :ii-id was converted, and set himself to
perform. humble and devoted service. So likewise others
who heard and understood were amazed at the -might and
spiritual virtues of His Holiness."
[In short, we wish to make it clear that though in ap-
pearance His Holiness was compelled to go to Tabriz and
M&kft, in reality he only did so of his own free will for the
,accomplishment of God's plan and purpose, being fully able
to effect his escape had he so pleased. We have already
mentioned' how on the way he- put his horse into a gallop,
how the horsemen of the escort pursued him, how not one
of them could come near him, and how he could without
difficulty have got away had he desired. Again, when, as
we have described', he arrived at KhAnlik, RizA Kh4n and
MirzA KurbAn-'Alf, both men of unrivalled courage, each of
whom was equal to a hundred horsemen, waited upon him
with several brave and skilful mounted men, saying, "We
I See p. 221 supra.
2 See pp. 96 and E16-7 s?Tra.
will convey you to whatever place you please, as you may
command." But he refused their offer, saying, " The
mountain of Azarbaij.4n, too, has its claims." So likewise
on the road five of his most trusty followers, whose names
have been mentioned, bore him company; and it is evident
that five such persons are equal to a hundred others, and
could, at the merest hint from His Holiness, have so utterly
annihilated and destroyed those twelve guards that no
trace of them should be seen and no tidings heard in the
world.] So, too, had he made the least sign to the believers
of ZanjAn, MflAn, and other places, they would not have
given the guards time, even to draw breath; for, as we
have mentioned, three hundred and sixty of them held
their own for nine months against thirty thousand regular

soldiers and nineteen guns, continually inflicting defeat
and coming off -victorious.
[But apart from all this, what need of outward means
has one endowed with inward power and spiritual virtue
so perfect that, as has been mentioned', a door bolted
and locked could not prevent his entrance or exit, but
opened and shut at his slightest command ? Such an one
is able to do what he wills, for his will is identified with
God's will, and, in all essential respects, he mirrors the
Divine Essence, and shews forth the Names and Attributes.
When you look at his outward appearance he is "a man
lgike unto you'," but when you regard him truly he is
< one of whom it may be said > " I have times with God
wherein neither angel of the Presence nor~ prophet of
plenary authority can approach me,"'. . . But better than
all the proofs which we have mentioned is the fact that]
I See p. 218 supra.
2 Kura'n, xxiii, 34, 36.
3 A well known traditional saying of Muhammad. Three
couplets from the Masnavi which follow here are omitted.

the very horsemen who were his guards actually beheld in
him during the course of the journey Proofs of so wonderful
4-1, + ncf nf thpIll sincerelv believed in him, and,
a powel It III
like Muliaminad Beg their chief, shewed him every service
which was in their power. They even declared that they
would readily riask their lives to convey him to any part of
the world which he might choose, but lie refused their
offer, saying, " Your readiness is in itself ail accepted
offering." And now not only those horsemen, but many of
their children and grandchildren, are so clad in the raiment
of faith that not eveigi the hope of sovereignty could tempt
them to lay it aside. This is the meaning of " the humblest
of you shall be the most exalted, and the most exalted shall
be brought low."
For men are divisible into three classes. The first
includes kings, courtiers, governors, and their retainers, all
of whom the clergy regard as men of violence, and call
tyrants. These have no thought save for maintaining and
extending their sway, and are engrossed in love of power
and pleasant living; neither do they greatly heed the ordi-
nances of religion. For men of this class to believe and to
disregard all worldly ties-wealth and life, child and wife-
is a wonderful thing. If one should carefully CODSider the
circumstances of the heroic *[deaths]* of HAjf SuleymAli
1-~'-Ii,An t [and Rizi KhAii, both of whom were nobles] t of
high position, he will easily perceive that thus readily to
abandon all that men do most prize, and eagerly to court
a martyr's death, is a thing transcending human capacity.
And it is evident that had not their eyes clearly beheld
the object of their search, they would not thus readily have
laid down their live i. When they arrested Suleyinin KhAn,
and strove, in consideration of his faithful service and
a noblel t
TdeatU t Twho was
loyalty, to induce him by promises of rewards from the
King to abandon the creed which he had adopted, he would
not consent, but answered firmly, "His Majesty the King
has a right to demand from his servants fidelity, loyalty,
and uprightness; but he is not entitled to meddle with
their religious convictions." In consequence of this bold-
negs of speech it was ordered that his body should be
pierced with wounds, and that into each of these wounds a
lighted candle should be inserted as ail example to others.
[Another victim' was similarly treated. In this state,
with minstrels and drummers going in advanceJ they led
him through the bazaars, and he, meanwhile, with smiling
countenance, kept repeating this verse-

Happy he whom love's intoxication
So hath overcome that scarce he knows
Whether at the feet of the Beloved
It be head or turban which he throwsl2l'
Whenever one of the candles fell from his body, he would
with his own hand [pick it upJ light it from the others
T, and replace itJ. The executioners, seeing in him such
exaltation and rapture, said, " If thou art so eager for
martyrdom, why dost thou not dance ?" Thereat lie began
to leap, and to sing, in verses appropriate to his con-
An ear no longer dulled with ignorance
And self subdued entitle one to dance.
Fools dance and caper in the market-place;
I Mulli Fatliu'lla'h of Kum, one of the three Bibfs who
made the attengipt on the ShAh's life.
2 See the account of the "Seven Martyrs" given a little
further on, where this verse is, with much greater probability,
placed in the mouth of Mfrzi Kurbin-'Alf the dervish. For an
account of Suleymin XhAn's martyrdom, see my Travellers
Yarrative, Vol. ii, pp. 332-334, where the verses recited by him
at his execution are given.

Men dance the while their life-blood flows apace.
When self is slain they clap their hands in glee,
And dance, because from evil they are free."
[In such fashion did they lead these two forth through the
gate of ShAh 'Abdu'l-'Azfm.] When they were preparing
to saw that brave man asunder, he stretched out his feet
without fear or hesitation, while lie recited these verses :-
I hold this body as of little worth;
A brave man's spirit scorns its house of earth.
]Dagger and sword like fragrant basil seem,
Or flowers to deck death's banquet with their gleam'."
Is it possible that, such heroism and self-devotion, such
readiness to forsake the world and all that is therein,
should be vain and causeless ? Rather what better proof
could be adduced for the reality of the cause ? And more-
over this man was by birth and training one of those whom
the clergy and common folk are wont to call "tyrants
and "men of violence" I
The second class consists of divines, doctorag, philoso-
phers, scholars, and the like. Of these such as were wise
and earnest in the search after truth, and possessed true
religious feeling, sought without prejudice to distinguish
the true from the false. To these, agreeably to the pro-
mise " Fear God, and God will teach you'," the Lord
opened the gates of Eternal Wisdom and made known the
I These two couplets are from the Jfasnavi, and will be found
on P. 101 of 'AIA'ud-Dawla's TeherAn edition, 11. 26 and 27. C.
adds two more, which appear to be improvised for the occasion.
These are as follows:-
2 Kur'àn, ii, 282.
truth ; for " Knowledge is a light which God putteth into
the heart of whomsoever He pleaseth." gand when the Sun
of Wisdom dawned within them, and Divine Ideals became
mirrored in their souls, they ascended from the abyss of
doubt, and, with the wings of renunciation, soared aloft to
the heights of certainty, even as it is written, " 0 peaceful
soul! -Return unto thy Lord well pleased and well pleas-
ing . So they aspired to trample under foot all worldly
considerations, and to proclaim without fear or reserve the
manifestation of God's truth. And inasmuch as they re-
garded their earthly frames but as a barrier withholding
them from union with the object of their hopes and long-
ings, they were eager to divest themselves of the cloak of
corporeal form, and continued to press on towards martyr-
dom, until at length they obtained that which they sought.
For " Whosoever strenuously seeketh aught assuredly
findeth it." Of this class more than four hundred ac-
cepted the New Dispensation, and attained the lofty rank
of martyrdom. Amongst these were:-Mulli* Huseyn of

Bushraweyh, and AkA Seyyid YahyA of DArlb' (both
divines of uncontested eminence); Mulli Muhammad 'Alf
of ZanjAn [whoin men used to call 'the Proof of Zslam';
MullA Muhammad 'Alf of MAzandarin, on whom the title
of Jenrtb-i-Kuddiis was conferred]; MullA 'Alf of Bistim;
Mulli Sa'fd of BArfuru'sh; MullA Ni'matu'llAh of Mizan-
darAn; [Mulli `Abdu'l-KhAlik of Yezd, one of the dis-
I Kur'àn, lxxxix, 28, 29.
2 L. adds, It commonly known as Kashfz (the expounder)", but
this is an error, the title in question belonging to Seyyid Ya~yA's
father Seyyid Jalfar. See my Travelle?s Narrative, vol. ii, pp.
7, 8, 183, and 254; and p. Ill supra.

ciples of Sheykh Ahinad, and a most illustrious theologian;]
MullA Ylisuf of Ardabil; Mulld Mahdf of KhAy; AkA
Seyyid HUseyn of Turshiz; MullA Miihaihihimad of Ma-
liallit'; Multi Mahdf of Kan', Mulld BAkir *[his brother]*;
Sheykh Abu TurAb of Ashtah6rd [, who was unique in his
time]; JHAjQ Mulli 'Abdu'l-Biki of KAslidn , [A'kA MirzA
'Abdii'l-BAkf, Head of the College]; MullA Jafar of K6shAn;
Mulla Muliaininad Sidik of KhurAsAn'; TMullA 'Alf of
Burkin ;1' MullA YAsuf 'Alf of Khfiy; t [Mf rzi Muliammad
Bikir]t of KhurisAn; HAjf Mulli Isi-na'il of Kuni; MÕrzà
Kurbin-'Alf [the philosopher]'; Mfrzi Muliamniad Huseyn
[the philosopher]' of KirinAn; Mfrz,,'t Muliaiiiiigiad 'Alf Nehrl'
of IsfaliAn; Mulli MulPaminad Tal~-f of IsfahAn; Mulli Jalfl
of Ur~nniyya; A'ki Seyy1d Alimad of Seinnin; 1,~ki Soy-
yid Huseyn of Tabrfz]; Mulli Sa'id of Zirili-KinAr; MÕrzà
Mullaminad BAkir of Herit; the Sheykli ~Ahmad~ of
Ma'nlu'ra; Mirzi Alimad of Azghand; TMÕrzà Muliammad
Bikir of Kin in KhurisJuil; Mulli Al.~i of Herit; IIAjf
MÕrzà Hasan Rizavl'; MÕrzà Miihaiigimad of Juveyn ; MÕrzà
'Abdu'l-BAkf of GfUn; [MirzA 'Abdu'l-WahliAb of Kliu-
rAsinJ HAjf [MÕrzà] 'Abdu'l-Mijfd of Nfshipu'r; [HAjf
Mirzi JAW of K~ta~Iiin and his brother ZaUhl Multi
*Tof KanI
t THis Reverence Mulli -NInly-tininad SAdik~ t
Both MSS. have
2 C. j-~-; L. s
3 C. here inserts the name of Mulli 'Abdu'l-KIi-Mik of Yezd.
4 Kurratu'l-'Ayn's uncle. See my Traveller's Narrative, vol.
ii, pp. 197, 310.
5 " ~ .
1, The title j~ or j~ is added after Zabfh, but as I am un-
certain as to the true readiiia I omit it.
Alimad of HisAr ; Mulli 'Abdu'llih of MahallAt';' JMulIA
Muhammad of Mal alhit'; MUIIA Muhammad 'Alf the son
of MullA Ahmad of Mahallit'j; MullA Hasan of MaliallAt'
Tthe son of MullA Muliammad RizAJ; MullA Hasan Tthe
son of Mulli Muharnmadj; Jen6b-i-8heyk1i-i-'Az1'M'; MullA
Najaf-'Alf of Tabas; MÕrzà Muliammad Taki of KirmAn];
and more than four hundred such others, including many
whose names, since they are still alive, I have not con-
sidered it expedient to mention.
It seems a strange thing that, whereas in the eyes of
the ecclesiastical and civil law any case is (teemed to be
sufficiently proved by the evidence of two righteous men,
while on the testiinolgiy of four veracious witnesses the
administrators of these laws -LinhesitatiDgly pronounce asen-

tence-even of death-on one charged with heresy or
brought within the operation of the Lex talionis, these
same people are so steeped in heedlessness and prejudice
that in this matter they disregard -the testimony of four
hundred witnesses of such virtue, integrity, and learning.-
Great heaveDs! More than four hundred eminent divines,
remarkable alike for the soundness of their judgement and
the extent of their learning, bear witness to the truth of
His Holiness the First Point', and, for the awakening of
their fellow-men, sever all worldly ties, and willingly quaff
the draught of martyrdom ; and still thease perverse and
froward inen continue to demand a sign, saying, " By what.
evidence can you shew that this man was the promised
As before, both MSS. have j i  'iN In 11 'i Muhammad
IMahallAt has been already mentioned.
2 ie. Mulli Sheykh'Alf. L. adds "of KhurAsin". C. herein-
serts "46 Mfrzi 'Abdu'l-WahhAb of Turshiz", who would seem
to be identical with the I'Mfrz~i 'Abdu'l-WabhAb of Khurds6n"
before mentioned in L.
3 Jla~rat-i-Xukta-i- 67d, one of the titles of the Bab.

Proof ?" Why, what evidence could be more conclusive
than the mere existence of such witnesses ? Whoever shall
consider without prejudice the circumstances of these
people, their earnest strivings after truth, the sublimity of
their heroism and self-devotion, and what they wrought
and suffered in MAzandarAn, at Nfriz, and at ZanjAn,
will be convinced that there could be no testimony more
conclusive, no argument more eloquent. Any unbiassed
seeker after truth who will but meditate on these things
in the spirit of the tradition, "Seek a decision from thy
heart, even though he who is in error condemn thee," will
unfailingly be illumined by the light of God. . . 1 But
such divines as sought only preferment and authority, and
were blinded by their own vain imaginings, refused to
recognize the promised Proof, demandilIg why a face had
not appeared in the disc of the asiin to announce the Mani-
festation, or why the ass of Antichrist had not come forth
from the well in Within ; and these, in their blind preju-
dice and self-conceit, failed to apprehend alike the mean-
ing of the signs and the trite nature of the thing signified.
... So, ngierely because the ass of Antichrist had not
appeared, they denied the Manifestation of God Most
High; and, on no better ground than the unfounded calum-
iiies fabricated by froward and perverted men to the effect
that the BàbÕs allowed nine husbands to one woman, and
accounted things prohibited by the religion of IslAm as
lawful and right, pronounced virtuous and holy men to be
sinners and heretics without further enquiry. Thus did
they remain in darkness themselves, and ala-,o keep back
the common folk from participating in the grace of God'.
I Here follows a page or so of eulogies on the afore-mentioned
martyrs, which, as it does but repeat what has been already said,
I omit.
2 Three couplets froni the Masnavi are here omitted.
. The third class comprises the common folk, of whom
such as considered the matter with even a little intelligence
became convinced that one who, alone and unfriended,
dared proclaim God's message to all with such unwavering
courage and steadfastness, while well knowing that he was
destined to fall a martyr to the malice of his adversaries
in the very prime of manhood, must assuredly be sent and
supported by God. For he himself foretold his own mar-
tyrdom in the following words':-" It is as though, I heard
one crying within my soul, 'The most pleasing of all things
is that thou shouldst become a ransom in the way of God,
even as Huseyn (ugpmt whom be peace) became a ransom
in my way.' And were it not that I have regard to this
mysterious truth, by Him in whose hand is my soul, were

all the kings of the earth to unite together they could not
take from me a single letter, much less could my servants,
who are of no suck account that they could attempt this,
and who are indeed rejected . .," until he says, ". . that
all may know the extent of my patience, and contentment,
and seV-sacrifice in the way of God." For, were it other-
wise, so great a multitude of expert doctors and devout
seekers after truth would assuredly not have accepted him
as a Divine Manifestation, nor rapturously laid down their
lives for love of his surpassing beauty and longing for union
with him. For all must admit that these pious divines
occupy the position of a touchstone or measure for the
proving of his words, which touchstone or measure dis-
tinguishes base metal from true with unswerving and un-
This passage is also quoted in the I~dn as occurring in one
of the Covinientaries written by the Bib, and will be found in the
description of that work published by Baron Rosen in vol. iii of
the Collections Scientifiques de l'Institut des Langues Orientales,
pp. 43-44. The text as there given, however, differs slightly
from that which is here translated.

biassed fidelity. So men of this class, influenced by such
considerations, fell to making enquiry, and, according to
the verse-
Who seeks with diligence shall surely find,"
were ere long brought to a knowledge of that for which
they sought. For God guideth such as enquire after truth
and delivereth them from doubt, according to His promise,
" Those who strive streaitoitsly fo?- Us, We will assared~y
direct them bito Oug- ways'." And such as have once been
brought to embrace this wondrous faith do forthwith per-
ceive for a surety that all the caluinnies which they were
wont to hear igre devoid of foundation and originate solely
in the inalice of eneinies, awl that the Bibis, are reniark-
able only for their devotion, charity, kindliness, purity,
godliness, rectitude, sincerity, integrity, generosity, chas-
tity, and strict avoidance of all forbidden things and
actioiis -injurious to their f'ellow-iigieii. Thus it is that no
one who hath once entered on this path can be diverted
from it, even though all men should combine against him,
or all the kiii,,dorns of the world should be offered him as
an equivaleiit. But such as slavishly follow formalist
divine.-,, and ignorantly await the fanciful appearance in
the sun's disc of a forin which shall cry, " 0 believers, be
gladdei?ed with the tidii?gs oj' the Xahdf's - advent ! " wot
not that while they lie lapped in careless slumber the Sun
of Truth liath arisen and liath reached the zenith. Even
so was it when the Sun of Jesus had filled the whole world
with light, and such of the Jews as had eyes to see had
followed and confessed lliiihi, while others, learned and
i(Mormit, rejected Him, sayiric,, " Not so did Moses foretell
the signs of his return ; for lie said, 'I will come down to
you froitgi the roof-top on a Friday night, and if I bid you
1 Kur'iii, -xxix, 69.
not observe the eve of Saturday, receive me not."'.! So,
because of the non-'appearance of the expeted tokens,
they remained cut off from the knowledge of him betokened,
and continue till this (lay to wander erringly in the abyss
of careless denial, while their exceedin., wickedness and
folly prompted them to inflict on that Incarnation of the
Spirit cruelties too notorious to stand in need of enuncia-
tion. And so in like manner when the Sun of Muhammad's
Truth shone forth froni the heaven of Divine Grace, and
all in whose hearts gleamed even a spark of the light of
wisdom advanced to welcome him, the majority of the
priests and laymen of that time rejected him, and de-
inanded a sign, saying, " The Lord Jesus liath declared in

the Gospel that He will descend from heaven " (after a
certain fashion which they defined and coDditioned), "and
He must come riding on a cloud, and in His hand there
will be a spear of light, and His head will be of gold, and
His feet of inolten metal ;" and these are -still expecting
Christ to appear in such fanciful fashion as has just been
described. So, in like iigianner, these clergy and laymen of
the present day expect the appearance of the Ass of Anti-
christ and a~undry other things which they have fondly
imagined, thus remaining, like their predecessors, veiled
from the appearance of the Sun of Truth by a parcel of
folid superstitious, even as Mawldni Jaldlu'd-Dfn Rfimf
110 foolish man! Herein the mischief lies:
Grod's saints appear mere mortals in thine eyes.
Fen as accursed Iblfs thou dost say,
'I am of fire, and Adam naught but clay!"'
I The imperfect St Petersburg MS. of the Tdrikh-i-Jadid
ends abruptly here. See vol. vi of Baron Rosen's Collections
Scientijiques de 172istitut des Langues Orientales, p. 244, and my
Travellei-'s Narrative, vol. ii, p. 192, n. 1.
2 Of the four couplets here quoted I translate only the first

To pursue this topic further would, however, unduly
prolong our history, so we must return from the digression
into which we, were led by a consideration of the sin-
cere devotion and faith of certain of the horsemen Who
formed the escort of His Holiness. To continue, then.
The guards who conveyed His Holiness to MAk-h re-
turned as soon as they had accomplished their duty.
1TAjf MÕrzà A~Asf had written to 'Ali KhAn the warden of
MAku' charging him to keep His Holiness the Bib in the
closest custody, and not to suffer him to communicate or
correspond with anyone. His Holiness was therefore lodged
in the Castle of MAkh, which is situated on a mountain,
and none were permitted to approach him. Yet, notwith-
standing this, whenever His Holiness desired to see anyone,
sentinels and gaolers were alike powerless to thwart the
accomplishment of his wishes, and numbers who flocked in
from every quarter were honoured by admission to his pre-
sence. Even 'Ali KhAn, who was remarkable for his dulness-
and lack of apprehension, used to wait on him.daily, though
the steepness of the ascent from his house to the Castle was
such that it was necessary to go on foot. And whenever
he was questioned about the BAb, lie would answer, " I
am too dull to comprehend his words fully, but I am filled
with wonder at his dignity, for whenever I go to see him
the majesty and glory of his presence so profoundly affects
me that, though he is a prisoner committed to my charge, I
am involuntarily compelled to withdraw."
So great multitudes continued to come from all quarters
to visit the Bib, and the writings which emanated from his
inspired pen during this period were so numerous that they
amounted in all to more than a hundred thousand verses.
two. The verseai will be found at p. 252 of 'Ala"u'd-Dawla's
Teher6n edition of the Masnavi, 1. 20 et sey.
~Mfrzi 'Abdu'l-WahhAb of Khurdsin, who was `subse'que~tly
known as MÕrzà 'Abdu'l-JawAd, made the following state-
ment:-" While His Holiness was dwelling at MAku we
reckoned up the verses, epistles, prayers, supplications,
homilies, treatises in Arabic and Persian, commentaries on
the Kur'àn, and forms of visitation, and found that they
exceeded a million verses."I
For nearly three years the Bib abode at MAkA'. But
at length HAjf MirzA Akisf discovered that he was still
visited by his followers, and that his writings (comprising
exhortations, admonitions, proofs of the truth of his doc-
trines, homilies, and prayers) continued to circulate,~some

of them even finding their way to himself and to the king.
ln some of these last, moreover, complaints were made of
his attempts to suppress the preaching of the Word. One
of these complaints is known as " the Sermon of Wrath ","
and whoever shall peruse it will apprehend the true meaning
,of spiritual power.
So, to be brief, HAjf Mfrzi AkAsf wrote to 'Alf KhAn
strictly enjoining him to keep a most diligent watch over
the BAb and not to allow him to send out any more of his
writings. Bi-It all attempts to prevent this proved futile,
and at length 'Alf KhAn wrote to Hijf MÕrzà Akisf
declaring his inability to carry out his instructions. So
orders were issued by the Minister of His Majestyg the
Vicar of God for the removal of His Holiness to the Castle
of Chihrfk and the custody of its warden YahyA Khin.
Just as the Bib was mounting the ho ' rse provided for his
conveyance thither, 'Alf KhAn came out to make his apo'-
logies. " I never desired this change," said he, " for I am
I This is certainly a mistake. The, Bib seems to have re-
mained atMikd for only six months.- See my Traveller's.Xarra-
tive) Vol. ii, p. 277.
2 IfAutba-i-kaltrinla.

loth to be debarred from the privilege of waiting upon Your
Holiness." " Wherefore dost thoil seek to deceive me
answered the BAb, "thou didst thyself write , and dost thou, now seek to excuse thyself 2
Then he set out for the Castle of Chihrfk.
The Castle of Cliitirfk is situated not far from the town
of UrAmiyya, of which place Yahyi KhAn was at this time
the governor. Some time before his renhioval thither was
decided upon, the BAb had instructed  Sheykh
'Alf (better known as -:~Jendb-i-> 'A;Z)n) to proceed to
Urlimiyya, and there to abide. After it had been arranged
that His Holiness should be transferred to Chihrik, on the
very night which preceded the day of his arrival, YaliyA
KhAn saw His Holiness in a dream. Next morning lie
made known this matter to Sheykh-l-'Azim, adding, " If
when. I see His Holiness I find that his appearance and
visage correspond with what I behold ill my dream, I shall
be convinced that lie is in -truth the promised Proof." His
Holiness chanced to arrive that very day, and, at the
first glance, Yah i 17"liiii instantly recognized him as
r3 y  V
identical witti the saint whom lie had belield in. his
dream. Involuntarily lie bent down in obeisance and
kissed the knee of His Holiness, whom lie then brought ill
to his own tiouase. Thenceforth he wohlilcl iieveraieat himself
in the BAb's presence until lie had received permission, and
when His Holiiieass had been to the bath lie bought the
water in which lie had washed for eighty G'On&ns.
Notwithstanding the rigorous prohibition of 114jf Mfrz6
A~6sf, the followers and ftiends of His Holiness continued
to hold communication with him, even after his removal to
Chihrfk, and many persons in the surrounding district were
converted to his doctrines. And Yahyd KhAn, so long as
lie was warden, maintained towards him all attitude of
unvarying respect and deference.
It was during his sojourn at Chihrik, too, that the BAb)
havino, due regard to the exigencies of the time, the dic-
tates of expediency, and the capacity of men, declared him-
self to be the KtViml; though some think that he made this
declaration during the latter days of his residence at Mikfi.
At all events, this announcement was proclaimed through
the region of Turkistdn' by the " Indian believer," con-
cerning whom HAjf Mirzi J6nf has written a long account',
whereof the substance is in brief as follows. He belonged
to a noble Indian family, and was remarkable alike for his
sober and abstemious habits, his piety, and his manifold
virtues. He was diligent in all good works enjoined in
sacred tradition, and at length, in the course of his sear ch
after truth, came to Persia. - No sooner did lie hear tidings

of the Manifestation of His Holiness than lie set out for
Cllihrik to enquire into the matter. This occurred at the
time when the BAb had declared himself to be the K6 im,
and when such radiance of might and majesty streamed
from his countenance that none could bear to look upon
the effulgences of his glory and beauty. &kA Seyyid
Hasan, the brother of AkA Seyyid Huseyn, was unable to
gaze upon the splendours apparent in the visage of His
-Holiness, while. even Seyyid Huseyn himself would not
eat before him nor enter the blessed Presence without first
asking permission. Nor was it an uncommon occurrence
.even for -unbelievers involuntarily to bow down in lowly
obeisance on beholding His Holiness ; while the inmates of
I i.e. the ImAm MAR
2 It seems hardly possible that what is ordinarily called
Turkistin can be here intended. The term probably denotes in
this case the Turkish-speaking provinces of Persia, that is to say,
Jkzarbaijin and its dependencies. Cf. my Traveller's Yarrative,
Vol. ii, p. 89, n. 2.
3 Suppl. Pers. 1071, f. 1536 et seq.
N. H.

the caastle, though for the most part Christians' or Sunnfs,
reverently prostrated themselves whenever they saw the Now when the " Indian believer" returned to his
visage of His Holiness appear resplendent over the walls of lodging in this state of rapture and exaltation, his com-
panions saw that-
the building. In short, at no previous time had the serene
and awful beauty of that noble countenance exercised so "An atom to a radiant sun was changed,"
irresistible an attraction over all who came within the whereat they marvelled much, and sought to do him service
Sphere of its influence. No sooner, then, did the " Indian in all humility. In his company they went to Salm4s;
believer," as lie approached the building, catch sight of the and to so lofty a degree of spirituality did they attain that
face of His Holiness, than lie involuntarily exclaimed, " This they found themselves able to dispense with solid food,
is my Lord!" and fell swooning on the ground. On coming and, for a period of forty days, took no nutriment save a
to his senses lie wept much, and, the glory of that divine little rose-water and sugar. He, meanwhile, continued to
apparition irradiating a heart clear and receptive as a expound the most ' subtle mysteries of the Divine Unity,
inirror, began to chaunt the words, " I am the Kd'i7n be- and the nature of the KeFim, in so transcendental a man-
come manifest," and, like Mans~ir-, to cry out, " I arn the ner that the keenest intellects were unable to follow hias
Truth 1 thought. Not only mystics, but learned scholars, over-
Fen as the ruby, which, at first a, stone, come with wonder at his condition, submitted to the in-
Sunlike by drinking in the sun bath grown. fluence of his attraction.
It grows in light; its stony nature goes; When tidings of this reached the governor of Khfiy, he,
Throughout its substance light and sunshine floWS4.1'
fearful of a popular tumult, and the censure which -such an
The text has Aramina (Armenians), a term often loosely
i event would bring down on him from the king, caused the
applied by Musulthnin Persians to other Oriental Christians,
such as the Nestorians of Urilmiyya, who axe probably intended 'aIndian believer" to be arrested and brought before him,
here. Compare M. Moclienin's nienioir, quoted by Kazeni-Beg together with two of his companions, Sheykh SAlih the
(i, p. 371), and Traveller's -Yarrative, Vol. ii, p. 276. Arab and MullA Huseyn of KliurAsAn, both of wh, oin- *were
2 Kur'àn, vi, 76, 771, 7 8. disciples of His Supreme Holiness. Yet astill the " Indian
believer," like Mansiir ceased not to cry, "I am the Truth
3 Ijuseyn ibn Mans~ir-i-Hull(~j (the wool-carder), called also
AbO-Mughfth, who was born at Bey~a in FArs, and, after a life and to declare his intention of preachin and proclai
9 MIDg
spent in teaching the most exalted mysticism, was put to death
is commonly believed in the East that rubies and cornelians are
for crying out in one of his raptures "I am the Truth" (ie. God),
by command of the Muhamrnadan doctors of religion. His execti- 

slowly formed from common pebbles by the action of the Sun.
tion took place at Baghdad oigi the 24th of Zfl-Kalda, A.H. 309 Thus the '%vell-known verse:
(March 26th, A.D. 922).
L; -S~ tL 6
4 These verses will be found on p. 484 of 'Ali'u'd-Dawla's
Teberin edition of the.Jfasnavi, lines 10 and 11. L. substitutes
j-d Jax- jj
another quotation of three couplets from the same poem. C.
It needs ages ere one primitive stone can, by the action of the
adds another verse occurrino, a few lines lower, which I omit. It
sun, become a ruby in Badakbsbin or a cornelian in Yanian."

the new faith. At length, by order of the governor, these of Aki Seyyid Jalil the Indian, an eminent and-11oly
upright men were cast down in the dust of tribulation, and mystic, to whom the DAghd4rV dervishes (who are repre-
blows were rained on the feet which had walked so stead- sented even within the confines of Persia) trace back their
fastly with the rods which are the portion of faithful lovers, order. This family enjoys a high degree of consideration
until Slieykll SAlih the Arab yielded up his spirit to Him in India, for from of old the saints of the aforesaid order
who is the Creator of souls. But though they continued have always sprung from them, and the number of their
to beat the others in hopes of making them deny the faith,  disciples is enormous.
which they had coiifea3a-,ed, they persistently ref i ed to do From his childhood Seyyid Basfr sliewed sians of the
so, saying, " We are not such hypocrites that suffering and wonderful faculties which he afterwards manifested. For
torture call make us deny the truth." So at length they seven years* he enjoyed the blessings of sight, but then,
sha ved the heads of those chiefs of the children of wisdom, even as the viasioii of his soul became clear, a veil of dark-
mounted them oil asses, and paraded them through the i ness fell on his outward eyeas. From his infaii he had
town, crying, "This is the recompense of seekers after  cy
displayed his good disposition and aiiiiable character both-
truth, and of such as would attain to union with the True in word and deed ; lie now added to this a singular piety
Beloved, who shut their eyes to all other considerations, and soberness of life. At length [at the age of twenty-one]
and erase name and fame from the tablet of their being lie set out with great pomp and state (for lie had much
be admonished, therefore, 0 people of discernment wealth in India) [to perform the pilgrimage]; 'and on
reaching Persia, began to associate with every sect and p ) arty
[Account of Jewitb-i-Base'l-, a sah?t~ mid noble mystic of (for lie was well acquainted with the doctrines and tenets
India, endowed with wonderful and vii7-aegitlotts powers. of all), and to give away large suins of money in charity
andfaculties.] to the poor, submitting himself the while to the most
rigorous religious discipline. And since Iiiai ancestors had
Another Indian convert was Seyyid Basfr, a man of' foretold that ill those days a Perfect Man should appear
unequalled virtue and learning, endowed with many won- Perasia, lie was continually engaged in making enquiries.
derful gifts and miraculous faculties. -Many were the souls, He visited Mecca, and, after performin the '
9 rites of the
whom lie awoke to life and directed into the right way, pilgrimage, proceeded to the holy shrines of KerbelA and
and many the perverted scoffers whom he persuaded to Nejef, where he met with the late HAjf Seyyid KAzim, for
accept the truth and raised to the degree of perfection ; whom he conceived a sincere frieildaship. He then re-
for lie drew to him like a magnet all such as were sus-g  turned to India; but, oil reaching Bombay, lie heard that
ceptible to his holy influence. Although the late HAjf
MirzA JAW has written but a brief summary of his virtues, *[for seven is the number of action]
even one telith part of what lie has written would suffice,
to form a separate volume. The substance of the matter, The name of the order is uncertain, this reading being a
conjecture of mine. L. has apparently  and C.
however, is as follows. His Reverence was of the family the word being indistinctly written in both cases.

one claiming to be the Bib had appeared in Persia, where-
upon he at once turned back thither.
On reaching Persia -, he found
that His Holiness had gone to Mecca'. Impatient of
further delay he followed him thither, and at lengthen-
joyed the privilege of meeting him in the Holy Sanctuary.
Blind as he was, the eye of his heart saw for a surety that
the Bib's claim to be. the Kd'im was a true one, and he
ascended . to the most sublime heights of faith and as-
After a while he returned by sea to Persia, through
which he travelled, preaching God's Word with due circum-
spection and caution, perfecting the defective, and directing
the erring. His words went home to the hearts of all
seekers after truth, for he was as remarkable for his learn-
ing as lie was for his virtue, and was well versed in
Medicine, Astronomy, Divination, and other science-, ". He
was also thoroughly acquainted with the doctrines of the
mysticas, and proficient in several languages. So, in every
town and hanilet which lie visited, his influence brought
many learned and pious persons into the way of asalvatioii,
for lie exercised a marvellous power of attraction over all
with whom lie came in contact [including the author] ;
and so numerous were the prodigieas and miracles which he
wrought that one may say without exaggeration that his,
every action was in some sort a miracle. [Tliiias, amongst
other things, he paid no heed to the attempts made to
*[In spite of his blindness, if lie wanted any passage
found in the Kur'àn, and if the seeker failed to find it
quickly, he would take the Kur'àn from him, open it, find
the verse, and give it back to him; or he would himself
repeat it. I*
I See pp. 198-9 snpra.
win over the faithful to Ezel, who was a mute', and be-
lieved in BehA' (the soul of the universe be his sacrifice!)
before he revealed himself.]'
When the strife waxed hot in MAzandarain, Seyyid
Basfr proceeded to the district of NAr, intending to j oin
*[the martyrs ; but, because of the close investment of -the
Castle, and because, moreover, his time to die was not yet
come, he was unable to carry out his design. After the
catastrophe he went to 'Irik, preaching the doctrine every-
where, until lie was arrested in Burfijird by the Prince-
Governor, who, because he was so ready of speech and
eloquent in discourse, first ordered his tongue to be cut
out, and then put him to death. ] ""
In such devoted and faithful believers as these one

may indeed say that the blessed verse, "Invoke death
then, if ye be faithful"' finds its fulfilment; for they, being
at the time of their capture no more than 313 in number,
saw the whole power of the King directed, with the sanc-
tion of the clergy, towards the extermination of all who
professed the faith which they held; saw themselves girt
about by thousands of blood-thirsty soldiers provided with
death-dealing artillery and all munitions of war; saw every
avenue of escape closed, and themselves made targets for
*~the defenders of the Castle; but, since it was other-
wise ordained, he failed to accomplish his desigDj.
the opposite of .5L4, ie. one who does not utter reve-
lations. Cf. de Sacy's Religion des Drums, voL i, pp. ciii, n. 1;
and civ, n. 1.
3 C. omits this remarkable passage, which is very probably an
interpolation by some ardent BehV scribe. It is rather corrupt,
but I believe that the above translation correctly represents its
general sense.
4 Kur'àn, ii, 88; 1xii, 6.

the shots of their ruthless enemies ; and yet continued
without abatement or remission to hurl themselves on de-
struction, and to court the fate which had already over-
taken their comrades. Such courage, steadfastness, devotion,
and eager striving after martyrdom appear to some persons
easy enough, so long as it is only a question of talking
about them; and those whom prejudice has blinded regard
this heroic episode ,is they would a mere idle tale or childish
game ; whereas, could they have actually witnessed the
deeds of these men, it would have been clear and evident
to them that such courage and endurance transcend the
power of all men save the greatest prophets and saints.
The illustrious companions of the Prophet, seeing 'Alf
wronged and robbed of his rights, repeatedly urged him
to assert his claims, saying, " Why, in spite of your signal
courage and brilliant abilities, do you suffer others to usurp
the Caliphate, and to do injury to the faith and the law,
while you sit quietly at home?" 'Alf answered, "As you
have determined to devote yourselves to God's cause and
to give me your help, come to me to-i-norrow with your heads
shaven and your drawn swords over your shoulders, that
we may fight with unflinching courage for God's cause and
our own rights." His companions, who were the very best
of the people of that time, were ready enough in word, and
were so full of hope and confidence that they declared
themselves ready to die for one before whom they accounted
themselves as nothing. But when it came to deeds and
they were put to the proof, all their pretensions proved
vain, and it became apparent that their devotion was only
verbal, not actual. Four of them, however, did actually
come in obedience to 'Alf's command. Of these, three had
shaved off a little of the hair at the sides of their heads,
and concealed the rest under their turbans; while Salm4n,
though lie had shaved his whole head, had girded on his
sword under his cloak. When 'Alf saw this, he said, "How
can you, who would not even 'give up the hair on your
heads, forsake life, possessions, wife, and children? The
reason why I sit silent in my house and bear all -these
slights and injuries while others usurp the Caliphate is
that I have no friend on whom I can rely, and see devotion
and constancy in none of my adherents. In word they are
ready enough; but when it comes to deeds they flee as
they have done to-day, and will not sacrifice even a hair of
their heads!" Yet these same disciples regarded them-
selves as incontestably superior to all peoples and nations,
even accounting themselves more excellent than the pro-
phets of olden time. Anyone who will put aside prejudice,
and fairly weigh their deeds with those of the BAbis, will
perceive that they differ as earth from heaven, or truth
from fiction. Of such persons 

it may indeed be said, " The doctors of Inzy ckurck are
more excellent than the prophets oJ' the C141dren of Israel,"
for they are the very crown of creation, bright gems of
God, the desire of the saints, the elect of the prophets,
such as were intended by the holy Imims when they said,
" Had we but seven (or, according to other traditions,
seventeen) helpers, we would publicly advance our claim!"
*[But let us proceed to narrate the history of the
Seven Martyrs, each of-whom represented a different class,
to which his martyrdom was the completion of the proof,
and all of whom were conspicuous for their piety and
* JA full account of the circumstances of Seyyid Basfr
and the manner of his martyrdom would here result '*'I
undue prolixity. Should fortune favour us we will, please
God, insert it in the second volume.1 *

< I'lie Seven. 31'artyrs. >
The death of the Seven Martyrs' took place after the
episode of the Indian Believer, and blotted out from' the
hearts of friends all recollection of Tpreviousj events.
11 Love's sorrow came and swept away the sorrow of the world."
Their faithfulness, constancy, and devotion, apart from all
other proof or evidence, was a worthy and sufficient de-
monstration of the truth of that for which they suffered ;
by their actions the very essence of love was made manifest
in the world ; and in their martyrdom the true meaning of
faith and devotion was revealed to all discerning persons.
In pure spite the enemies of God would have quenched
the lamp of believers and friends by means of the blasts of
persecution, but, according to the verse, " They desire to
put out the light of God with their inouths, but God will
not have it-but that we should perfect His light, averse
though the misbelievers be'," their devilish designs had the
opposite effect to what they intended.
"A foemaD's act may turn to good, if such be God's design."
So God, in despite of these malicious enemies, made these
men as it were a candle of guidance and wisdom, which
burned but the brighter for decapitation', and was pre-
served by extinction'; for the drops of their blood were as
I Suppl. Pers. 1071, f. 15611, et seq.
2 Kur'àn, ix, 32.
3 The snuffing of a candle is often compared by the Persians
to decapitation.
4 Literally "by killing". "To kill a candle" is the ordinary
expression in Persian for "to put out a candle." The writer
means to say that just as a candle burns the brighter for being
" beheaded " (snuffed) and lasts the longer for being "killed" (ex-
tinguished), so it is with the persecuted faith of the BAK
seed for the extension of the faith, and from each drop
which fell to the ground sprung forth a tree, whose leaves
were the children of wisdom, and its fruit believers in the
Divine Unity.
"Still, however ngiany be the lovers
His incomparable beauty slays,
Ever there appears another cohort
Ready from the dust their heads to raise."
To proceed with our narrative. Certain malicious and
evilly-disposed persons represented to MÕrzà Muhammad
Taki KhAn the Prime Minister that the BAN s were medi-
tating a fresh rebellion. He, remembering the MdzandarAn
insurrection and the stubborn courage which the BAbis
then displayed, was filled with apprehensions, and ordered
suspected persons to be arrested. His myrmidons poured
forth in every direction on their cruel errand, and, after
infinite exertions, succeeded in capturing thirty-eight
persons, some of whom were only suspected of sympa

thizing with the BàbÕs. Without stoppin t 're ect t at
so small a number of men could not possibly raise an
insurrection, the Minister cast them all into prison. I _.
After some days it was decided, by his command, that
such of the prisoners as would renounce the BàbÕ faith and
speak evil of its Founder should be released, while such as
confessed it should forthwith suffer death. Whenwordofthis
was brought to the prisoners, HAjf MullA Ismalil of Kum,
a divine of KerbelA conspicuous for his virtue and learning,
who was accounted one of the chiefs of the faithful and
had been most strenuous in the service of God's cause, on
whose part, moreover, many strange matters had been
witnessed at the Meeting of Badasht', thus addressed his
companions :-" I, for my part, am resolved to confess my
I See Gobineau, pp. 180-4; and Travellers iVarrative, vol. ii,
pp. 176, 189, 212, and 312.

faith and lay down my life; for if we fail to proclaim the
advent of the K,~t'igni, who else will proclaim it g? And
if we fail to direct men into the right way, to tear asunder
the veils of their heedlessness, to arouse them front the
,slumber of sloth, to demonstrate to them the worthlessness
of this transitory world, and to give active testimony to
the truth of this most high and most ineffable faith, who
else will do so ? Let everyone, then, who is able to acquit
himself of this obligation come forth in all steadfastness
and bear me company; while such as are hindered by
private reasons, and such as are falsely suspected  are excused, and may act as seems to them
right." Therefore six, who were faithful believers, said,
We will bear you company on this Journey; " while the
rest, some of whom were not perfect in faith, and some of
whom, being falsely suspected, were excused, determined to
adopt a course of concealment'. And these seven faithful
lovers and loyal friends [, who were the 
goats of the inuch-wronged Lord of the Agej  HAjf
Mulli 1sma'fl. of Kum, HAjf MÕrzà Seyyid'.Alf, the maternal
uncle of 'His Supreme Holiness, Mfrzi KurbAii-'Alf the
dervish, AkA Seyyid FlUseyn ~the majtakid~ of Turshfz,
[HAjf] MullA Takf of KirmAn, MÕrzà Mulianiniad *TUu-
seynj* of Tabrfz, land another, a native of Marlgha.~
So t [those who recanted were set free, while those who
made confession of their faith] t were led forth on the
morrow to the square' to die. On their way thither the
* [Ijasaii] I'- t ~tbeyj t
1 Ketmdn3 the word applied especially to the concealment of
religious opinions dictated by prudential motives, also called
takiya. See Gobineau, Religions et Philosophies clans l'Asie
Centrale, pp. 15-21.
2 Their execution took place either in the Meyda'n-i-Sabz or
-spectators reviled them and cast stones at them, 'Saying,
" These are Bibfs and madmen 1 " MullA Isma'fl answered,,
Cc Yes, we are BàbÕs, but mad we are not. By A116,h, 0
people, it is to awaken and enlighten you that we have
forsaken life, wealth, wife, and child, and have shut our
eyes oil the world and such as dwell therein, that perchance
ye may be admonished, may escape from confusion and
error, may be led to make enquiry, may rightly apprehend
the truth, and may no longer remain veiled." -
Now when they were ready to begin their  de-
capitation and slaughter, and it was HAjf 's
turn , one came to him saying, "Such an one of
your friends will give such-and-such a sum of money to
save you from death, on condition of your recanting, that

thus they may be induced to spare you. In a case of dire
necessity, when it is a question of saving your life, what
harin is there in *~merelyj* saying, 'I am not a BàbÕ,' so
that they may have a pretext for releasing you?" t[He
replied, "Were I willing to recant, even with-out money
none would touch me." Being]t further pressed and
greatly importuned, he drew himself up to his full height
amidst the ctowd, and exclaimed, so that all might hear,-
Zephyr, prythee bear for me a message
To that Ishmael' who was Dot slain,
'Living from the street of the Beloved
Love permits not to return again'.';
*[having recourse to prudential concealment, and]
t jHe would not consent. Whenj t
the MeydAn-i-Shih. See my Traveller's Narrative, vol. ii, p. 213,
I ie. Ishmael (Ismalil) the son of Abraham. According to the
Muhammadan belief it was he, not Isaac, whom Abraham was
commanded to offer up. The singular appositeness of these
verses which Alulli IsmaT addresses to his namesake and proto-

Then he removed his turban from his head and said to the
headsman, "Do thy work"; and the headsman, filled
with wonder, made him quaff the cup of martyrdom.
MÕrzà KurbAn-'Alf was famous am0DgSt mystics and
dervishes, and had many friends and disciples in TeherAn,
besides being well known to most of the nobles and chief
men, and even to the ShAh's mother'. She, because of her
friendship for him and the compassion she felt for his
plight, said to His Majesty the King', " He is no BàbÕ, but
has been falsely accused." So they sent and brought him
out, saying, " Thou art a dervish, a scholar, and a man of
learning ; thou dost not belong to this misguided sect;
a false charge has been preferred against thee." He
replied, " I reckon myself one of the followers and servants
of His Holiness, though whether or no he hath accepted
me as such I wot not." When they continued to persuade
him, holdiDg out hopes of a pension and salary, lie said,
" This life and these drops 4 blood of mine are of but
small account; were the empire of the world inine, and
had I a thousand lives, I would freely cast them all at
the feet of His friends-
'To sacrifice the head for the Beloved
In mine eyes appears an easy thing indeed;
Close thy lips, and cease to speak of mediation,
For of mediation lovers have no need."'
So at length they desisted in despair, and signified that
lie should die. When lie was brought to the foot of the
execution-pole, the headsman. raised his sword and smote him
on the neck from behind. The blow only bowed his head,
type of old will not escape the reader. The Persian original will
be found at p. 213, vol. ii, of my Traveller's Yarrative.
I Jfahd-i-lulyd, "the Suprenhie Cradle", is the title conferred
,on the Queen-mother.
2 i. e. Ndsiru'd-Dfn, the present Shih.
and caused the dervish's turban which he wore to roll some
paces from him on the ground. Immediately, as it were
with his last breath, he sent a fresh pang through the heart
of every one capable of emotion by reciting this verse-
'Happy he whom love's intoxication
So hath overcome that scarce he knows
Whether at the feet of the Beloved
It be head or turban which be throws I')
When the spectators saw and heard thias, a inurmur of
agympathy arose from them, and the headsman with all
baste smote him another blow which severed his head from
his body.
[Account of Aka SegYid Hgitsey?, , the

Now as to AkA Seyyid Huseyn Ithe muitahidl, he
had but recently returned from KerbelA; and all the
divines of that place had testified ill writing that he had
duly qualified himself for the rank of 9nuitahid. So, after
an absence of several years, he set out  for his
native land to visit his'relations and family. In Teherin,
however, he met with the "Brethren of Purity'," became
their fellow-traveller, returned to his true home in the
Eternal World, forsook all hope of revisiting his home and
kindred, and eagerly quaffed the draught of martyrdom.
[Accoant oj' < the death of> Afka Sevilid 'AU, who was the
maternal uncle of His Supreme Holiness, and who laid
down his life in Teheran.]
Now as to the BAb's uncle, he, with his aged bands,
removed the turban from his head, and, raising his face
1 See p. 229 supra.
. fd
2 1khwdint's-s . This title is not unfrequently a,pplied by
the BAbis to such as hold their faith.

towards the heaven of God's justice and glory, said, " 0
God, Thou art witness how they are about to slay the asoii
of Thy most noble Prophet [, and how they kill Thy faith-
ful servants as infidels, themselves claiming to be the
votaries of religion]."
A certain ngierchant offered to give three hundred t~t-
inans if they would spare his life and set him free, but he
would not consent, saying, " My sole desire is martyrdom,
and the attainment of this happiness. The bonds of our
service and devotion are too firm to be severed by the
swords or the threats of tyranny, and the chain of our
steadfast love is too strong to be snapped by such jerks as
these." Then he turned his face towards the headsman
and said,
"I am already dead with parting's pain;
Kill me, that love may make me live again!",
[Account of the slaughter of the other three, and how 'AU
Kh6n the Y,4jibu'd-Dawla soaght to persuade that
comely youth  ~?f the promise of apension
and the ofer of his daughter's hand.]
Then they caused the other three victims to attain
their desire in like manner. HAif 'Ali Klidn the llajibu'd-
Dawla' thus described what took place to one of hias
intimate friends, with many expressions of astonishment:-
His Majesty the King, in view of certain contingen-
cies, instructed me to be present at the execution of tbease
persons. When I reached the spot appointed for the exe-
1 This quotation is from the Masnavi, and is quoted in the
original, with reference, at 1). 215, vol. ii, of my Travelle7"s
2 Concerning this atrocious wretch, see Polak's Persien, vol. 1,
p. 352, and my Traveller's Yarrative, vol. ii, p. 52, n. 1.
cution, I noticed amongst the seven prisoners a 1 young
Seyyid of comely and pleasing countenance'. So fair- of
face and attractive of aspect was he, that my heart was
moved to pity at his plight, and I fell to wondering whether
it were possible in any way to save him, from death, and,
for God's sake, to prevent him from being -thus cut off in
the prime of his youth. ~So, when four or five of the
others had been put to death,J I called him to my side and
whispered in his ear, 'Come, recant; for I swear by the
crown 2 of His Majesty the King that  naught that you can desire or hope for shall be with-
held from you. I will present you to His Majesty the
King and will obtain for you  a pension and
allowance of five hundred Wmains a year.' I saw him look
wonderingly at me,,and I continued, 'If you will instantly
forsake this path, I will buy for you ~ a fine house, and

will give you my daughter in marriage, together with much
riches.' Having listened to all these inducements, he-
answered, 'Tempt me not with your beautiful daughter
and the perishable wealth of this world; we readily relin-
quish the world and the things thereof to you and such
others as seek after them. For us it sufficeth to drain this
draught, of martyrdom in the way of the Belovedh-
"The thought of the Beloved fills my Spirit,
There is not left for aught beside a place;
Let the foeman take the Here and the Hereafter;
Enough for me to see the Loved One's face!"'
'TWben I heard him speak thus, andJ* saw that he
*[I could not but admire the boy's spirit and courage,
yet, since 1] *
1 Subh-i-Ezel informed me that the name of this young BàbÕ
was Mulli $Adik-i-Turk.. He would therefore appear to be
identical with the "man of MarAgha" mentioned at p. 252 supra.
2 '~Bi-jika-Alld-Hazrat-i-IiCibla-i-'Alant" literally "by the
N. H..

was not to be persuaded, I smote him oil the mouth, and
bade them kill him before the rest."
Now  Tabarsi and Zanjdn]* certain of the
* lbelievers of MAzandarAn~ *
aigrette of His Majesty the Kibla of the Universe." Cf. p. 107,
n. 2, supra.
In the original xj,~ ~2- Sj! t~ a, I have
slightly turned the phrase to preserve the double relation
between C..,. (a sign of the zodiac; also a tower) and the "seven
planets" to which the Seven Martyrs are likened. L. here
inserts two couplets from the Xasnavi, which I omit.
malignants asserted that they aimed at the supreme, power,
and being, as it were, caught in a trap, had no choice.< but
to fight>. * ~And concerning the " Indian believer," like-
wise, some captious sceptics say that he was by habit a
dervish, and was intoxicated and crazy with opiuml*.
Therefore did He who orders the courses of the worlds
determine, a design whereof the waters of doubt should be
unable to obliterate a single letter, and cause these seven
to consent and combine with one accord in bearing active
testimony to the truth of His doctrine and the reality of
His revelation. The witness which they bore was without
flaw or fa;ult. They unflinchingly consummated their mar-
tyrdom in the Royal' Square' of the Capital -of Persia,
wherein reside representatives and ambassadors of every
state and sovereign, through whom true accounts of the

matter would reach all nations and governments; and they
were one and all men of mark and chiefs ill their respective
classes. This was in order that the proof might be fulfilled
to all peoples, and that room for objection might remain to
Thus HAji Mullal Isma'fl was one of the mostlearned
,divines of Kujn, noted everywhere, but especially in Ker-
beli, for his austere and virtuous life, so that those who knew
him were wont to declare that such godliness, self-restraint,
piety, and integrity they had observed in -no one else.
They also narrated many instances of the wonderful powers
which he could exert over objects, and the prodigies which
[ first of all, why did they,
being so strong, suffer themselves to be besieged inAhe
Castle? Secondly, how should one who has forsaken life,
wealth, and wife, and who foretells his own martyrdom,
care for worldly sovereignty ?]*
ffeyddn-i-Shdh. See, however, note 2 on p. 252 supra.

they had seen him perform. Ile foretold the manner of
his martyrdom some time before it took place, and used to
sleep no more than two hours each night, being engaged
until morning in supplications and supererogatory prayers
which be would never omit.' He had many disciples, and,
without being constrained by lack of means, travelled eighty
Stages on foot to proclaim the doctrine of His Holiness.
MirzA Kurbin 'Ali was an aged dervish, who had
travelled much, seen the world, and mixed with all classes
and sects, until he had completed his experience, and be-
come thoroii9igily acquainted with all. Thus strenuously
pursuing his enquiries, he had at length found in this faith
that for which lie sought. He had disciples of every nation
and every sect; his temperament was as enthusiastic as
Iiia-, judgement was sound; his virtues equalled his accom-
plishments; and, alike in inorals and manners, lie was
incomparable. Many strange virtues and powers were
witnessed in him, and during the few days which lie passed
in the prison he won the devotion and praise of most of
his fellow-captives. On the last night preceding his death
he remained awake till morning, continually reciting verses
appropriate to the occasion, aniongst which was the fol-
"Thou'rt interminable, sombre, and disordered,
Night of Parting, like the tresses of the Friend;
Art beyond the reach of Time, 0 Night of Parting?
For Time and Life speed onward to their end."
In short, during that night he continned in a state of
ecstasy and exaltation which baffles description, and filled
all who witnessed it with boundless wonder.
A~& Seyyid I.Tuseyn of Turshfz was an eminently
learned and pious divine, who united knowledge with prac-
tice, and was endowed with all the characteristics of virtue.
Most jurisconsults [and grammarians] have given some
account of his circumstances -c~in their books>, and all men~
of learning admit his scholarship, which, indeed, can no
more be denied than his virtue.  that he might be a witness to the clergy, and
that they should not be able to say, " He was but a com-
mon man, who., through ignorance and lack of judgement,
fell into error and heresy." [He likewise shewed a degree
of disinterested devotion which plunged all thoughtful
persons in amazemeigit, in that, after years of study, he
disregarded love of home, worldly ambition, authority,
wealth, and position, and willingly quaffed the draught of
HAJf Seyyid 'Alf, the maternal uncle , was
an aged merchant who had seen the world and enjoyed
universal respect, for he was famed for his piety and godli-

ness, lbesides being a descendant of the Prophet, and the
-uncle of His Supreme Holiness. When lie decided to set
out from SlifrAz and Yezd to lay down his life for the sake
of God and for love of the Beloved of the World, he ex-
amined all his accounts, and went in person to the houses
of all to whom he owed money to pay them their dues,
demand quittance and absolution, and bid them a last
farewell. So, in like manner, did he take leave of all his
friends and relatives one by one, after which he set out for
the capital, intending to proceed to AzarbaijAn to -wait oil
His Holiness.1 So he sacrificed life and wealth in the
service of His Holiness, [and in his old age suffered death
for the Beloved's sakeJ that his act 'might - serve as a
witness to all merchants, and that they might know that he,
having watched over and tended the BAb from infancy to
boyhood, and thence onwards until the Manifestation was
vouchsafed, had beheld in him virtues and powers never
before seen in man, whereby he was led to devote himself
to his service, and lay down life for his sake : else would

he never have courted death with such readiness, or inet
it with such fortitude. It is, therefore, certain that lie
was irresistibly drawn to His Holiness by beholding the
miraculous faculties which lie ' constantly displayed.
[Thus at the moment of his birth he exclaimed, " The,
Kingdom is God's'". And in his boyhood they sent him
to be taught his lessons by Sheykh 'Abid, an accomplished
scholar and a godly man, who was one of the disciples of
Slieykh Alimad , and subsequently became an
ardent believer in His Holiiieags. Amongst other anecdotes
of the BAb's boyhood which lie used to relate, one was as
follows. " The first day that they brought him to me at
the school, I wrote down the alphabet for him to learn, as
is customary with children. After a while I went out on
business. On my return, I heard,. as I approached the
room, someone reading the Kur'àn in a sweet and plaintive
voice. Filled with astonishment, I entered the room and
enquired who had been reading the Kur'àn. The other
children answered  'He was.'
'Have you read the Kur'All ?' I asked. He was silent.
'It is best for you to read Persian books,' said 1, putting
the Hdkku'1-Yakhi' before him, 'read from this.' At
whatever page I opened it, I saw that lie could read it
easily. 'You have read Persian,' said 1; 'Come, read
some Arabic; that will be better.' So saying, I placed
1 4 a-I.
2 Two celebrated works bear this title. One is a compendium
of Shi'ite doctrine composed by the eminent theologian Muham-
rnad Bikir Jfajlisi in the year A.H. 1109 (A.D. 1698) in the reign
of SultAn Huseyn the Safavf, and it is probably to this work that
reference is here made. The other Hakku'l-Yakin was written
in the 8th century of the hijra by Sheykh MahmAd Shabistari
(better known as the author of the Gulshan-i-kdz); and treats
of S~iff doctrine.
before him the 81iar7w_a7ntjjjja,!. When I began to ex-
plain the meaning of the Bismi'lltih to the pupils in the
customary manner, he asked, 'Why does the word Rahmain
include both believers and infidels, while the word Raht'n
applies only to believers?' I replied, 'Wise men have a
rule to the effect that  2 ex-
tension of meaning', and _Rahma'n contains one letter more
than Raltz'M.' He answered, 'Either this rule is a mistake,
or else that tradition which you refer to 'All is a lie.'
'Wbat tradition?' I asked. 'The tradition, ) replied he,
' wh ich declares that King of Holiness to have said : -" The
meanings of all the Sacred Books are in the Kur'àn,-and
the meanings of the whole Kur'6ii are in the 8~69-cttu'l-

144tilia, and the meanings of the -whole 862-atu'l-Ritiha
are in the Bismi'lVik, and the whole meaning of the Bis-
mi'llrth is in the  B, and the meaning of
the B is in the point , and the point is inex-
plicable."' On hearing -him reason thus -subtilely I was
speechless with amazement, and led him back to his home.
His venerable grandmother came to the door. I said to
her, 'I cannot undertake the instruction of this young
gentleman,' an4 told her in full all that had passed. Ad-
dressing him, she said, 'Will you not cease to speak after
this fashion ? What business have you with such matters 2
Go and learn your lessons.' ' Very well,' he answered, and
came and began to learn his lessons like the other boys.
Commentary on Grammatical forms. There is a work of
this name by Surilrf (see Cat. Cod. Orient. Hus. Brit., par8 ii '
Cod. Arab., p. 235, top of first column), but I am not sure
whether this is the one here intended.
2 These words are not in the original, having evidently been
omitted accidentally. They are necessary to complete the sense.
3 UL~  See Palmer's Arabic Grant-
,:*jl j.,L) jp jS . LjI 3,g'.
Mar, p. 33, n. 1.

He even began with the alphabet, although I urged him
not to do so. One day I saw lifin talking in a whisper to
the boy who sat next him, but when I would have listened
he was silent. Then I pretended to pay no he6d to
what he was saying, though in reality I listened at-
tentively, and I heard him say to the other boy, 'I am
so light that, if I liked, I could fly up beyond the Throne';
would you like me to go?' So saying, he made a move-
ment from the ground. As he said 'would you like me
to go V and made this niovemeDt, I smiled in wonder and
bewilderment, and as I did so lie suddenly ceased speaking.
So likewise, before lie had begun to practise writing, I
observed that every day lie used to bring with him a pen-
case and engage in writing something. I thought to my-
self, 'He sees the other boys writing, and, wishing to write
too, draws lines like them, and scribbles on the paper.'
For several days lie continued to act thus, until one day
I took the paper from him to see what he was doing. On
glancing at it I saw that he had actually written something.
Wondering how, without having practised, he could write,
I proceeded to examine what he had written, and found
it to be a dissertation on the mystery and knowledge of
the Divine Unity, written in the purest and most eloquent
style, and so profound that the keenest intellect would
fail to penetrate its  meaning." A' ~A Seyyid
Yahyd and Je)z('tb-i-A;919n' saw these writings in the pos-
session of the aforesaid , and declared that
they contained nearly four thousand verses, which differed
in no respect from what was written after the Manifes-
Thus, even in his childhood, signs of the BAb's holiness,
majesty, and lofty rank were apparent, [so that, for instance,
I 'Arsh, the throne of God, situated above the highest heaven.
2 Mulld Sheykh 'Ali.
I I I ;  f
as a boy he used to predict of pregnant women whether
they would bring forth a male or a female infant, besides
foretelling many chance occurrences, such as earthquakes
and the ruin of certain places, as they actually took place,
to relate which things fully would lead us too far from the
matter in hand.] Our chief point, however, is that persons
so virtuous and reasonable  would not have
been so convinced  as
thus willingly and joyfully to forego life, wealth, fame,
naine, wife, and child, unless they had observed in that
Proof of God the clearest evidences of Divine powers and
qualities. This especially applies to the  maternal

uncle , who, though filled with wonder
at the miraculous powers which he observed in His Holi-
ness even as a child, did nevertheless pause to make earnest
and diligent enquiry after the Manifestation took place
ere be became fully convinced of its truth. But this con-
viction, once attained, was so firm that, as has been men-
tioned, his steadfast resolve to devote his life to the cause
could not be shaken, though one would have given three
hundred tu'ma'ns to save him from death ; but he would
Dot consent, and said, " I regard martyrdom as the greatest
happiness and honour to which it is possible for me to
attain, and my utmost ambition is to lay down my life in
the way of the Beloved
HAji MullA Taki, who was both a merchant and a
scholar, was a man of remarkable piety and a native of
KirmAn, where his godliness, integrity, intelligence, virtue,
and wisdom were admitted by all, and where he had not a
few devoted admirers. His testimony, therefore, appeals
especially to all devout and godly persons.
As for the two others, one *[was MÕrzà Huseyn of
I Two beyts from the ffasnavi here inserted by L. are omitted.

Tabriz, the comely and devoted youth whom 1-16ji 'Alf
KhAn sought to tempt', and his testimony was a proof to
courtiers and government officials;]' and the other be-
longed to the class of tradespeople, and was a witness to
all such. And one cannot assert that these seven were
madmen devoid of understandii)g and sense; or that they
aimed at the supreme power; or that they were entrapped
without means of escape ; for, had they not -voluntarily
confessed, they would have been spared, and, even after
they had made confession, each one, as has been described,
was offered a chance of deliverance, and all alike refused it.
So they wrought a deed such as human endurance had
never before compassed ; yet, notwithstanding this, men
blinded by prejudice and passion charge them with heresy
and error, not reflectiDg that no one abandons life and
wealth, and disregards fame, repute, consideration, wife,
and children without good cause and reason ! The disci-
ples of 'Alf 2 , as has been already mentioned, were not
willing to abandon the hair of their heads, much less their
lives. Wherein did these men, who had for five consecutive
years striven after truth, fall short in endeavour ? Did
they not go from town to town, seeking knowledge of that
promised Proof ? Did they not endure the hardships of
exile, and the persecution of foes ? Did they not bear
patiently every kind of affliction, trouble, and sorrow ?
And, when they had learned the truth, did they not,
unlike those who would not give up so much as the hair
upon their heads, sacrifice all, even life itself, for the
% lbelonged to the class of government officials and
servants of the state~*
I See, however, note I at the foot of p. 257 supra.
2 See pp. 248-9 sitpra. C. repeats the whole story in full,
and I therefore follow L. without further notice of the variants.
Beloved of the World ? If these were not rightly guided
by God's grace, then no one in the world deserves to re-
ceive guidance; and if God did not direct seekers so strenu-
ous and so sincere as these, then (God forgive us for speaking
thus!) He would have broken His promise, and "God
breaketh not His promise"'. For it is incumbent on His
grace and mercy to deliver souls so strenuous in the search
after truth from doubt and error, to guide them into the
way of salvation, and to raise them to the highest degree
of certainty and knowledge. So, after the death of these
Seven Martyrs, all wise and discerning persons, who heard
what fortitude and steadfastness they had shewn in their
captivity and martyrdom, clearly perceived that devotion
such as this could not exist without a sufficient reason,
and that an event of such magnitude could not be regarded
as a trivial matter. Such persons, therefore, fell to making

enquiry ; and a great number of them crossed the bridge"
of doubt, reached the haven of assurance, were invested
with the robe of faith and right guidance, and, in turn,
effected the conversion and salvation of many others. But
in others, by reason of their lack of fairness, was realized
the meaning of the verse, " They recognize the favours of
God, and yet they deny them"'.
Now these seven saints were the seven hornless goats
which, agreeably to a well-accredited tradition, are to
appear in Mecca before His Holiness .
I Kur'àn, xxx, 5.
2 ~irdt, the bridge "finer than a hair and sharper than a
sword" w hich, according to the Muslim belief, spans the gulf
which surrounds Paradise. The allegorical meaning of this
image is treated of in the twelfth chapter of the second VdAid of
the Persian BeyAn. Cf. B. ii, p. 930; and n. I at the foot of p.
46 supra.
3 Kur'* xvi, 85.

And, since those are a sign of the TAIlanifestation, there-
fore astieli as were anxiously expecting its advent truly and
sincerely believed with great joy. For the holy liuAms
(upon whom be peace) have said, "Nabyzet'r-r6"I" wa,
shP6tu9id ghananz," that is to say, " We are the shepherd,
and our followers are the flock, which we. pasture in the
spacious meadow of wisdom, and preserve froign the claws of
the wolf of ignorance and fally." [Now the interpretation
of this saying, that His Holiness the JCrt'im sliall cause his
flock to appear in the land of Mecca, is that by Xecca the
land of Belief in the Divine Unity is intended ; for this it
is which especially appertaineth to God. And the source
and home of this belief is the heart, even as God says :-
" Neither my earth nor my heaven sufficeth for me, but
Only the heart of my faithful servant." So the true I-louse
of ()'rod is the heart ; it is the mirror of God, and in it
Divine Inspiration appears. This subject requires a lengthy
explanation, which will be given in its proper place.] And
what is meant by their saying " the goats have no horns "
is, briefly, that they suffer wrong, that is to say that they
neither struggle nor resist. The sayings of the Im6ms
contain many meanings which these formalist doctors are
unable to penetrate, even as they have failed to coinpre-
hend this tradition ; wherefore, through lack of sense and
discerniihient, they do both keep the unfortunate laity in
expectation, and themselves expect that His Holiness
Q11A n nav ;1, +1 n A +P AT
contrary to their preconceived ideas. For their pride and
arrozoD,ance make it seem to them a hard thing to prefer the as-
sertion of another to their own vain fancies, and, even though
they be inwardly compelled to assent, and to allow that his
words accord with reason and truth, their self-conceit
makes it impossible for them to admit this explicitly.
Thus 116ji MuIlA SAlih, for all his piety, sanctity, scholar-
ship, and show of religion, repeatedly said to his daughter
Jenaib-i- Ttikii-a, better known as lCurratu'l-'A Y. 2P*, " If
you, with all the learning, scholarship, and intelligence
which you possess, were to claim to be the BAb, or even
more than that, I would readily admit and allow your
claim; but what can I do when you choose to follow this
SlifrAzilad?" Greatheavens! Such is the arrogance and
prejudice of these persons that the imagination can scarcely
conceive the least of its developments! Here was one who
saw that his daughter, notwithstanding her talents and
accomplishments, regarded herself but as dust in compari-
son with that Sun of Truth, and publicly said, " With the
knowledge which I possess it is impossible that I should be

mistaken in the recognition of Him who is the Lord of the
World, whom all peoples anxiously expect : I have duly
recognized Him by the proofs of reason and the evidences
of knowledge, though this knowledge and these attainments
of mine are but as a niinute drop beside that vast and all-
pp I eser o ecca, in the guise of a *~as did also her uncle HAjf MullA 
shepherd driving seven goats, which are devoid of Ta'kf 'the murdered,' who was a learned scholar, and,
rason, before him. A fine and honourable occupation do
e, indeed, in his own opinion, the most learned doctor of his
they assign to their Master! Yet they themselves are til-nel*
entirely unconscious of the evilness of their assertions and
beliefs: and if some poor fellow would explain the true 1 Concerning 
Qurratu - T'Ayn, her father Hdjf Mulli Sdlih,
meaning of such traditions, they dub him an infidel, be- and her ancle 
H6jf Mulli Muhammad Takf (called by the Shi'i'es
cause he interprets the words of the ImAm in a manner Shahid-i- Pidlith ") 
see my Traveller's Narrative, vol. ii, pp. 309

embracing ocean, or as an iiiagigiiificaiit mote beside that
mighty and radiant luminary ; " yet, notwithstanding this,
lie answered, "Though you regard your excellence and
learning as of such small Account in comparison with - that SlifrAzf lad, still, had you been my son
, and had you put forward this
claim, I would have accepted it." . . .
"Wine still is wine, the rose is still the rose,
Where e'er that ripens, and where e'er this grows.
Though from the West its course should be begun
The sun's the sun, and nothing but the sun."
 and~ HAjf Seyyid Kdzim , and in virtue, piety, and learning had no equal.
It was from the late Seyyld' that she received the title of
Kurratu'l-'Ayii. And since lie had, before his death,
gladdened his chosen disciples with tidings of the ap-
proaching manifestation of the promised Proof', therefore
was she also one of those who were anxiously expecting the
appearance of the Truth, and seeking, with prayer and
fasting, knowledge and faith. So, when MullA Huseyn of
Busliraweyh, who was  entitled Jen6b-i-
Bribit'l-Baib, fell to making enquiry, and resolved to set
out froni Nejef the holy to prosecute his search, she wrote
a letter expressing in general terms her devotion to, and
This statement, togother with most of what is here related
concerning J~urratu'l-'Ayli, is taken from F[6jif Mimi Jiiif'a-, his-
tory (Supj?l. Pers. 1071, ff. 107 b I I 0b),
2 See pp. 31-33 supra.
belief in, the subsequent Manifestation. . And when Jendb-
i-Bdbu'1-B6b at length attained to the honour of meeting
His Supreme Holiness, and had recognized his true nature,
he presented her letter, and she became included amongst
the Letters of the Living', and reached the loftiest degree
of truth and knowledge. A little time after this, she
enjoyed opportunities of perusing some of the verses,
exhortations, devotional works, and doctrinal treatises of
His Holiness, by which her conversion was definitely
effected. So steadfast in faith did she become that
[although she was both rich and noble] she disregarded
wealth, child, name, and position for her Master s service,

and set herself to proclaim and establish his doctrine with
clear proofs and demonstrations. So subtilely did she
expound the mysteries of the Divine Unity that even of
the late Seyyid 's disciples, who were the elect of
the age, the most part were unable to follow her thought.
JAfter the death of the late Seyyid, at the time of her
conversion'~ she instituted a course of lectures, in which,
seated behind a curtain, she instructed the *~SheykhfsJ-*.
Her followers submitted themselves to a religious discipline
I Cf. Gobineau, p. 328.
2 In the text, "hargdmi ki musharraf shudd bfid"I literally,
at the tirne when she " [or " he"] " had been honoured. " The
implied pronoun appears to refer to Kurratu'l-'Ayn rather than
to Seyyid K6zini ; and therefore, as she appears never to have
actually met the BAb (cf. Gobineau, p. 310), we must understand
CC mitsharraf " as equivalent to 11 2nusharraf bi-sharaf-i-imdn "'
(11 hoDoured with the dignity of belief "), which is a common ex-
pression among the MusulmAns. With the Bdbfs the word more
often signifies " honoured with an actual interview." Cf. m y
first article oil the B6bfs in the J. R. A. AS. for 1889, P. 519.

so severe that they were brought nigh unto death, while
Iso scrupulous were they thatj for the most part they
would not eat victuals prepared in the bazaars, especially
cooked meats and butcher's, ' meat. Such scrupulousness
and caution on their part soon attracted attention, and
was reported in various shapes to the governor, who deter-
mined to arrest Kurratu'l-'Ayn. She  sent to him the following message :-"I advance
no claim save a claim to learning. Assemble the doctors,
both Sumif and Shi'ite, that we may confer and dispute, so
that the truth and falsity of either side, and the wisdom
and learning of both parties, may be made apparent to all
persons of discernment." Thereupon it. was decided that
she should not leave Kerbeli until a definite reply to this
request should arrive from Baghdad. As, however, this
reply was delayed, she left the town without a passport, in
such wise that none of the gate-keepers or officers appointed
for the supervision of passports saw or stopped her. On
reachino, Baghdad, she proceeded to the house of the chief
Mufti, with whom she held a discussion wherein she
obtained a manifest advantage. ~The PAshA of Baghdad
forwarded to the Sublime Porte a detailed report of her
case, including this discussion, and asked for instructions
as to the course which he should pursue. In reply, there
came an order that she should remain no longer -in 'IrAk
<-i-'Arab--~-, but that  should inake his excuses
to her for sending her back to Persia, and that she should
there abide.1
Accordingly she set out for 'IrAk~-i-'Ajaml. On her
way thither she proclaimed in the clearest and most
explicit manner certain subtle mysteries of the Divine
Unity to which but few ears had been privileged to listen,
and which most of the profoundest philosophers had hesi-
tated to formulate and divulge. 
such as the late Sheykh SAlih the Arab, Sheykh Mihirj
the Preacher, MullA lbrilifin of MahallAt, ~the late Sheykli
SultAn the Arab,j and some others, who were endowed
with the requisite capacity and understanding, compre-
hended these lofty themes; but others, unable to grasp
them, raised objections, and wrote a letter to His Supreme
Holiness complaining of her. To each was returned an
answer - adapted to his capacity and understanding, the
substance of this answer being  that-her
homilies and dissertations on the Divine Unity were
divinely inspired, and that her name should henceforth
be called T614ra'. *TAfter this, those same persons who
had raised objections,j* being made acquainted with. the
inner meaning of her words, began to ask her pardoilgand
to make their excuses.
So that Blessed Leaf' went to KirmAnshAhAii, where

she thoroughly preached the doctrine. Thence she pro-
ceeded to HamadAn- (where also she converted many)
intending to -visit the capital, and to acquaint His late
Majesty Muhammad ShAli with the truth [of the matter].
Her father, however, being made aware of , sent 4nd brought her to Kazvfn, where lie talked
much with her, and, as has been already mentioned, said,
."Any claim which you, with your learning and intelligence,
had put forward I should have accounted worthy of full
acceptance ; but how can I accept the word of this Slifrdzf
* [< So they, >] *
I "The Pure."
2 As the Bib is often styled " The Tree of Truth " (Shajara-i-
tlakikat), so those who believe in him are sometimes called
" Leaves". The title of Waraka-i-'Ulyd ("The Supreme Leaf")
was conferred by Bebi'u'116h on one of his wives. See Traveller',,;
Narrative, vol. ii, p. 361.
N. H.

lad?" To such speeches, however, she refused to listen;
nor, do what they might, would she consent to be recon-
ciled with her husband MullA Muhammad, who was the
son of HAjf Mulli , land was accounted
her cousinj.  she answered, " He, in that he rejects God's religion,
is unclean, while I am I Pure": between us there can be
naught in common Tnor any equality~." So she refused to
be reconciled to her husband.
After this befell the catastrophe of HAjf MullA  Takf's murder. Now the cause of this was that
lin every assembly and gathering~ he was wont to curse
and revile the late Sheykh Ahmad , displaying
herein the most obstinate pertinacity. A certain MÕrzà
Sd,lih, Twho was a native of Slifrdz andl one of the BAb's
followers, formerly devoted to the late Sheykh Ahmad, had
heard lin Kazvfnl that HAjf Mulld [Muhammad] Takf
regarded the late Slieykh as an apostate and a heretic, and
waa-, in the habit of Cursing him-. He therefore waited
upon the HAjf *Jafter the performance of public prayer~,*
and enquired his opinion of Sheykh Ahmad. The HAjf
chlirsed and reviled him Texceedingly~. Thereupon MÕrzà
SAlih (agreeably to the tradition handed down from the
linAms " whosoever curseth our followers liath cursed us,
and whosoever curseth us hath ciirased the Apostle of God,
and whosoever hath curased the Apostle of God is an
infidel") knew him for an evil man and an apostate, and,
in accordance with the tradition above quoted, became
assured of his infidelity, and deemed it incumbent on
himself to slay him. So, without communicating his
*[in the place of prayer]*
1 Tdthira. See the end of the preceding paragraph.
design to anyone, he went by night, and, by the ~ altar' '
inflicted on him several  wounds. And this
thing was the consequence of the HAji's conduct on the
occasion of the BAb's passing through Kazvfn. For His
Holiness, as he passed through 1~azvfn, had, with the
design of proving others and admonishing them by this
transaction, written  to him, saying, "I am
of the offspring of the Prophet; I am wrongfully en-
treated; and I have come to your city. How would it be
if you were to afford me some succour ? " But the Hijf
tore the letter in fragments and made several unseemly
remarks. When'they reported this to His Holiness, lie

said, " Was there no one to smite him on the mouth??'
Wherefore the Lord brought it to pass that he was smitten
in the mouth with a spear-head, that he might no more
speak insolently of the saints of religion2.
Now after the attack on Hiji Mullk Muhammad Takf,
a great disturbalice arose in, Kazvfn. For the people attri-
buted this deed to Jen6b-i-TdItira, and suspected her fol-
lowers, though neither she nor they were privy to it. So
they arrested *[Dearly seventy]* persons, and, though H6jf
' said of each one brought before
him, " It was not he," cast them into prison and tormented
them in divers ways. Amongst others they beat Sheykh
SAlih the Arab with inany stripes, and would have branded
him. TThey also brought Jenaib-i-Tdhira to the govern-
*Ja great number oQ*
Xilirdb, properly the niche or alcove in the mosque which
shews the direction of Mecca.
2 Some verses from the Xasnavi) differently given in and
L., are here omitted.
3 The wounds inflicted on H6ji MullA Muhammad Takf did
not at once prove fatal. According to the Kismm'I-Wla"01 be
8urvived the attempt on his life by several days.

melit house, along with one of her servants, and fell to
tormenting her, thinking that perhaps she might make
some statement; neither would they believe her, though
she declared on oath that she had absolutely no knowledge
of this event. For the heirs of the murdered man, amongst
whom was Jena'b-i-T(iltira's husband Mulli Muhammad,
persisted in affirming that this deed bad been committed
by her followers and with her consent. And she meanwhile
was engaged in tearful and humble prayer to Him who is
the Fulfiller of all needs.~
Suddenly Mf rzA S411h of Slif rAz T, seeing the torments to
which a number of innocent and virtuous persons were
being subjected, could no longer maintain silence, but,
impelled by common fairness and uprightness, devotedlyl
advanced the foot of manful courage, and made full con-
fession, setting forth in detail the motives which had
impelled him to commit the murder, and adding, " I con-
sidered myself obliged by the duty which I owe to Reli-
gion and the Sacred Law to do this deed." In such wise
did lie express himself that  the governor of Kazvfn
applauded his eloquence and boldness. JWhen they re-
proached him, saying, " Why didst thou act thus towards
so learned a divine ? " he replied, " Who, then, was he but
a, I
one who had culled fronhi the garden of Abu Hanffa' a
single nosegay, in virtue of which he claimed to be a learned
divine?" The people were, amazed at the readiness of his
replies ; but the heirs 
and those who were specially prejudiced against Kurratu'l-
'Ayn and the others arrested on this charge, and who bore
them an invincible hatred, not anticipating such truth,
loyalty, fairness, and courage from an assassin, refused to
1 AbA Hanffa, Milik, Shifi'if, and Ibn Hanbal were the
founders of the four orthodox schools or sects of the Sunnites ;
learned theologians, no doubt but of little account in Shilite,
much less in BAbi eyes.
credit this confession, or to pay any heed to it. But the
youth adhered to his statement, and, on their refusing U
believe it, described in detail the manner in which he had
done the deed, adding, " If you desire to verify my state-
ment, go, and take out the spear-head wherewith 1 slew
him from beneath the stool' under which I cast it, that you
may know that my account is a true one." So they went
and took out the spear-head from under the stool, and the
truth of his statement was  conclusively proved.
They therefore cast him into prison and put him in fetters,
and the sons of the murdered Hdjf Mull.4 

Takf went to the prison to vex and revile him. Mirzi
~Alih, losing control of his temper, cried out, " I have sent
him to liell, and I will now send you- after him." Sosaying
lie sprang forward with such energy that he dragged his
chain, wrenched out from the ground the long iron staple
to which it was attached, and hurled it at them with such
Yigour that they fled ill terror in all directions. The long
staple struck the door of his cell and pierced it; whereat
the prison warders were so greatly alarmed that they shut
the door upon him and locked it.
TNotwitlistanding all this' they would not release those
others , but, anxious only to
establish a reputation for filial piety, continued to account
them accomplices and accessories.1 And although -HAjf
< MullA Muhammad Takf >had declared with his dying
breath that he forgave his murderer', *[MullA Muhammad]*
I This word is doubtful. It appears to read &,,S~ to which I
call assign no suitable sense. I therefore, conjecture
2 ie. the confession of Mfrz6 SAlih.
3 HAjf MÕrzà JAnf adds that Mulli Muhammad himself
made this statement.

his son caused *[five]* of the prisoners to be sent in fetters
and chains from Kazvfn to TeherAn in the bitter cold of
the winter season. Amongst these *[five]*, one was an old
man of ailing health ~named HAjf Asadu'IlAh~; whom,
though he was perfectly innocent, and ignorant , they dragged from a bed of
sickness and led away; and who, on reaching Teherdn, ex-
pired Tin prisonI from his illness and the fatigues of the
road. But MÕrzà SAlih, the actual murderer, Twho had
himself confessed, and whom Hdjf MÕrzà AkAsf had con-
signed to the custody of MÕrzà ShafV the S4hib-d,~vdq?.J
escaped from prison by night, Tand, making straight for the
Castle of  Tabarsf, joined himself to the people of
God, amongst whom lie attained to inartyrdom'.I
Those tTthreelt innocent persons remained in prison,
but though the son of HAjf Mulla [Muhammad] Takf made
the most strenuous efforts to obtain from the administrators
of the Sacred Law in TeherAn an order for the execution of
one of the prisoners, he was not successful. Then he accused
the BàbÕs of being this and that; and His Majesty TMu-
hammadI ShAh ordered the learnednzitjtakgidAkA Mahnifid
of TeherAn, -1-Tthe son of AkA Muhammad 'Alf of Kirmin-
shAhAnJ+ to investigate and ascertain their tenets. So
11 [they brought them' before him, and when he had]JI nhiet
*~sixj* t[fourJt  [Ndsirti'd-Dfn]~, 2
,[who was unrivalled in his time]++
See p. 82 supra. That the Sheykh Silih there mentioned
is identical with this Mfrzi SAlih is clearly shewn by Haif
Mfrzi Jinfs account of his death, in which he is described
as "the murderer of HAjf Mulki Mul ' iammad Takf of Kazvfn."
2 This appears to be an anachronism. Haijf Alfrzi Ja'nf only
says "the King."
3 ie., as it would appear, the three remaining prisoners.
I  i
land conversed much with] them* the falsity of Mulli Mu--
hammad's assertions [concerning this sect] becalne evident.
Finally  went before His Majesty the
King, and rent his shirt, and began to weep, saying, "They
have slain HAjf Mulli [Muhammad] Taki, t1and shall no
one's blood be shed  ?It" The King an-
swered, " The murderer, who has himself confessed, has
escaped [from prison]. If thou desirest the lawful applica-
tion of the lex talionis, then no administrator of the Sacred
Law will sentence an innocent man to suffer death instead
of the escaped murderer. But if thou seekest for illegal
retaliation, then why dost thou introduce the name of law?
Go, kill one ." So they took Sheykh Sdlih the
Arab, a godly man, endowed, as was proved in several ways,

with a pure heart', and consummated his martyrdom Jby
blowing him from a gunI.
Then < Mullal Muhammad> prayed that he might be
permitted to take the TtwoJ other prisoners T, one of whom
was Sheykh Tihir of Shirk the preacher, and the other
Mulli IbrAhfm of MahallitJ to Kazvfn, in order that he
might do honour to his father's memory by causing them
to walk round his grave, after which he would let them go.
To this His Majesty the King agreed [,not guessing the
extent of his godlessness and priestly cunning]. So < MulIA
Muhammad> took Itheml I with him to Burka4n, and on
t[how can it be right that his murderer should not
be slain? ] t
[three] t[the three men]t
Haji Mirz6 JAnf says that Sheykh ~dlih was believed
by some (of the Bdbfs) to be (a re-incarnation of) "the Pure
Soul concerning whom see el-Fakhri (ed. Ahl-
wardt), p. 195 et seg.

t e way thither inflicted on them all manner of hurts and
torments. After this lie took them to Kazvfn T. On the
day when lie was taking theml to make them walk round
his father's grave,* he made known Ihiis intentiont to the
whole populace, +[that they might mahe]+ a general attack
[. So, as soon as they brought them
forth to make them walk round the grave, Sheykh TAhir]
and MullA lbrilifm 11[were]ll done to death with a cruelty
surpassing all imagination. ~Sheykh TAhir was bound
to a tree and tortured to death by his assailants, and a
number of the mob brought leaves and set fire to the foot
of the tree.1 And the body of the poor victim was con-
sumed with fire. ~Then they bore both the bodies out of
the city gates and cast them into a hollow, and only after
some days did they allow a grave to be dug in that place
and the corpses to be laid therein.1
So the heirs , being
of a highly-considered family of divines and administrators
of the Sacred Law, and regarding them-selves as the autho-
rized representatives of this Law, and the exponents of
Religion, in retaliation for the death of one person slew
IT[four]T' innocent men who had no complicity in the
ignatter ; although the actual murderer had before his flight
declared that, in accordance with 
+~who made~+
t[and gave his directions]t
[and the other ~risoner]
I C. has "three` here, but, like L., "four" in the next sen-
tence. MÕrzà Asadu'llib, the old ngian who died of cold and ex-
posure, seems to be reckoned as the fourth victingi. I am by no
means certain, however, that there was not another victim
(unnamed), for the higher numbers, which I have relegated
to the foot of the page, are confirnied by Hiji Mifrzi Jim.
his religious obligation, he had on his own account done
this deed without the complicity of any one else. And these
four innocent and unwitting men they slew thus shamefully
and cruelly with the knowledge of His Majesty the King
and all the MusulmAn clergy and laity; nor did one of all
these pious divines and Muslims ask by what religion and
what law such a sentence was ever ordained or sanctioned.
Assuredly from the first creation of the world until now
never in any one of all these different creeds was such a
thing done; [never according to any law, civil or ecclesi-
astical, was such a sentence pronouncedfl and never in any
age has such a deed been heard or seen. Nor is it likely that

such a sentence should be pronounced or such a deed sanc-
tioned in the name of ally religion at any future time, unless
it be by these same occupants of the seat of authority and
 executors of the Holy ImAm  1
To resume. After these events Jen6b-i-Tdkira,.*Eto
escape from the reproaches, rebuffs, suspicions, and unkind
treatment of her relations, set out secretly for TeherAn;
whence, iihiteiiding to preach God's religion, and to join
herself to Hazrat-i-Kudd6s', MullA Huseyn Jenaib-i-Baibu-
'I-Ba'b, and th6 other believers in KhurAsAn, sheJ* pro-
ceeded to KhurAsAn. Near ShAhr-6d' she met Jendb-i-
*[having procured a divorce from her husband Mulli
I About a page of similar diatribe is here omitted.
2 See n. I at the foot of p. 95 supra.
3 Suppl. Pers. 1071, f. 1106. The event described is there
referred to the "third year of the Manifestation", 11 wherein,"
says HAjf MÕrzà JAnf, alluding to a tradition of Kumeyl, "was
revealed the meaning of ;J See Traveller8 Narra-
tive, vol. ii, p. 352, n. 1.

Kuddlis *[and his followers, whose number amounted to
ihree hundred and thirteen men. Hazrat-i-Kttddit,3 became
the Tongue of the Kd'inz, and, ere His Supreme Holiness
had laid claim to this rank, formally announced himself as
the Kd'im, even as tradition runs; and, in brief, spoke that
wor4 which the Kd'im must speak. His followers hesitated
 to admit , having
searched every realm of their being and found no truth but
His Holiness, they listened and confessed'. Then Jen(tb-i-
ra'hira ascended into a pulpit and exhorted the believers',
setting forth the mysteries of the Divine Unity and the
renewal . Thereafter so great a mass of
writings, comprising prayers, homilies, - and doctrinal trea-
JAn account of her subsequent history until the time
when she attained to the rank of martyrdom, to gether with
an appendix containing some of her exhortations, prayers,
1 These two sentences are so ambiguous, especially as regards
the proiiotinas, that I give them in the original:-
-u.%z  ~Lj
X;jL ~)Lj,
AL _,6..*1
It is abundantly clear from Hiif Mimi Jinf's history that
ga~rat-i-Kudd6s- advanced the most extravagant claims, and
that many of the BAbis were disposed to regard him as superior
to the BAb. He not only declared himself to be Christ come
back to earth, but even went so far as to say, " It'hosoever hatA
known vie is become a polytheist, and whosoever hath not known
me is become an igIfidel, and whosoever asketh 'why,'or 'wherefore,'
02, 1 how' concerning me is become a reprobate.
2 Cf. Gobineau, pp. 181-4.
tises, emanated from that much-wronged woman that h the
eye of time has never beheld anything like it. Thus, for
instance, Mulli 'Abdu'l-'Alf and MuRb, Jawid of the
Sheykhf sect addressed certain questions to His Supreme
Holiness (the soul of the world be his sacrifice !). He
replied to them; but they, not understanding ,
made objections. Jenaib-i-Tdhira, being apprized of this,
wrote two or three thousand verses to confute their objec-
tions and to establish the thesis of His Supreme Holiness.
This she did in such wise as to fill all persons of learning
with wonder and astonishment at her scholarship, for she
proved the utterances of His Holiness in every point by
verses from the Kur'.An and traditions of the ImAms.
On the dispersal of  Badasht, she was
taken prisoner and conveyed to TeherAn'. For some while
she was in the house of Mahmhd Khin the Kaldntar',
where she exhorted and counselled the women of the house-

hold', till one day she went to the bath, whence she
returned arrayed in white garments, saying, "Tomorrow-
they will kill me." Next day the executioner came -and
and teachings, will be written in another place; so that
the extent of her virtue, chastity, godliness, and purity, as
well as the services which she rendered to the Desired
Appearance [ Tal'at-i-Maksikd, i.e. BehAV114h], (who, . at
that time hi~den behind' *a veil, was -:~ Only> known as
1 It was) apparently, only after the fall of Sheykh Tabaraf
that she was given up to the authorities by the people of Nfir '
where she (together with Subh-i-Ezel, as HAjf Mimi JAni states in
his history) had taken refuge. Cf. Traveller's Narrative, vol. ii,
pp. 312-3. It is worth noting that HAjf MÕrzà JAnf calls her
"the Mother of the World" (,<1 pt. C-A).
2 See Gobineau, pp. 292-5.
3 See my Travelle?s Narrative, vol. ii, p. 31.

took her to the NigAristin'. As she would not suffer
them to remove the veil from her face (though they repeat-
edly sought to do so), they applied the bow-string over her
veil, and thus compassed her martyrdom. Then they east
her holy body into a well in the garden'. Her words shall
be recorded in another place, so that the extent of her
virtue, chastity, godliness, and purity may becoiihie known
to all persons of discernment.]* Forlierutteranceseonclu-
sively prove that she was divinely inspired and fortified,
such eloquence and grace of speech [~igtid such comprehensive
knowledge] being unattainable and inconceivable [even for
men]. We must, however, return to our previous topic,
lest the thread of our proper narrative be unduly pr o-
After His Holiness the Priiigial Point (the souls of all
beside him be his sacrifice !) had arrived at the Castle of
Cliihrik and dwelt there for some time, HAjf Mfrzi ~kisf
wrote to Hiaas Majesty NAsiru'd-Dfn ShAh, who was, at that
time Crown-Prince and Governor of AzarbaijAn, directing
him to summon that Sun of the Heaven of Truth to Tabriz,
convene an assembly of the clergy there, dispute witli him,
and determine the validity or falsity of his claim. But
 real object was not to ascertain the
truth or sift the matter, [else lie would have suigiiiiioiiecl
 to TelierAii and caused him to be examined in
Jenaib-i-Veluii) and the wisdom and excellence whereunto
by his help she attained, may become kDOW11 to all persoiia3
of discernment.J*
I A p--llace in Teheran built by Fath-'All Shih. It derives
its name from the pictures and portraits wherewith the walls of
several of its rooms are ornameDted, and is situated in the north-
ern quarter of the city, not very far from the English Embassy.
2 Cf. my Traveller's J'arrative, vol. ii, pp. 313-4.
his own presence]. For he was certainly well aware that
the clergy would never relinquish their material authority;
that their overweening arrogance and clerical Pride would
never suffer them to acknowledge the truth of the Bib's
claim or the reality of his mission; and that it was im-
possible for them  to abandon their mastery
and to adopt an attitude of submission and obedience,
more especially since he had heard how most of them
regarded  ,is a madihnan. For some of them
declared that his brain was disordered, and that his writings
consisted of 'fables of t7te ancients" set forth in incoherent
words;* while others asserted that His Holiness did not
really claim to be the Bib, but that MullA Uuseyn of
Busliraweyh, a man of unrivalled scholarship and virtue,
was the actual claimant, and that all these teachings and
writings emanated from him'.

So they summoned His Holiness to Tabrfz', and con-
vened an assembly , which was attended-by
MU114 Muhammad MAmaghAiif, HAjf MuIIA MahmAd Mulld-
baisU, a number of divines of the Sheykhf party, and a few
state functionaries. They  eignT, znou6ullu
verses, while the Bib had produced more than a million,
 the branches exceeded the
root.] *
i Kurla'n, vi, 25 ; viii, 31 &C.
lz~ J611i also refers to these opinions. Cf. Mfrzi
Kazern-Beg, ii, p. 39 4; and ihiiy T?-aVelle2"3 ATarrative, vol. ii, p- 230.
3 He was lodged, as 1-16jf MJrzA Jinf adds, in the house
of AlirzA Ahmad the imagn-Jumla.

entered the assembly with a calm and dignified mien, being
freshly come from the bath, perfumed with scent, his hands
passed through the sleeves ~of his cloak~', a staff in his
hand, and his tongue engaged in commemorating the Divine
Friend.  he saluted , who
returned his salutation, but did not indicate a place for him
to sit, they themselves having  occupied the
places of honour. His Holiness remained standing for
about a minute, and then silently sat down in the lowest
place of the assembly without uttering a word. Then
Mulli Muhammad said, " Sir Seyyid, certain writings are
in men's hands which are currently attributed to you.
We for our part do not believe or credit this. Is it so or
not?" This he said anticipating a denial; but His Holi-
ness answered, " Yes, those writings are the words of God
emanating from my pen." " We have heard," continued
they, "that you claim to be the Bib." " Yes," replied lie.
" N"at," demanded MullA Muhammad with a scornful
smile, " does 'Ba'b' mean?" " The same," answered His
Holiness, " as in the holy saying , 'I am
the City of Knowledge, and 'Ali is its Gate'."' " On what
night," continued the other ' " wert thou thus favoured',
and who assigned this name to thee? " His Holiness
answered, " I am He whose advent ye have been expecting
for one thousand two hundred Tand sixty~ years, and whom
1 The concealment of the hands in the sleeves is a mark of
humility, and a tacit confession of inferiority and subserviency,
unsuitable to the rank of a messenger of God, even in the presence
of princes.
2 HAji Mfrzi Janf reports a much fuller dissertation on
the title BA which the compiler of the New History has
3 In the original
4 Hijf Mfrzi JAnf has "for one thousand years," which
ye now deny." They said, " We are expecting Him who is
to arise of the kindred of Muhammad, to wit, Muhammad
ibnu'l-Hasan, whose mother is Narjis KhAtfin, and who is
of the Arabs ; thy birthplace is FArs, thou art of the Per-
sians, and thy father and mother, too, are known'." "'By
just such nominal considerations was it," he replied, " that
all  peoples were veiled from knowledge of the
prophet of their time ; you too are veiled, else I am indeed
He." " Whence," asked they, " shall we recognize you? "
He answered, " By the evidence of the verses ."
Then said one of those present", "Repeat some verses
concerning thy staff." He began to do so, but another
interrupted him, saying, "We do not understand the

verses." " How then," asked His Holiness, ic can you
understand the proof of the Kur'àn ? " " I too," remarked
an officer' -, " can reveal verses"; and
forthwith-he began to repeat a string of incoherent -words.-
In short from the first those who composed the assembly
had no other design than to mock and to cavil, wherefore
each strove to excel his fellows in displaying in the clearest
manner his s6lf-conceit. One asked about the rule in cases
of doubt between two and three  3;
is a much better reading, since the Shilites could not begin
to expect the return of the Twelfth ImAm till after his Occul-
tation. Cf. Traveller's Narrative, vol. ii, p. 297 and foot-note.
I i.e. " there is no mystery about your birth and parentage."
.The Imdm Mahdf, it must be remembered, is believed by the
Shi'ites never to have died, but to be hidden in one or other
of the fabulous cities JAbulk6 and JAbulsA. See Traveller's
Yarrative, vol. ii, pp. 296-301.
2Amfr AslAn Kh6n, the maternal uncle of the Crown-Princey
according to Hijf Mirzh JAnf.
. 3 See my Traveller's Narrative, vol. ii, p. 285, and n. I thereon.

another called for the conjugation of the verbs kalla and
dahra a; and, in brief, one and all fell to asking
j  the most
senseless and impertinent questions. When His Holiness
perceived this, and saw that from the first all were unani-
mous in adopting a tone of mocking raillery, he ceased to
concern himself about answering any of them, and, with
dignified anger, left the assembly.
All discerning and unprejudiced persons will perceive
that such behaviour and such style of controversy are not
those adopted by earnest enquirers after truth, and that all
who seek to determine the truth or falsehood of any question
ought wholly to lay aside all prejudices and preconceived
notions, and to observe the utmost fairness and courtesy in
discussion. Their questions and answers should be entirely
free from contentiousness and mockery; for, if so much aas,
a suspicion of fanaticism or prejudice be observable in their
actions or words, firstly the question will not be  deterillined; and secondly they caDnot be called
true and impartial enquirers, and consequently their con-
clusions, whether they be in the affirmative or the negative,
will not merit the slightest attention or consideration. It
is clear, at all events, that those 'enquirers' who composed
this li-onourable assembly, and who pretended to be ex-
pecting the advent of the promised Proof, made manifest
the utter falsity of their pretensions -at the very outset of
the discussion. For, if they were really in expectation of'
this advent, they should have been ever on the watch to
see from what region of the world a voice would arise; and
when, after one thousand two hundred and sixty years,
they heard that one had arisen boldly and unwaveringly
proclaiming to all peoples that lie was the promised Mani-
' HAji Mfrzi JAnf adds that the Crown-Prince, whom he dubs
((a young wretch" rolled a globe towards the Ba'b,
bidding him explain the structure of the earth.
fe,station, such condition of expectancy demanded that they
should gladly and thankfully hasten to meet him, post--
poning all private affairs, and earnestly hoping that his
claim might prove to be true. And, a meeting being
secured, they should have carefully observed the rules
dictated by courtesy and respect; should, when engaged in
discussion, have avoided all contentious disputation; and
should have laid aside all selfish intereast and foolish
prejudices, the better to understand the matter. But
these persons acted in a manner exactly contrary to this,
their whole behaviour being prompted by self-conceit, based
oil self-interest, and opposed to equity and fairness. For,
on  the Amzr_i-Kabi'r, notwithstanding that he had
witnessed the disgrace, abasement, and humiliation of Hijf
Mimi AkAsf, failed to apprehend the true cause and reason
thereof, and fell upon the BIbfs in like manner, till he too

fell. Neither did the True Avenger long delay His ven-
geance.  reaped
the fruits of what he had sown, and received the recom-
pense of his actions; for never will good fall to the lot of
the evil-doer, nor will he who sows barley gather wheat.
He desired [according to his vain thought and fancy]
to quench God's light; but God made manifest His light
and proclaimed His Manifestation, while he was numbered
amongst the losers.,
~To be brief, when the reduction of Zanj.An bad been
effected', after the custom of these MusulmAns, by false
oaths sworil'on the Kur'àn (as had been done in MAzan-
darin and Nfrfz also)  the Avzi'r4-
Kabz'r, exasperated at the loss of so many distinguished
officers and such vast numbers of soldiers, one day ad-
((Went to hell" is Hiji MÕrzà Jini's expression. ' He adds
that, shortly before Muhammad ShAh's death, Prince Mabdf-
Kulf MÕrzà dreamt that he saw the Bib shoot the King in full
audience. t, ~
2 The celebrated shrine and city of refuge situated about a
league and a half to the south of TeherAn.
3 This is an evident anachronism, for the Bib was put to
death during the progress of the Zanjiii siege. Cf. p. 156 supra.

dressed His - Majesty the King as follows :-"Although,
agreeably to the tradition ' The just to God, and the
unjust to me,' it appears an unseemly and unblessed, if not
an unlawful, act to kill this, Seyyid (so conspicuous for his
singular sobriety, holiness, godliness of character, patience,
dignity, learning, and meekness) who advances this claim,
even though all the clergy were unanimous in pronouncing
sentence of death against him, yet what can I do ? For it
is as clear to Your Majesty as it is to myself that the
cause of these insurrections, disorders, and bloody wars in
ZanjAii, MAzandarAn, Nfriz, and other places is this sect
and that all of them are actuated in what they do by their
unbounded devotion to this Seyyid, who advances so high
a claim, and in whom such strange powers and faculties
are witnessed. So long as he is alive, even though he be a
prisoner, his followers and admirers, whether of the clergy
or the laity, will never rest, but will continually rear up
the standards of insurrection ; and t fear that this may
gradually culminate in a general revolution and the over-
throw of the present dynasty. Wherefore, if you desire the
tranquillity of your realms and the security of the State,
there is nothing for it but that you should give ine your
consent and permission to strike at the root of the evil.
You saw with what trouble to ourselves, what loss to the
state, the country, and the people, and what sacrifice of
officers and men, we succeeded at ZanjAn in subduing a
handful of peasants and artisans led by one of the clergy
who had believed in the claim advanced by this person."'
JHis Majesty the King, being accustomed to confide all
a,ffairs of state and all measures designed to secure the
honour of the Crown and the tranquillity and order of the
I It need hardly be said that no trace of this extreme
improbable speech occurs in HaJ'f Mfrz6 Jainf.
realm to the absolute discretion of the miniaster~ ~ in c- whose
asounddess of judgement, sagacity, wisdom' - and loyalty
he had implicit confidence, necessarily heard these repre-
sentations in silence, acquiesced in the Ami'r's views, - and
gave him full authority to act in this matter in whatever
way might seem to him best.1,
So < MÕrzà Taki KhAn > despatched a special messenger
from the capital, and, according to one account, wrote to
Prince Hamzd Mirzi instructing him to summon the BAb
from Chilirik to Tabrfz, and ~, after making plain his
heresy to the people,~ to put him to death ~by warrant of
the clergyl. So they brought that promised Proof to
~According to the account of a certain mail of position

and probity who was the confidential attendant of Prince
Hamzd MÕrzà (which account he had froin the Prince's own
illouth, and which is further corroborated by the narrative
of an honoured initiate' who was in the Prince's service- at
Tabrfz and was actually present at the examination, and
into whose hands the Prince entrusted the blessed writings
and autograph letters of His Holiness, which writings ~ I,
the reviser of this history, Nabil, a native of 'A'Ifil', have
This passage, entirely omitted in L.) I have somewhat
2 In the original, jj~- which expression, as I
have little doubt, signifies that the narrator in question Nvas." a
3 As Nabil is a fictitious substitute -for ffuhanimad (with
which its numerical value, according to the abjad notation, is
identical), so 'Alin may very probably be a fictitious substitute
for the name of some town or village numerically equivalent to
it. The celebrated Nabfl (cf. p. 131 su
,pra) was of Zarind (=261),
but this does not give the same numerical value as 'Alin (= 161).
The words of the text are :-,~Ir- Jal Jy., 1~jt SP.4- ox, &1.2.

seen in his possession), what took place was as follows.
"When the BAb was come to Tabrf z, one night, to satisfy
our curiosity as to his character and demeanour, we as-
sembled in a room well-lighted with laraps, and summoned
him to attend. On his entry, I observed towards him so
much respect as to advance some distance down the room
to meet him, although the messenger from TeherAn had
brought him thither in disrespectful fashion, to wit without
turban or coat, and clad only in his under-coat. I seated
him on the dais, which was the place of honour, opposite
to myself; while his aiiialihlienaiis AkA Seyyid Huseyn, who
was suffered to remain in atteiidaDce on him as his single
confidential friend, sat between us. I then demanded of
him, 'Sir, what doings are these which you have brought
about in the world, causing all this trouble and the shedding
of the blood of God's servants ? ' ' What,' said he, 'have I
done, save that I am wrongfully a prisoner and in bonds?
I am not responsible for the deeds of others no bearei-
sli(htll bear tke bitrden of another 2.1~ 7 T heii I said, 'Very
well; but what do you teach and what do you intend ?
After all, these people claim connection with you, and it is
for love of you that they have adopted this attitude.' He
replied, 'I have done nothing and said nothing save that I
have declared, as I do still declare, that I am that promised
deliverer for whom ye have waited one - thousand two
hundred and sixty years, to wit the "Finz. ' 'Very good,
Sir,' answered 1, 'but your bare assertion is not sufficient :
by what proof, warrant, or sign can you make good this
claim ? ' ' By the same proof and sign,' replied he, 'to
which the Prophet of God appealed, namely my verses and
In the original, arklidlik, a garment shaped like the kabd
(coat) and worn beneath it. Cf. n. 2 on p. 201 supra, and
p. 299 infra.
2 Kur'àn, Xvii, 16, &c.
i  I
writings, which are in the liaiidag of all.' 'Good;' said 1,
C repeat and make known to me some of those, verses.' As,
however, I was inwardly somewhat apprehensive that lie
.might repeat verseas appropriate to the topics under dis-
cussion which he had previously composed and committed
to inemory, and that so the matter might remain doubtful,
I added a request that he would repeat verses bearing
reference to the lamps and illumination of the roolhn. He
was silent for a while; 'then, assuming an attitude at once
dignified and respectful, he pronounced the 'Bismi'lldh,'
opened the Siira, and, in a sweet and melodious voice,
began to recite, and continued without pause or hesitation

for about an hour, when he ceased. Now I had previously
instructed my secretary who was present to provide himself
with blank paper, and rapidly to take down in writing all
that he said. Of this task the secretary acquitted himself
precisely as I had desired.  were verses in the style of
the Chqpte~- of Light' containing allusions to light, lamps,
sconces, globes, lanterns, and crystal, and embodying the
views which lip held concerning the Unity of God, saint-
ship, and the ' Manifestation ' < set forth > in such wise that
astonishment overcame me and 1 could find no ground for
objection. But again I -doubted, aand another test occurred
to me. I said to him, 'I desire you to repeat again what
you have just now recited.' Again he was silent for a
while; then, pronouncing the  'Bism~116h,'he
proceeded with the repetition of the verses. Once more I
made a sign to the secretary to take down in writing what
was uttered, until the B4b again paused and was silent.
Then I asked for this copy, and, on comparing it with the
first, perceived that the latter verses were not identical
&ra-i-NAr, the twenty-fourth chapter of the Ku?An.

with the earlier ones. . . I said, 'Sir, I asked you to repeat
what you recited before, and this is not identical with that,
but differs from it.' He  replied, 'Thus was it
~" Now since this plan and idea of mine had 1-nis-
carried, I  began to doubt; so, not being clear
as to how I ought to act, I said to the Bib, 'Go now to
your lodging, and rest.' Thereupon lie got up, and again I
accompanied him as far as the door of the room.
Next morning I said to the delegate , I will in no wise meddle further in this affair;
it is for you to decide ; act as you think best, and in
-accordance with the instructions which you have received,
and apply to the clergy in this matter.' So the delegate,
with a great throng and crowd of people, dragged the Bib,
with every circumstance of indignity, to the houases of two
or three well-known members of the clergy. These reviled
him; but to all who questioned him he declared-, without
any attempt at denial, that he was the Kti'im. At length
Mulld Muhammad Mdmaglidnf, one of the Sheykhf party,
and -sundry others, assembled together in the porch of
a house belonging to one of their number, questioned him
fiercely and insultingly, and, when he had answered them,
explicitly condemned him to deatli."J'
Subh-i-Ezel admitted that the verses were given differently
on the second recital; "for, said he, "they flowed forth ever
fresh, like the water from a fountain frongi which the same jet
cannot issue twice."
2 The whole of this narrative, which appears to have been
added to the original text by its reviser Nab4l, is lacking in L.
I am not sure whether the last three sentences really form part
of Prince Hamz6 MÕrzà's account of this transaction, but have
thought it best on the whole to include them in the inverted
So they imprisoned him who was athirst for the draught
Of martyrdonil for three days, along with A'kA Seyyid
Huseyn , the amanuensis, and AkA Seyyid
ftasan, which twain were brothers, wont to pass*their time
for the most part in the Bib's presence.
Now befon- w~. I-]-
even e Bib had, to complete th
proof, sent to the clergy of Tabriz by means of Aki S yyi
1 e "'), Mirzd Muhani
Ahmad of Tabr'z (known as " the Scrib is
mad 'Ali of Tabriz, and two other persona3, sundry epi* tles
containing exhortations, admonitions, and declarations ol

his truth. When these epistles were presented, one of the
clergy had wished to express his contempt and scorn for
the blessed writirig. These forerunners of the field of
courage advanced the foot of fortitude to prevent this, and,
their dispute ending in strife, were incarcerated in the
prison of His Highness Prince Hainzd MÕrzà. There, as is
currently reported, two of them would seem to have been
poisoned, though according to another account the Prince
released them without the cognizance of the clergy. But
Mfrzi Muhammad 'Alf remained in the prison till such
time as His Supreme Holiness was brought thither, and
there enjoyed the honour of meeting him.
On the night before the day whereon was consummated
the martyrdom of that Gem of created essences') lie said to
1 ie. the Bib. This passage will be found translated at pp.
319-321of vol. ii of my Traveller's Aarrative.  h I .
2 In the footnote on p. 320 of nhiy Travellers Xarrative
I have suggested that this title of I the scribe' is here wrongly
~gipplied to Aki Seyyid Ahmad of Tabriz, whom the author
may have confounded with Mulli 'Abdu'l-Karfm of Ka7vfn,
known amongst the Bibfs as " Mfrzi Ahrnad-i-lfdtib". HAjf
Mfrz,i JiDf, however, agrees with the lVtrikh-i-Jadid, for be
speaks of  -j< tjg.,,u a-f- is-~ " a.,
3 ie. the ~hb.
r, U

his companions, " Tomorrow they will slay me shamefully
land with boundless indignityl. Let one of you now arise
and kill me, that I may not have to endure this ignoMin3r
and sharne from  enemies; for it is Ifarl pleasanter
to me to die by the hands of friends than of foes." His
companions, with expressions of grief and sorrow, sought to
excuse themselves, with the exception of MÕrzà Muhammad
'Alf, who at once made as though he would obey the
command. His comrades, however, anxiously seized his
hand, crying, "Such rash presumption ill accords with an
attitude of devoted service 1 " " This act of mine," replied
he, " is not prompted by presumption, but by unstinted
obedience, and desire to fulfil  behest.
['If the grace of the Beloved doonis his lovers
To hell, I' were a craven if my eyes
Should so much as turn towards the stream of Kawtbar,
Or the gardens and delights of Paradise.]
After giving- effect to the command of His H oliness, I
will assuredly pour forth my life also at his feet." *His
Holiness t smiled , and, applauding hias faith-
ful devotion and sincere belief, said, "Tomorrow, when
you are questioned, repudiate  and renounce , for thus is the command of God now laid upon
you, especially on AkA Seyyid Huseyn, in whose keeping
are the gems of wisdom', which lie must convey to God's
people, and to such as seek after the way of true guidance."
The  companions agreed , with the excep-
tion of Mfrzd Muhammad 'Alf, who fell at the feet of His
Holiness and began to entreat and implore, thus praying
*[Ilow the disciples, especially Akeit Se~yyid flUseyn and
A~d Seyyid Hasan, were bidden to deny tkeirf2th]*
f [after  this action of MÕrzà Muhammad 'Alijt
I i.e. the Bib's last words and instructions.
with utmost self-abasement :-"Debar not this thy faithful
servant from the blessing of thy presence, and graciously
accord permission to me, who am but an insignificant mote
or a handful of dust, to lay down my life ." So earnestly did he urge his entreaties that His
Holiness, though  he strove to dissuade him,
at length graciously acceded .
Now when a little while had elapsed after the rising of
the sun, they brought them, without cloak or coat, and
clad only in their under-coats and nigbt-caps', to the
Government House, where they were sentenced to be shot.
AkA Seyyid Huseyn the amanuensis, and his brother Ak6
Seyyid Hasan, recanted, as they had been bidden-to do,

and were set at liberty; and AkA Seyyid Huseyn bestowed
the gems of wisdom treasured in his bosom'upon such
as s
a ought for and were worthy of them, and, agreeably
to his instructions, communicated certain secrets of the
faith to those for whom they were intended.. He  attained to the rank of martyrdom in the Catas-
trophe of Teherdn'.
But since MÕrzà Muhammad 'Alf, athirst for the draught
of martyrdom, declared  in the most explicit
manner, they dragged him along with that  Point
of the Universal Circle to the barracks situated by -the
citadel', and, oppoa,,ite to the cells on one side of the
Cf. n. 2 on p. 201-3upra. The night-cap (shab-kuldh), which
is of such shape and size as to adapt itself closely to the head,
is often worn by itself in the house, even during the day-
time, the turban, which at other times is wound round it, beino,
laid aside.
2 Here ends the portion of this account translated at pp. 319
-321 of vol. ii of my gtravellei,'s Narrative.
3 1 visited the citadel (arg) of Tabriz on November 4tb, 1887.
It is of great height, and formerly criminals condemned to death
used sometimes to be thrown from the summit into the moat

barrack, suspended  from  lie might renounce his
faith.  lie  said,
Ilegone, and bait your snares for other quarry ;
The 'Ankd's2 nest is hard to reach and high."1]3
below. The building appears to have been originally a mosque,
and the spacious vzilirdb is still visible in the wall facing the
barrack-square. On the left of one entering this square is the
staircase which leads to the summit of the citadel, while on the
right are the barracks and store-roonis (ankir), which were pro-
bably originally designed for a college.
I Three more lines are emitted.
2 A mythical bird similar to the plicenix.
3 C. omits this touching incident, which, however, is men-
tioned by Gobineau. (p. 269), though not by HaJf Mfrza' Jini.
301 -
. So they shot him in the presence of his master', and laid
his faithful and upright form in the dust, while his pure'
and victorious spirit, freed from the prison of earth and the
cage of the body, soared to the branches of the 'Lote-tree
. 21
beyond wkich there is no passing , and there rested with
the Beloved. *~Thus did lie attain to peace after travail,
and enjoy the fruits of his heroism.
*TSays the reviser':-Proof of the devotion and stead-
fastness of this noble man (upon whom be the splendour of

God' and His approbation) is afforded by a letter in~ his
own blessed writing which was in the possession of, his
brother Mulli 'Abdu'llih, who still lives in Tabriz. - :This
It is clear from this,- as well as frongi HAjf Mfrza' JAnf's
account, that the first volley of the firing-party was aimed
at Mfrz' Muhammad 'Alf alone, and not, as Gobineaug(p. 270)
and the Traveller's Yarrative (Vol. i, pp. 55-56; Vol. ii,'
pp. 43-44) imply, at the BAb also. Three volleys were fired
in all (as appears from SuleyrnAn KhAn's narrative on p.~ 310
infra), but only two at the Bib. Hence the erroneous state-
ment (opposed to HAjf MÕrzà JAnf's accou ' nt) on pp. 306~7
infra that the Bib twice escaped the shower of bullets.
2 Kur'àn, iiii, 14. Ha'j*i Mfrzh Jinf adds that the Bib, as the
body of his disciple fell bleeding, at his feet, smiled, and said,
"Then shalt be with me in Paradise" a;C j 1  :41
Traveller's Narrative, Vol. ii, p. 322.  -~b
3 The reviser who supplies us with this interesting addition
to the original history may not iniprobablyg be in -this case also
Nabil. See pp. 131 and 293 supra.
4 This forniula-"aleyhi behd'u'lldh'-was and is the common
form of benediction amongst the BàbÕs for absent or deceased
believers. I am not certain, however, whether it is still used by
the Ezelfs, who, though they declare that the title Beltd,'u'lld/i,
originally belonged to Mfrzi Yahvi Subh-i-Ezel (see my Travel-
lei-Is Yarrative, p. 353), cannot but associate it now with his
great rival MirzA 1juseyn 'Alf.

letter he wrote from the prison three days or two days
before his martyrdom in reply to his brother, who had
written to him counselling him to turn aside from his
devotion and thraldom; and therein he makes his apology.
And since the martyr was the younger , therefore he adopts a respectful tone in his letter.
The text of this letter of reply is as follows :-1
" He is the Compassionate.
0 my _~Cibla' I
Thanks be to God, I have no fault to find with my
circumstances, and 'to every travail rest succeeds.' As to
what you wrote, that this matter hath no end, what matter,
then, hath an end? We, at least, have no discontent
therein ; being, indeed, unable sufficiently to express our
gratitude for this blessing. At most we can but be slain
for God's sake, and 0, what happiness were this! The
Lord's will must be accomplished on His servants, neither
can prudence avert predestined fate. What God wills
: there is no strength save in God.
T" 0 my Kibla ! The end of  the world
is death: 'every soul shall taste of death'.' If the, ap-
pointed destiny which the Lord (mighty and glorious is
He) hath decreed should overtake me, then God is the
guardian of my family, and thou art. my trustee; act in
such wise as accords with God's good pleasure. Forgive
any failure in the respect or duty owed to an elder brother
I Both the text and translation of this letter I published in
the Octoter number of the J. R. A. S. for 1889. The former will
be found at p. 938, the latter at p. 992.
2 Kibla, the point towards which one turns to pray. tUbla-
gdlb (1~ibla-place) is a formula often used in letters in addressing
elder relatives.
3 Kur'àn, iii, 182 ; xxi, 36; xxix, 57.
of which I may have been guilty, seek pardon for me from
all those of my household, and commend me to God. God
is my portion, and how good is He as a guardian!"
TIf anyone will rightly consider the contents and pur-
port of this letter, he will not fail to appreciate the nobility
of the writer's character, and the true sublimity of his
Now after this, when they had suspended His Holiness
, the ShakAkf regiment received orders to
fire, and discharged their pieces in a single volley., -But of
all the shots fired  two bullets
<, Which respectively> struck the two ropes by which
His Holiness was suspended on either side, and severed
them. The BAb fell to the ground Tand took refuge in the
- roomll. As soon as the smoke and dust of the

powder had somewhat cleared, the spectators  did not find, that Jesus of the age on the -cross.
. *[Suspension of the Blessed Appearance.]*'
I The barracks in the citadel at Tabrfz, like all similar build-
ings in Persi~, consist of a series of rooms or cells (4ujra), exactly
like those in a caravansaray, opening by a single door on to the
platform (sakft) which fronts the building. From the description
of the execution here given, it appears that the Bib and his com-
panion were suspended by double ropes (attached, probably, to
either arm) from the parapet or rain-gutter running along the
face of the building over these doors. When, therefore, the Bkb
was thus unexpectedly released by the breaking of the ropes, he
would naturally fall on the stone platform on which the cells
opegn, and a few steps at most would enable him to reach one
of them.
2 By "the Blessed Appearance" (Tal'at-i-Hubdrak) the Bib
is meant. So Behd'u'llih is called Tal'at-i-Abhd. Cf n. I on
p. 139, and n. 2 on p. 247, supra.

 a great clainour brake forth amongst them.
Some said, "He has disappeared!" Others, "Ile haas
gone up to heaven ! " Search being made, they  perceived him in the cell [writing this verse on
the wall with a fragment of charcoal
I bid thee not be moth or salamander,
But, an thou 'rt beDt on burning, be a man
Such, however, was their heedless presumption and
folly that they did not so much a-, perceive *[that no sign
or marvel could be imagined transcending this]* that of all
those bullets not one a-,hould touch the ~blessedj body of
His Ifoliness, but that they should  strike those
slender cords. tJGod was pleased  to manifest
HisIt sovereign power to those foolish men. TFor if His
will and purpose ordain not martyrdom and affliction for
His saints and for such as manifest His Spirit, to prove the
hard-heartedness, sinfulness, obduracy, and rebelliousness
of the wicked, or the patience and meel~nesa-, of just and
aintly men and their resignation to whatsoever the Pen of
Destiihly may award; if  the purpose of man-
kind accord and agree not with  sovereign will
and supreme pleasure, thoughl all the inhabitants of earth
should set themselves to contend and oppose, their carefully-
planned shots and well-aimed darts will every one fall wide
. ~For it is evident that those who fired
the first volley at the Blessed Figure  pur-
*Twhat was the reason and wherefore it wasJ*
t[His Holiness, by this display of might and control,
desired to manifest hisIt
[ "If we submit and consent not,
nor acquiesce in the Divine ruling, yo can of your own will
effect naught - " for though],
,+[Even so twelve thousand arrows were fired siniul-
taneously at  the Chief of Martyrs, of
posed naught else than to effect his martyrdom,~ but that
time he did not endorse their purpose, and did not, as on
the second occasion, will what they willed. 
for the shewing forth of his power, the accomplishing of
his will, the perfecting of his grace, and the fulfilling of his
proof, to confirm his servants and to corroborate the truth
of His' word-'But ye shall not will, unless God willeth,'
and His word-' Tliou willest, and I will; but there shall
not come to pass save that whick I will'.' But on the
second occasion, when all these results were accomplished,
in accordance with  ' We will cause him to
obtain that to which he is inclhzed',' < Divine > Grace con-
strained him to endorse and give effect to the choice of
which not -:~ even > one touched his blessed form, because

on -that occasion he was pleased to exert his  power. But when he rea-,igned himself , Harmala' took aim, at his fore-
head, and his shot missed not its mark; and this- thing was
a proof of < ImAm Huseyn's >- perfect service < to God >, not
I ie. God's word (1~ur'An, lxxvi, 30). It is impossible to de-
termine at what previous point the pronouns cease to refer to the
Bdb and begin to refer to God. But after all, since the B6.b
is regarded as a I Manifestation' of the Divine Essence, the ques-
tion would to a B6bf be of trivial import.
2 1 cannot find in the Kur'àn such words as these.
3 Kur'dn, iv. 115.
4 Harmala b. el-KAhin. In none of the histories or Shilite
martyrologies which I have consulted do I find this man credited
with a direct share in the death of Huseyn. He it was, however,'
who shot Huseyn's little nephew 'ibdu'llAh b. el-Hasan (Tabarl,
series ii, vol. i, p. 387, 11. 8-9), also called 'Alf As har, the cir-
cumstances of whose death are detailed in the Rawzatu's-Shuhadd,
and in Ockley's Histw~y of the Saracens, vol. ii, p. 175. Hijf
MÕrzà Jinf makes a more correct allusion to the incident in a
different connection.
N. H.

 his servants. The Will of God
accepted what they willed and do will, and that happened
which happened. But men, in their exceeding folly and
blind heedlessness, did not then apprehend this point,
andl-I were not warned, and did not recognize  that a bullet struck and severed that slender
rope,  how it could be, and what might be the
reason, that, notwithstanding its proximity to all those
bullets, that Blessed Figure was not struck by one. So,
notwithstanding this , they again sus-
pended His Holiness, and gave orders to fire another volley.
The MusulmAn soldiers, however, made their excuses and
refused. Thereupon a Christian regiment' was ordered to
fire the volley, and  they were obliged to
comply. According to the account written by the late
Haijf MirzA JA-nf, on this second occasion also no hurt
accrued to the Blessed Figure of His Holiness'; but at the
of his powerlessness . But those men,
by reason of their exceeding folly, did not at that time
recognize so signal a manifestation of power just as in this
time also they]++
Cf. Gobineau, 1). 270, and the Traveller's .11-arrative, vol. j,
pp. 55-57, and vol. ii, pp. 43-45. HAjf Mfrzi Jdnf confirms
this detail.
2 This is incorrect, for Ha'jf Mimi Ja'nf says that the second
volley proved fatal to the B6b. His words are as follows :-
, 5 J)
a~it, :-I :. Y_9 &f--, ~.L~ 4s, "L,
Cf. n. I on 1). 301 mpra.
third volley three bullets *Istruckl* him, and that holy
spirit, escaping from its gentle frame, t1ascended to the
Supreme Horizon.1t
EThis event took place on Thursday the 27th of the
month of ShaUn, in the year one thousand two hundred
and sixty-six of the hijra', being the seventh year of-the
"Manifestation,"'; and thus did these  seek to cleanse and purify themselves for entering
upon the blessed month of RamazAD, and to secure the
acceptance of their daily fastings and devotions and their
nightly services by the murder of an heir of the Prophet,
the darling of our Lady of Grace'! Cursed be that people
which slew the son of their Prophet's daughter in his  month, and their promised and expected deliverer

in his time, after they had long awaited him; and which
made this deed a preparation for prayer for the month of
God, and a meaiia,3 of approach and access ! May
*[were permitted to strike]*
f [ascended to the zenith of the Realms of Holiness, and
to the station of 'two bow-shots or less'lt
July 8th, A.D. 1850, which, however, appears to have fallen
on a Monday. In the Traveller'i Narrative (vol. i, p. 57 ; vol. ii,
p. 44) the date is given as Sha'bAn 28th, but ~ubh-i-Ezel's state-
ment corroborates the New History.
2 The Biblas "Manifestation" took place on Jemddf-ul-tig
5th, A.H. 1260 (May 23rd, A.D. 1844), but the BàbÕ era, as I have
shewn at p. 425 of vol. ii of my Travelle?8 Narrative, is reckoned
from the preceding Nawr'z (Wednesday, March 20th, A.D. 1844).
3 Sey9ida-i-Batfil, ie. FAtima, the daughter of the Prophet
and wife of 'Ali. Al-Baffil is the name given by Ambic-speakiDg
Catholics to the Virgin Mary.
4 These words, occurring in Kur'in, iiii, 9, describe 2NIubam-
mad's near approach to God on the occasion of his night-journey
to heaven (2ni'rCy).

their predecessors ciirase them even as they curse their
predecessors' 1~
0 wonderful! The Kings of Europe in. general, and
~as runs in my rnindl those of England in particular,  when the worst imaginable crime has
been proved against and brought home to a criminal in the
most conclusive and indubitable manner, and when, in
accordance with the laws of justice, he is ordered to ' be
hanged, if the bolt' fail to do its work in the first instance,
they not only pardon the convict, but entreat him respect-
fully, saying, "Since God spared him and was not willing
This, I think, is the proper rendering of the words V51 &-1;
id) the meaning being that as they curse those
who slew the Imim Vuseyn in the early days of IslAm, such as
Shinir and Yazfd, so may these in turn curse them for their
greater obduracy and wickedness.
2 Literally, 11 if the shot first fired at him niisses". I have
here attempted, by an equivoque which could not be maintained
in the next sentence, to bring the author's idea of the method of
inflicting capital punishment employed in England into closer
correspondence with the reality. I-To evidently supposes that it
is customary to suspend the condemned inaliand then shoot him,
exactly as was done in the case of the BAb. The whole passage
affords a curious example of the strangely distorted though par-
tially true conceptions formed by the Persians of things Euro-
pean. Many of those who read this passage will, however, call
to mind the case of John Lee, convicted of the Babbicombe
murder, which created so great a sensation at the time. Three
times in siiecesa,3ion was the condemned man placed on the drop,
but in each case it remained fixed after the withdrawal of the
bolt, i1or could the stampings of the executioner effect its dis-
placement. In coiia3oqiieiiec of this, and the awful suspense and
mental agony which the unfortunate man must have suffered, a
reprieve was granted, and the capital sentence was finally coi-n-
inuted to penal ser6tude for life.
that he should be slain, how should we kill him And
supposing that the bullet should strike the rope wherewith
he is bound and sever it, and he should fall , if he has suffered any hurt by his ' fall, they will
at once procure a doctor, and set about the alleviation of
it. And, even though he be not hurt, still they will Ithen
and therel summon a medical man '
on the part of the State, who will administer to him a
cordial, so that, should he have been afraid, no harm may
come to him from excessive terror. Such are the generosity,
wisdom, and jtiastice of those who, in the opinion of the
doctors of IslAm, are infidels; while as for the justice of
these devout and religious MusulmAns, it is so self-evideiit
as to need no comment.

['What need of explanation for a thing already plain?']
[HAji Mf rzA JAnf writes:-" 114jf SuleymAn Khin, con-
cerning whom somewhat has  -been said, related
:-'Six months before this culminating
catastrophe took place, His Supreme Holiness (the souls of
all beside him be his sacrifice!) graciously favoured me with
a letter. On opening the letter, I saw inside it an envelope
sealed and fastened down. In the letter he had written,
" Thou art not permitted to open the enclosed writing
Until such time as some sorrow and affliction, than which
thou canst conceive none more grievous, shall befall thee..
At that time open the writing, and act in accordance with
what is therein contained." Being so strongly enjoined not
to open this document, I did not venture to do so, but kept
it till the time when His Holiness made his second journey
from Chilirik to Tabrfz. On his arrival 1 enjoyed the
honour of waiting upon him. No sooner had I entered his
presence than he said, " Do thou go at once to thy house
and there remain ; thou art not permitted to corne forth

from thence, nor to hold intercourse with any one. Come
not to me either ; and whatsoever thou may'st hear of
hurts and injuries inflicted upon me, thou art not per-
mitted to utter a word, much less to attempt a rescue."
Thus peremptorily did he send me to my house, where,
agreeably to his orders, I remained, and whence I came not
forth; though I continued in a circumspect manner to
acquaint myself with his condition. At length one day I
was told that that very day they would make His Holiness
a target for their cruel bullets. In extremity of anguish I
paced up and down my house, sometimes ascending to the
roof and straining my -eyes in all directiotia-,, till suddenly I
hoard the report of a volley of many iihi(iskets. This was
repeated three times. Then I knew that they had done
that which they ought not to have done, and I was over-
come with a grief and sorrow so great that none could
possibly be conceived as surpassing it. At that moment
the contents of that blessed Epistle passed through my
mind, and I said to myself, " No grief call be greater than
this, and no affliction more grievous." I withdrew to a
private chamber and opened the sealed letter, wherein I
read as follows :-" Six month,-, from the time of writing
this, on such-and-such a day, I shall suffer martyrdom in
Tabriz along with one named MÕrzà Mulianimad 'Ali. Be
it incumbent on thee  patience
and self-restraint, neither must thou contend with anyone.
Two nights after my martyrdom thou must go, and, by
some means or other, buy my body and the body of MÕrzà
Mutiaininad 'Ali from the sentinels for four hundred M.-
nuins , and keep them in thine house for six months. After-
wards lay A'kA Muhammad 'Alf with his face upon my
face, place  in a strong chest, and asend it
with a letter to Jen(itb-i-Beh(l' (great is his iiiajeasty!).
I That Allfrzi Huseyn 'Alf Behd'u'lldh should be digni fied only
__I~ -
There is nothing else for thee to do. The clothes which
1 wore are thine." When 1 looked at the date, I saw that
it was exactly six months past that very day, just as he
had written."']
To be brief, two nights later, when they cast the most
sacred body ~of His Holinessl and that of MÕrzà Muham-
mad 'Alf into the moat, and set three sentries over them,
HAjf Suleymin KhAn* and three others, having provided
themselves witah arms, came to the sentries and said, " We
will ungrudgingly give you any sum of money you ask,
if yo u will not oppose our carrying away these bodies; but
if you  hinder us, we will kill you." The

sentinels, fearing for their lives, and greedy for gain, con-
sented, and  received
a large sum of money. [But, as would appear, they ob-
tained another dead body, and cast it down in the same
place, so that others might not perceive .]
So HAji SuleymAn KhAn bore those holy bodies to his
house, a-,hrouded them in white silk, placed them in a chest,
and, after a while, transported them to TeherAn, where
they remained in trust' till such time as instructions for
their interment in a particular spot were issued by the
_* ~concerning whom somewhat has  Eternal Beauty, Ttlie Su-
preme Manifestation in this last cycle, that Most Glorious
Appearance' described in the language of the First Point'
in the books and epistles as "Ile whom God shall Mani-
fest * "I [Several persons charged with the transfer and
burial , on proceeding , saw that absolutely no change had taken place
in them, but that they were  perfectly sweet and
fresh, as though they had fallen asleep. One or two  were so overcome with
fear and astonishment  that for some time
they suffered from an acute fever'. But, notwithstanding
this, the malignants,  by their excessive preju-
dice, proclaimed that the Bab's holy body had been cast
out into the moat and devoured by the wild beasts.]' * *
1 Tallat-i-.Abha, a title not uncommonly applied to Behi'u'llili
by his followers.
2 Nukta-i- (116, ie. the BAb.
3 The removal of the Bhb's body was effected by BehA'u'llih
against the will and without the knowledge of Subh-i-Ezel, who
was unable to ascertain whither it had been transferred. An in-
teresting Nfuhammadan parallel to the miracle here recorded will
be found alluded to in a footnote on p. 240 of the second volume
of Sir Richard Burton's Pilgrimage to el-Medina and Mecca.
4 Here follow sonhie twenty pages of controversial matter. Of
these, as well as of another portion of the conclusion which I
have not thought worth translating, an epitome is given in Ap-
pendix A.
Now when I' had heard this narrative, my astonish-
ment was increased beyond measure, and I was filled with
wonder; and since the narrator was a man of unques-
tionable integrity, honesty, wisdom, and intelligence, . and
had, moreover (as I learned from other sources), - on first
embracing this faith, bestowed all the great riches which he
possessed on his fellow-believers, and was, so far as I could
gsee, animated by no interested motive, I continued eagerly
to court his society, and to strive with increased assiduity
to arrive at the truth of this matter. At length, by his
instrumentality, I was fortunate enough to obtain an intro-
duction to a certain illustrious Seyyid, who excelled in all
branches of learning and scholarship, was well versed alike
in traditional and philosophic 10're, and was universally
accounted a theologian of unrivalled merit. In this holy
and beneficent being', whose age was nigh upon eighty,
I perceived a certain radiance, spirituality, and beauty of *
character which I had never before encountered in Persia.
1 Here MAnakjf again speaks in his own person, for, it must
be remembered, the whole of the narrative proper is supposed to

be related to him by his BAW friend. See p. 30 supra.
2 The original text runs as follows
e" A%A  :,tA,4*A
ji 4r rj.~o;
The use of the word jawdid (generous, beneficent) suggests it as a
possible hypothesis that allusion is here made to AkA Seyyid
Jawid of Kerbeli, who, according to the statement made by
Mimi AbA'I-Fazi of GuIpAyagin to Lieutenant Toumansky (see
my Catalogite and Description of 27 Bdbi MSS. in the J. R. A. S.
for 1892, pp. 443-4), undertook the final recension of the New
History. The description here given, at any rate, would be
applicable to him.

For him, therefore, I conceived a most devoted admiration;
and one day he favoured me with so lofty and lucid an
exposition of the real nature of this Manifestation that I
cannot attempt in these imperfect pages to reproduce the
transcendental theses which he then enunciated. In the
course of conversation, too, I heard from him certain argu-
ments and proofs which filled me with astonishment and
admiration, and which appeared to me absolutely unanswer-
I could not help wondering why this eminent scholar
refrained from discussing these -matters with the Shi'ite
clergy, so that dissensions might be removed, and men
might no longer be a prey to doubts. For a long while I
thus marvelled, and several times I communicated my
thoughts to others, but they replied, " You speak truly,
always presupposing that they would lay aside prejudice
and bigotry, seek to understand the matter, and strive
to discriminate between the true and the false. Then it
would be possible to discuss the question with them, to
prove our contention, and to remove dissension from our
midst but the practice of these divines is, in their over-
weening arrogance and presumption, to dub their opponents
infidels and declare them worthy of death so soon as they
find themselves unable to reply to their arguments, so that
their own incapacity may not become apparent. . . . This
is why we have had to suffer in silence these afflictions and
persecutions for so long a time'."
1 Here follows the account of a discussion which the author
succeeded in provoking between one of his Bdbf friends on the
one hand and a Shi'ite doctor on the other. This disetisaiion,
though not without interest, is so full of wearisorne iterations that
I have decided to ornit it in this place, and to notice only its
niore iniportant features in Appendix A.
After this I thus spake to my Bibi friend, questioning
him :-" I have examined the doctrines and practices of
every sect, and have studied the tenets and ethics of all
faiths and religions. In your words and deeds I have seen
nothing but what is good, and in your sincerity, integrity,
charity, and godliness I have detected no flaw, all being in
accord with philosophy, humanity, and civilization. Yet at
one thing I greatly marvel, namely at the attempt to
assassinate His Majesty the King; for how could One who
regards himself as embodying the universal Reason, and
who is endowed with spiritual powers and divine faculties,
countenance such a deed as this, which is repugnant to
the dictates of wisdom ? "
cc It is even so, " replied the BàbÕ, "but I swear by
the truth of Him in the grasp of whose control lie all the
worlds that never was this evil deed sanctioned or com-

manded by the Supreme Authority. But in every class are
found both wise and foolish; and here also two or three
ignorant and uninstructed men, impelled by the promptings,
of the Devil and their own selfish passions, and constrained
by the distress which weighed them down and the peril
which encompassed them, wrought this vile deed without
the knowledge of a single one of their more reasonable
co-religionists. And this deed was in the highest degree
displeasing to our Master, and resulted in the repudiation
of those who were concerned in it, since they were ac-
countable for the slaughter of many innocent persons. . .
. . And after its occurrence a prayer forg the safety of His,
Majesty the King was, for the admonition of men, promul-
gated by the Source of Command, and its recital thrice
each morning made obligatory on all; for we hold it in-
cumbent on ourselves to repeat it after the appointed daily
prayers. And this prayer is as follows :-
'He it is who is able to do that which He willeth.

'lit Ilgis Name the Protecting, which is above, all the
' 0 merciful God, who last power over all the universe,
I co?~jure Thee by ThyseU' to protect the King: and after
this -1 ask Thee not to regard his errors and those of his
predecessor in power', but only the Ocean of Thy Bounty,
and the Firmament of Tl~y Grace, and the Sun, of T/ky
Favour. 0 Lord, keep front hint the hands of evil by
that Hand which Thou last placed over the hands of vien.
Verily Tbou art the.Potent, the Exalted, the Knowing, the
" Now the purport of this prayer clearly shews that the
deed in question was done without the countenance or
sanction of the Source of Command. Consider what a
height of generosity it is that, notwitlistandilIg all the
injuries and hurts illflicted -upon this people, He' should
command them to pray , and, in
place of cursing, to be patient and thankful ! And in all
His epistles He says, 'If ye desire to please the Friend,
and seek for God's approbation, strive to do good in what-
ever way you can, and, so far as may be possible to you,
to shew charity and kindness to all men, even though the
whole world set themselves to torment you and do you
I Muhammad ShAh, the fitther of Nisirti'd-Din Shih the
present King.
2 The text of this prayer is as follows
ja!~l 5 &,e-)l &A J._'Y1 L~o 6-L J~w Le jo jxL11
5 ~jl ~L aLl 'DL6ul 1~ ~L !I-O'k WLI
t.51 6L.611 Lro~' !A.~; J_ q !by- jft. ~1 J. nJ1 4L
3 i.e. Beha"u'llih, the Source of Command"
wrong.' Wherefore, though all mankind stretch out hands
of violence to hurt and to vex us, we, in obedience to God's
command, and in the desire of doing that which is well-
pleasing to the Beloved, stand steadfast in resignation and
submission, without so much as opening our lips in com-
plaint. . - . - And some foolish and unthinking men, seeing
us in no wise downcast or fearful in affliction and trial,
suppose, and give currency to the supposition, that we be-
lieve that if we die or are slain we shall after forty days come
to life and return to earth, not understanding that we are
so weaned from the world as to care nothing for the things
thereof, but are rather intent on departure, and, unlike
those who have made it their home, are eagerly desirous of
quittiDg this old hostelry', which is the abode of topers and
libertines. Therefore, in accordance with the text, 'Desire
2 1
death then., if ye be sincere , we ardently long to take flight
from the cage of the body, to transfer our possessions from
this transitory world, and- to enter upon everlasting life."
After this we conversed for some while longer on spiri-

tual things, which conversation did but serve to strengthen
my conviction; for I put to my friend sundry other ques-
tions, to all of which I received full and satisfactory replies,
which lack of space prevents me from including in this
volume. If, however, I should continue to enjoy health
and leisure, they shall, please God,-be inserted in a second
To conclude. What has been set-;forth in these pages
was compiled from memoranda taken during the progress
of the conversations to which I listened, some of the more
essential portions being hastily written down, and the rest
committed to memory, and all, so far as I remembered
Cf. p. 46, n. 2, supra.
2 Kur'àn, ii, 88; 1xii, 6.

them, being recorded in an abridged and compendious form. heartedness which I have myself observed in them, t will,
Let not my readers find fault if my style lacks grace and if God so please, and if I be spared, be given in a second
elegance; for firstly, the, language in which I write is not volume.
my mother-tongue', nor have I enjoyed opportunities, of
perfecting myself therein, while my leisure has been but "In words more plain and nearer to the mark
scanty, and I aimed but at fulfilling a need. And secondly Than these veiled hints and utterances dark,
my sole object was to record facts, not to make a display of Some permit fresh perchance may make me bold
eloquence or rhetoric. The subject has been presented in New mysteries hereafter to unfold."
a better and more attractive form in a treatise written in
French (my own language), which may be consulted by
those who are learned in that tongue'. A further account
of this sect, giving particulars of their principles and ob-
servances, explanations of certain points of transcendental
philosophy, and a detailed description of their virtues, their HERE ENDS THE NEW HISTORY.
ethics and rules of conduct, and the sincerity and single-
1 This statement is quite true, so far as MAnakJf is concerned,
for be was a Pkrsf of Bombay, and probably only learned to
speak Persian after his arrival in Persia. At any rate, as Mfrz;i
Abu'l-Fazl of Gulpeiyagin, his secretary and co-adjutor, informed
Lieutenant Toumansky, he was unable to write the Arabic cba-
racter with ease. Cf. my Catalogue and Description of 27 Bdbi
MSS. in the J. It. A. S. for 1892, p. 443; and also n. 2 on p. 17
2 In the original
.)Z1 JN.:A ~)u J ~dl,.Lu "t 4, :,-1  1.'1
* V;
I do not know whether allusion is here niade to Gobinean's
monumental Religions et Philosophies dam 1'Asie Centrale or to
Kazem-Beg's article in the Journal AsiatiPte for 1866; or whetber
(as seems to me on the whole more probable) this " treatise in
the French language" is a mere fiction of the author's, intended
to give further colour to his pretended European nationality.

ALTHOUGH I have throughout my translation condensed
and curtailed the long and rather wearisome digreassions
into which, Oil every opportunity, the author loves to
plunge, and wherein he displays in an. exaggerated form
that verbosity and iteration which are so often the bane of
Persian writers, in only two places have I entirely sup-
pressed passages of any considerable length, which, though
not of sufficient interest to merit full translation, neverthe-
less present some features deserving of notice. Both of
these oinitted digressions occur in the concluding portion
of the book. Thefirst, indicated by the asterisks on p. 312
sztlh)i-a, consists of a review of previous prophetic dispensa-
tions, a comparison of them with the BàbÕ dispensation
(greatly to the advantage of the latter), an attempt to
discredit miracles-and their evidential value, refutations of
certain calumnies against the BàbÕs, and, of course, the
inevitable diatribes against the ignorance, worldliness, and
unfairness of the Shi'Ite clergy. The second, indicated by
the asterisks on p. 314 slTra, contains an account of a
religious discussion which MAuakjf succeeded in provoking
between one of his BàbÕ friends and a Shiite divine, The
character of these digressions, and the points of interest
which they present, can, I think, be sufficiently indicated
by a table of contents of that portion of the book which
they occupy, enlarged, where necessary, by abstracts. The
pagination refers to the British Museum MS. (Or. 2942)
which affords the most convenient standard.
Abstract offirst oinitted digression (Or. 2942,
ff. 147 b_ 160a).
Ff 147 b_148b. Review of previous prophetic dispen-
sations- Noah -Hu'd-Moses-Jesus-Muhaminad-'Alf
-Indifference with which their preaching was at first met-
Lukewarmness of many of their followers-Apostasy og f
most of those who had professed IsUm on the death of
Ff. 149'-149b.' In strong contrast with this is the
rapid advance of the BAb's doctrine, its eager acceptance
by a great number of men of all classes, especially the
more cultivated, and the tenacity with which, in spite
of thirty-five years of persecution [thir~y in my MS.], his
followers still cling to it.
Ff. 150'-151'. The object of no prophet has been to
compel men by miracles to believe-Vulgar beliefs of the
Shi'ites as to the advent of the ImAm Mahdf-The ab-
surdity and impossibility of the signs and portents which
they expect-Their conception of the manner of his advent
-Inefficacy of any conceivable miracle to convince the

Slii'ite clergy, or induce them to abandon the position and
authority which they enjoy.
Ff 151'--,--154 b . The mulVts care nothing for tihe
central truths of religion, but only for dead formulae, rites
of purification, and legal subtleties-They do not yet
understand that it was in a spiritual sense that Jesus
restored the dead to life, else why did most of His con-
temporaries disbelieve in Him, and why did His own
disciples die ?-Ability to coiiverage with the dead, even if
established, would prove nothing and merit little admira-
tion, for in these days there are persons in Europe who
hold conversation with walls, tables, chairs, dead persons,
and animals. [The author evidently alludes to spirit-
rapping.]-The object of Jesus was rather to awaken the
dormant spiritual potentialities of mankind ' and to lead
them towards perfection-It is in this sense also, and in this
sense only, that the Mahdf restores the dead to life, but
though the promised advent of the Mahdf has taken place,
N. H.

and the Sun of Truth glows in the middle of the firmament,
these blind formalists and tradition-mongers reject him.
Ff. 155'-156 b . The wickedness, worldliness, greed,
and selfishness of the clergy are incurable-They were at
no pains even to investigate the claims advanced by the
BAb, as proved by their behaviour at the conferences of
Tabrfz and lsfahAn.-[Of the Tabrfz conference no par-
ticulars are added, but a short account of the IsfahAn
conference is given, the whole material ortion of which is.
incorporated in the notes at the enT of vol. ) ii. of my
Traveller's Narrative, pp. 264-5. MÕrzà Ab' I-FazI 4 III
,ptJI JAI L*.W
)U 6.1"J1 _AL<4b--I A Lh U
I JI _V1W L5
IIU . t-,Oa.Wl ZI.X&I jt!5*1
a-441 &.0 U.%-~r- Le j)Ld;.
6.PJ33-J LS>t-t-:-3 4.~L, L5J

3J,J L
LO a-~J, 3 6~.J_tjl .3  ~~7
The f~dn (from which, indeed, nearly all these arguments
are taken) is referred to explicitly-What is meant by
the, " sun rising in the west "-Accomplishment of other
signs, such as the appearance of a redness in the sky, the
outbreak - of a grievous famine) the " brin ging together of
distant lands" by means of the railroad and the telegraph-
The InhiArn Ja'far-i-Sddik foretold that the appearance of
the promised Deliverer would be "in the year '60
and the Bib actually appeared in the
year A. H. 1260-Another traditional saying of the same
ImAm runs as follows
6POW1 L5-0 jpj~.
F. 16 ga. Other similar traditions are quoted-The
Bib was not 24 years of age when he proclaimed his
MiSSiOD, and was only 31 [L.] or 32 [C.] when he suffered
martyrdom at Tabrfz in A.H. 1266-The following tradition
is quoted from the BiMru'1-Anvair:--

-k:05-0 J40i
As foretold in this tradition, the BAb did produce "verses
like the Kur'àn," to wit the Beydin, which "sums up all
sacred books."
Ff. 169b_175a. The mulld returns to the subject of
miracles-The "cleaving of the moon "-MAnakjf explains
the ideas as to the nature of the sky and heavenly bodies
which prevail in Europe, scouts those entertained by the
mulld on the same subject, and pours contempt on the so-
called science of his class-The mallei asserts his scepticism
as to the value of the telescope-MAnakjf defends European
science and lauds its results, and condemns the supersti-
tions prevalent in Persia as to eclipses and the like-
He pronounces a panegyric on the industry, enterprise, and
learning of Europe, to which so many wonderful and bene-
ficial discoveries and inventions are due ; and laments the
decay of learning and enterprise in Persia, and the miser-
able and enfeebled condition to which it is now reduced-
He returns to his astronomical explanations, and proves the
absurdity of the orthodox Muslim conceptions of the
heavenly bodies-He mentions certain signs foretold by
Zoroaster and Christ as heralding the new dispensation,
declares the literal accomplishment of these to be impossible,
and suggests the theory that, unless such prognostications
are to be understood g allegorically, they were merely in-
tended to act as a deterrent to vain pretenders -He
concludes by telling the mull(i that, inasmuch as every one
of the prophets has described such miraculous portents as
the concomitants of the next dispensation, and inasmuch as
no such portents have ever appeared, he has logically but
two courses open to him : either to revert to the oldest
extant religion, that of the Hindoos; or to accept the
latest, that of the BAbhs-The mulld cries out that he has
" foreg~lathered with two infidels, who strive to make good
their infidelity by proofs and arguments "-The BàbÕ
triumphantly points out to MAnakji that his assertion as to
the behavio~r of the clergy when worsted in discussion is
The translation is resumed in the middle of f. 1754 (p.
315 supra).
THEgeneral relations which subsist between the Tdrikh-
i4ad&, or " New History," and the older, more faithful,
and much more instructive work composed by HAjf MÕrzà

JAnf of KdshAn, and called by him Yuktatu'l-KV, have
been already pointed out in the Introa*uction. In' this
appendix I propose to give a full account of those portions
of his work *hich the author or authors of the "New
History" have, for reasons generally not hard to divine,
deemed it expedient to suppress, as well as of other
passages which appear to have been omitted accidentally.
In so doing, I shall follow the order of narration observed
by HAji MÕrzà JAW, not merely as a matter of convenience,
but because it is chronologically more accurate than that
which the authors of the "New History" have seen fit to
introduce; and, taking the different episodes in this order,
1 shall include under each the additional particulars with
which the older history supplies us.
It is, unfortunately, impossible for me to discuss fully
within the limited space of an appendix the doctrinal
portion (more than a third of the whole) of Hiji Mfrzi
JAnf's work, which, though of singular interest and value,
and calculated to throw quite a new. light on the early

theology of the Bibfs, affords materials too copious, and
raises questions too complicated, to be thus perfunctorily
disposed of. Nevertheless, with a view to supplying the
reader with an outline of the more salient features of the
Bibi doctrine, and rendering more apparent the very
intimate relations subsisting between it and the Sheyklif
school of theology, I shall here attempt to sketch in as
concise and summary a manner as possible the theory of
Divine Manifestations or Theophanies laid down by HAjf
MÕrzà JAnf.
"I was a Ilidden, Treasure and I desired to be known,
therefore I created creation that I might be kiiown." In
these well-known and oft-quoted words does God declare
His purpose in calliDg into existence this Phenomenal
World. He was a " Hidden Treasure," and He desired
that others a-,houlcl participate in that Treasure h; herein lies
His Bounty, and herein is contained the Mystery of Crea-
tion. Wherefore it is said:-
W  W
" The first Bounty was Being, and Being is the Known,
and the Known, is identical with Knowledge', and Know-
ledge is lVill, and Will is Love." Love, therefore, is the
cause of creation, and its fruit is knowledge; love im-
pelled God to exercise His creative power, and His creaturea-,
fulfil the purpose of their being only in learning to love
and adore Him. Now adoration of the Beloved cannot
exist without knowledge of His Beauty and know-
ledge of His Majesty and of knowledge there are
four kinds, to wit, (1) when the knower transcends and
excels the known; (2) when the knower and the known are
equal in station; (3) when the knower and the known are
united ; (4) when the known transcends and excels the
knower. This last is called "the Shadow-plane" (_oULD
a.k6), because it is typified by the relation subsisting
I This is one of the doctrines especially insisted on by MuM
Sadri. See my Travellers Yarrative, vol. ii, p. 270.
between the shadow and the light which casts it, and it
is this relation -which man bears to God.
Now although certain knowledge is essential to happi-
ness, its attainment is of all things most difficult, even to
the favoured companions of God's sainta,3. Thus Kumeyl
ibn ZiyAd', One of 'Ali's chosen disciples, once demanded
of his Master, behind whom he was seated on a dromedary,
"What is Truth?" "What hast thou to do with the Truth?"
answered 'Ali, "for verily it is one of God's mysteries, and
a jewel out of His treasure-house." Then said Kumeyl,

when 'Ali had spoken for some while after this fashion,
"0 my Master, am I not worthy to share thy secret?"
"Yes," answered 'Alf, "but the matter is a great one."
"0 my Master," said Kumeyl, "dost thou desire those
who beg at the door of thy bounty to be turned away?"
"Nay, verily," answered 'Alf, "I will answer the call of
such as are troubled, and will sprinkle upon thee somewhat
of the overflowing fulness of the Station of the Truth;
receive it from me according to thy capacity, and conceal
it from such as are unworthy to share it. 0 Kumeyl, the
Truth is the revelation of the splendours of Digviiie Jlajesty
withoUt a sign." " 0 my Allaster," said Kumeyl, "I under-
stand not thy meaning; explain it to me further." "The
e ment of the conjectured, and the clearing of the
know,??," continued 'Alf. "Explain more fully," demanded
Kunieyl. "The ?-ending of the veil by the triumph, of the
mystery," said 'Alf. "0 my beloved Master," rejoined
Kumeyl, "tell me more." "The attraction of the Divine
U711 through the nature of the apprehension of its One-
ness, added 'Alf. " Tell me more clearly," repeated
Kumeyl. Then said 'Alf, "A light shining forth from the
Alorning of Eternity and irradiating the temples of the
I have given this tradition in full because the BAbis
attach a special significance to it, regarding each of these
five obscure utterances of 'Alf as typifying one of the first
five years of the BAb's "Manifestation." The text of the
tradition, taken from the Bib's "Seven Proofs" (Dald'il-i-
sab'a) will be found in the footnote on p. 352 of the second
1 See Ibn Wadhilt (ed. Houtsma), vol. ii, pp. 242-4,

volume of my Traveller's Narrative. Its application is
given by MÕrzà JAiif himself in describing the strange out-
burst of wild pantheism and antinomian ecstasy which
characterized the gathering at Badasht, and proved, as it
would appear, a cause of offence to not a few of the
brethren. " The revelation, of the splendours of Divine
Alajesty without a sign" denotes the first year (A.H.
1260-1) of the "Manifestation," wherein the BAb revealed
himself, and declared mysteries transcendental and in-
effable. " T'he ey4cement of the conjectured, and the clear-
ing of the known" indicates the second year, wherein the
doctrine was proclaimed in a simpler and less transcen-
dental manner, because of the weakness of mankind, and
wherein orders were issued by the BAb for the effacement
or obliteration of the Commentary on the Sqira-i- Yiisuf
which lie had written'. " Tlie rending of the veil ~?/ the
triziniph oj' the mystery" describes the third year, remark-
able for the Badaslit conference above alluded to, and the
sovereign claims advanced by t1a;rat-i-,k_uddiis (and
evidently admitted by many of the BàbÕs, including HAji
MÕrzà JAnf) which are adverted to on p. 282 supra. "The
(tttractgion of the Divine Unit~y throagh, -the nature of the
apprehension oj* its Oneness," which denotes the fourth year
of the "Manifestation," is not, I think, explained by Mfrzd
JAnf, but perhaps we may associate it with the appearance
of the "Indian Believer" (pp. 242-4 supra). As for the
fifth year, therein appeared MÕrzà YahyA to console the
faithful for the loss of Ilazrat-i-Kuddiis and Jen6b-i-
a  * ~lie position of vicegerent to
Xibu'l-BM, and to assume
the "Point," by whom, in allusion to the promise connected
with this year, he was entitled SUbh-i-Ezel, "the Morning
of Eternity"." In this cycle of five years, also, there is a
mystery, for 5 is the numerical value of the word Bdb, and
also of the letter h (A) which stands for 11itwiyyat
I Cf. J. R. A. S. for April, 1892, pp. 267-8.
2 Cf. Traveller's Narrative, vol. ii, p. 352, and note I thereon.
The fact that Mfud YahyA was a native of Yfir in MaizandarAn,
and that Nfir means " Light," certainly did not escape the BAb's
the Divine Ipseity or Unmanifested Unity, to a knowledge
of which man may attain only through such Bib or
"Gate," as it is said, "Enter houses by their gates'."
For, as has been said, man cannot know the Eternal
Essence of God, but only the "Manifestation" of the
Divine Will, which, from time to time, arises in the spiritual,
as the sun in the material, firmament, to dispel the dark-

ness of ignorance and separation. For knowledge implies
the establishment of a relation between the knower and
the thing known, and for man to attempt to establish such
relation between himself and God, as the Slhffs do, is sheer
presumption, rendering him guilty of the sin of shirk (at-
tributing a partner to God). Wherefore, whenever in the
Kur'Au or elsewhere:mention is made of "the meeting with
God" (d U I W.), and the like, what is meant is the meeting
with one of the "Manifestations" or embodiments of the
Divine Will This Primal Will, from time to time
incarnating itself, now in Abraham, now in Moses, now in
Jesus, now in Muhammad, forms, as it were, an inter-
mediary between man and God. It can be known by man,
and It knows God: indeed in One sense It is identical with
God, wherefore it is said in a tradition, " Whosoever visiteth
Huseyn in his tomb is as one who hath visited God on His
Pliron'e." So likewise the Bdb said," 0 'Ali! Nonehath
known God'save 1and thou; and none hath known me save
God and thou; and none hath, known thee save God and.["
Now all these Theophanies, as I shall henceforth call
them, are identical in essence, and differ only in cir-
cumstance, just as the sun which shines to-day is the
same as that which shone yesterday, or that which - will
shine to-morrow. We, for the sake of convenience, and
having regard only to the accidents of time and place, may
speak of Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad as dif-
ferent persons, but they are in fact not less identical than
the sun which shines to-day and the sun which shone
yesterday. These lights of the firmament of Prophethood
and Saintship, like the celestial luminaries, have a rising
and a setting, a "Manifestation" and an "Occultation."
I Cf. Traveller's Narrative, vol. ii, pp. 227-8.

Violent transitions from light to darkness or from darkness
to light are, however, contrary to God's plan, alike in the
spiritual and the material worlds. Just as dawn forms a
transition between day and night, and twilight between
night and day; just a,s spring ushers in summer, and
autumn heralds winter, so in each Divine "Manifestation"
two barzakhs or " intervals " separate the full blaze of the
Theophany from the comparative darkness of the period of
Occultation. The period in each cycle during which the
Propbet and the lm4ms or Saints who succeed him are
visible to mankind constitutes the theoplianic day,
Kubr('t, or "Major Manifestation." This day is separated
from the night of the Gheybat-i-Kitbq-a' or "Major Occul-
tation " by the twilight of the Gheybat-i-Sughra or Minor
Occultation, during which the last Saint or lindin. of the
though invisible to his followers, still lives amongst
in concealment, and communicates with them by means
of the "Gates" or "Baibs" (Abw6b) whom he appoints to act
as intermediaries between 'himself and his church. When
the faithful have become aceiiaitomed to receiving the com-
mands of the TmAm thns in-directly, and to being debarred
from seeing him, the series of "Gates" is terminated, and
the full. night of the "Major Occultation" supervenes. As,
however, the time for a new "Manifestation" approaches,
one or more of the "Gates" reappears or "returnsilp to
prepare maiil(ind for the fuller light which is soon to
burst upon them. The period of these precursors or liar-
bingers of the Theopbany is called Zlth4r-i-Sughr(i, "the
Minor Manifestation," corresponding to the "True Dawn"
(~Ubh-i_86dik), when, though the sun has not yet risen, its
light is apparent in the sky. The "Minor Manifestation"
of the Christian cycle was John the Baptist; of the Mu-
hammadan, Waraka ibn Nawfal and the other Hanffs; of
ihe BàbÕ or BeyAnic, Slieykh A~mad of AhsA aid Seyyid
KAzim of Resht.
Now let us pass from the general to the particular. The
"Major Manifestation" of the IsIdmic cycle, heralded, as
above said, by the appearance of the Hanifs, was main-
tained during 262 years by fourteen "Suns of Purity" (the
1 Cf. Traveller's Narrative, Vol. ii, pp. 232-3.
Prophet, his daughter FAtima, and the twelve ImAms),
called " the fourteen Immaculates" ~chahdrdah ma'qu'm).
The last of these, Muliammad ibn Hasau el-'Askari,
generally called the ImAin Malidi or KXim, was born, ac-
cording to IlAjf MirzA Jinf% in A.H. 256, which, as he
points out, is numerically equivalent to the word N~kr
(Light) The period of the "Minor Occultation" began
when he was in his seventh year (i.e. in A.H. 262-3), and

lasted for seventy years, during which time four "Gates" 3
maintained communications between him and his followers,
who were thus provided with a ineans. of solving their
doubts and difficulties. But when this series of "Gates"
came to an end, and the faithful were overtaken by the
night of the "Major Occultation," schisms began to appear,
and by the time that, after the lapse of more than nine
centuries, the dawn of the "Minor Manifestation"- of this
cycle (that is, the teaching of Sheykh Ahmad and Seyyid
Kizim) had begun to brighten the spiritual horizon, the
sect of the Shf'a, Ithna'-'ashariyya, or Church of the Twelve
lmdms, was divided as regards the essentials or principles
of religion (usm'l) into three main parties besides the
Sheyklifs, to wit, the Bdld-sarl's 4 or ordinary Shi'ites, the
philosophers (gitkamai), and the SAfis or mystics ('Urafa);
while, in matters of practice, or application of principles
(f,itrgz't'), the Akhbdr~3, Usul,~s, FukaM, and Isliraiki's made
another four-fold division.
Now this multiplication of sects and schisms is one of
the signs that a new "Manifestation" is at hand, for it is
just before the dawn that the night is darkest. Other
signs, too, were not wanting: even the year of the " Mani-
festation " had been foreshadowed in certain poems of the
I Cf. Traveller's Narrative, Vol. ii, p. 297 and n. L'
2 C.)=50; .3=6;.j=200. Total, 256.
3 The names of these Abwdb, and soma account of one of
them, Huseyn ibn Rdb, will be found at pp. 298 and 301-2 of
the second volume of my Traveller's Narrative.
4 So called because, in performing the " visitation" to the
shrines of the ImAms they stand " over the head " of the tomb
(bdld-yi-sar), and not like the Sheykhfs at a respectful distance.

Sulffs', and was contained, for such as had eyes to see it, in
the very words 11 Yd Zuh?'Ara'1-Hakk" (" 0 Manifestation of
the Truth")!' Moreover there gare traditions to the effect
that the " Occultation " will not last longer than the
period of Noah's prophetic mission, which has been fixed
by some historians at 950 and by others at 1000 years,
wherefore the new Tbeopliany could not be long deferred.
Indeed since the "Minor Occultation" of the Twelfth
1mAm began, according to many theologians, in A.H. 260,
exactly a thousand years had elapsed when, in A.H. 1260,
the Bdb appeared'.
So much for the general doctrine of Prophetic Cycles
held by the BAbis. It remains to advert to one develop-
ment of this doctrine which plays a large part, not only in
HAjf MÕrzà JAiif's history, but in all the earlier writings of
the sect; I mean the views held by them concerning the
"Resurrection" (Kiydmat) or "Return" (_Rij'al), which
have caused them ~o be likened by some to the Sadducees,
and to be credited by others with a belief in the transmi-
gration of souls. Thus of the first vdkid, or group of 19
chapters, in the Persian BeyAn, 18 chapters are devoted to
this doctrine of the "Return" or "Rii'at," and it is asserted
that Muhammad, FAtima, the Twelve ImAms, and the Pour
"Gates" "have returned to the Life of the World with
such as believed in them, and such as did not believe";
while in the second v6hid it is taught that by the Resur-
rection is meant the Dew "Manifestation," or arising of the
Sun of Truth; by the "Questioning of the Tomb," the
tidings of it brought by its "angels" or messengers to those
who slumber as the dead in the tombs of i-morance and
heedlessness; by the "Raising of the Dead" the awakening
of those who lie thus dead in ignorance; by the sharp
narrow "Bridge" over which only true believers can pass,
1 Cf n. I at the foot of p. 141 supra.
2 L;_S_jl  L~ = (10+ 1 +900+ 5 + 6 + 200 + 30+8+ 100)
1260. The alifu'l-wasl in L;aJ1 is not counted because it is not
pronounced, else its enumeration would raise the total to 1261.
3 Cf. Travelle7Js Narrative, Vol. ii, pp. 297-8, and n. I on
the former.
the difficulty of accepting the new "Manifestation" 'and so
passing over into the "Paradise" of belief; and so on. It
is further laid down definitely and explicitly that these
terms have no real meaning apart from this; and that the
ideas which prevail concerning a corporeal resurrection, a
material heaven and hell, and the like, are mere figments

of the imagination.
Now all this, though it may entitle anyone whom it so
pleases to compare the Bdbfs to the Sadducees, does not
by any means prove that the BAb taught, or that his fol-
lowers held, the doctrine of Metempsychosis (tan(tsukh-i-
aruiaih), a doctrine so vehemently repudiated even by those
Muhammadan sects who appear to approach most closely
to it. The essence of the man ~ is the Idea which he
(imauifests" or incarnates, just as the essence of the
mirror is the image which it reflects. An unpolished plate
of steel reflects nothing: let the same plate be polished and
purified, and it will reflect star, moon, or sun. The
prophet of a cycle is naught but a reflection of the "Primal
Will" the same sun with a new horizon;
wherefore it is perfectly correct to say that Moses is
identical with Jesus, or Jesus with Muhammad. - More-
over, as the same mirror may at different times reflect
different objects, so the saine individual may successively
become the "return" of different prototypes. This point
comes Out very clearly in certain parts of HAJf Mirz.4 JAilf's
history. It has been a,3aid that the four " Gates " returned
durhig the "Minor Manifestation" of this cycle: Sheykh
Ahinad and Seyyid KAzim were the first and second, but
wlio were the third and iburth ? This was a quest-ion which
I was unable to solve in the note on the meaning of the
term B(ib which I appended to the second volume of my
Ti-aveller's Narrative (pp. 226-234, especially p. 233).
The solution is made plain by HAjf Mirzi JAnf. Mfrz&
'Alf Muhammad himself was the third Ba'b or "Gate," and,
while he thus continued, Mull.1 Huseyn of Bushraweyh was
the B4bu'1-Ba'b or "Gate of the Gate." But when MÕrzà
'Alf Muhammad, speaking more freely as his followers
became more receptive of divine mysteries, declared him-
self to be the Nukta or "Point" (i.e. the Manifestation of
the Primal Will), Mulli Huseyn ceased to be only the

" Gate of the Gate " and became the actual " Gate " or Bib;
and, when lie was killed, his brother, Mimi Muhammad
Hasan, in turn received this title'. But this is not all.
MÕrzà 'Alf Mul.tammad was first of all B(ib or "Gate";
then Zikr or " Reminder "'; then Nukta or I Point." g F or
a while, however, MullA Muliainmad* 'Alf of Birfuru'sl!ll
called by the BàbÕs Hazrat-i-kztdd?~s, became the "Point,
and MÕrzà 'Alf Muhammad relapsed into beiDg his B(tib or
"Gate," and, during this period, wrote nothing! This
extraordinary and novel doctrine is clearly set fortl) by
HAjf NlirzA Jdnf as follows:-
"So the Religion of God is One, though the Theo-
phanies differ: and the 'Point' is at all times one indi-
vidual, while the other Theophanies are its 'Letters of the
Living.' Sometimes it happens that the 'Point' becomes
quiescent in effulgence, and that this effiiglgeuce becomes
manifest in its 'Gate,' just as the Apostle of God did not
in appearance wield the sword, but his wrath was made
manifest in tile form of 'Alf. But after the death of God's
Apostle, 'Alf became tile 'Point' and the Heaven of Will,
and Hasaii becarrie the 'Gate' and the Earth of Devotion,
while Huseyn and SahnAn and the rest were the 'Letters
of the Living.' Now in this cycle the original 'Point' was
Hazrat-i-K~tddiis, and the 'Reminder' [,~ikr, i.e. the B6b]
I The passage in Hiji Mfrzi Jilif's history which is here
alluded to runs as follows:-
0  0
Jug,.. A..O~k&
J W 46
-91 yl~C
-AU-4 ciu-0 j, jaxe 3.
2 Cf. J. R. A. S. for April, 1892, p. 303, n. 1. Hijf Mfrzi
JAnf constantly calls the Bib Zikr or Zikru'lldh.
was his 'Gate'; but inasmuch as it was the 'Cycle,-of
Return' [dawra-i-ri .1 t], and Saint p [pi t] took pre-
.) a shi  16ya
cedence of Prophet-hood [nubuvvat 1 in manifestation,
therefore the 'Reminder' first; J, and for three years,
according to the number of the letters in 'Alf, summoned
men to God
So likewise, in speaking of the IslAmic cycle, H&jf
Mfrzi JAnf says that, so long as Muhammad was alive,
'Alf declared himself to be only "a servant amongst his
servants"; but that " so soon as the Prophetic Mirror (by
which is meant the sovereign form of Muhammad) was

shivered in pieces, in less time than the twinkling of an eye
it [i.e. the Sun of Truth] arose in the Mirror of Saintship,"
so that -Alf, thus become the " Mirror " or " Manifesta-
tion " of the Primal Will, and the ,Proof" of God upon
earth, was able to say, -1 am Adam, and Noah, and
Abraham, and Moses, and Jesus, and Muhammad."
Hence it is that HAjf MÕrzà Jinf, in describing the
events of this cycle, speaks of Teherin as " Damascus,"
the Kijir rulers as 11 the family of Abih SofyAn," Barfurihsh
as " Kfda," MullA Huseyn as " the Chief of Martyrs "
-(Segyida'sh-shuhadd), and Tabarsf as "Kerbeli"; "for,"
says he, 11 wherever the banner of the Truth is set up,
summoning men to defend it, and the people of Truth are
gathered together, and the word of Love and Emancipation
(fena') is spoken, there is the land of KerbelA." This
4(return," he, adds, may be conceived of in many different
ways, to explain which would require a long dissertation.
He defines it negatively, as being " neither incarnation
(~ulQ), nor absorption (ittih6d), nor transmigration (tand-
sukh)," but it appears doubtful whether he ' himself exactly
understood its nature, for he says :- ,
I The Saint or vali (typified in Khizr or 'Alf) represents the
e8oteric, as the Prophet or nabi (typified in Moses or Muhammad)
represents the exoteric aspect of religion. In this cycle the inner
preponderated over the outer, the spirit over the form : hence,
says MÕrzà JAnf, the Bib, who first appeared, was named 'Ali
Muhammad, while Hazrat-i-KuddO (whom, as we have seen,
he regards as the " Point," or representative of the Prophetic
Function) was named Muhammad 'Ali.
N. H.

La~ .9A .9A Ju -)6.51 4 .5 C7'w ju
"it is as it is, and none knoweth it save those who have
Yet after we have well considered all these illustrations,
these theories of "Mirrors," "Manifestations," and the like,
there remains a residuum of facts which makes it very
difficult to believe that the BàbÕ doctrine of " returns " did
.not at times approach very closely indeed to what we
understand by transmigration of asotils, or metempsychosis.
Whatjor instance, can we make of the following illustration
of Seyyid Basir's spiritual insight and knowledge of hidden
mysteries given by HAjf MirzA JAnf?-
--j u
.3J~ .3 *-s-!, LOO jU vzj - C)l j1 WW
OA5,.; yj.V_* 31 0 E:) &6~, J_tj
;~u C)~W ijls
"After that lie [i.e. Seyyid Basfr] went to the land of K6f
[Kuni or Kazvfn], where a number of persons were at-
tracted by his influence, and heard from him secret
mysteries. Thus, amongst other things, one night a dog
was howling, and he said, 'This dog is the "return" of
such an one, whom God has thus punished for his sins.'
Then he indicated the house which had been his, saying,
'It is seventeen doors off this lodging of ours ; and he has
several children: by such and such tokens ye may know
that I speak truly.' They subsequently made enquiries,
and those tokens were verified."
If this be not transmigration, it is hard to,say what is.h
Here, however, I must leave the matter for the present,
and, without further discussing the doctrines of the B6bfs,
return to the record of new facts connected with their
history wherewith H.Iji Mfrzi JAW supplies us.
1. Sheykh Ahmad and Seyyid Kdzim.
(Cf. pp. 31-33 supra; Trav. Nam, vol. ii, pp. 234-244;
and B. ii, pp. 888-892.)
Sheykh Ahmad Zeynu'd-Din Ahsi ' i (or, as H.Iji Mfrzi
JAnf, in common with - Subh-i-Ezef and other authorities,
has it, La~sd'i), whose apV ,earance marked the beginning of
the "Minor Manifestation 'of the Bey.4nic cycle, was chosen
out from amongst the Shi'ites by God to prepare men's

hearts for the reception of the new Truth shortly to be
divulged, and to expound the mysteries of the Doctrine of
the Divine Unity (tawhid). Therefore was it that he came
from his own country to Persia, visiting its chief towns,
and expounding the doctrines which he was commissioned
from on high to teach; therefore also was it that he used
repeatedly to say, " Thus and thus have I heard from the
Proof " (1.L16 , 1.k_16 aza.~l He composed
numerous works on philosophy and other sciences, amongst
them the 8harh-i-Ziya'rat-i*-Jdmi1; but although he knew
that he was the "Gate" to the ImAm. Mahdf, whose re-
turn was now at hand, he did not openly declare -this-,
the time being not yet ripe, and men still unprepared.
He gathered round himself many disciples, encountered
fierce opposition from the unregenerate, and, when about
to die, nominated HAjf Seyyid I(Aziin of Resht as his
successor and vicegerent.
Seyyid KAzim, the "Second Gate," carried on the work
begun by his predecessor, disputed with the orthodox clergy
at Baghdad, answered the questions addressed to him by
enquirers of all classes, and composed numerous works, in-
cluding the Sharh-i-Kasida (wherein, by implication, he
made known the doctr'ine' of the 11 Gatehood " or B(ibigyat)

and the ffujjat-i-Beiligha or " Conclusive Proof," wherein
he treated of the signs whereby the representative or vice-
gerent of the ImAm might be recognized-signs, adds Mfrzi
JAW, which found their realization only in "the Sun which
rose in the Land of the FArs," i.e. MÕrzà 'Alf Muhammad.
He also hinted at the youth of his successor in some of his
poems, as in the following verse:-
0 tender in years, 0 fiesh of body, 0 scarcely weaned
from the drinking of milk'." He even designated Mfrz6
'Alf Muhammad more specifically as the expected "Proof."
"One of his disciples," says Mf rzA JAnf, " a man deserving
of all reliance, related as follows. 'One day we were in
the company of the late Seyyid when some one asked
about the manner of the Manifestation which was to
succeed him. "After my death," replied he, 'there will be
My transcript has
_j.k in the second misrd', but 43 and
are so constantly interchanged and confounded throughout the text
that I have not hesitated to make an emendation which appears
to be necessary. This somewhat exaggerated description of
extreme youthfulness is common in Persian: e.g. Firdawsf says,
in speaking of SohrAb's tender age :-
Tke -smell of milk (i.e. his mother's milk) still comes
from his mouth."
So also HAfiz:-
0 sweet boy, what creed hast thou adopted that our blood
appears more laiqlW to thee than thy mother's milk? "
The first misrCt' of the verse here attributed to Seyvid KAzim.
occurs near the beginning of the second book of the Masnavi (ed.
'AhVu'd-Dawla, p. 106,1. 13).
a schism amongst my followers, but God's affair will be
clear as this rising sun." As he spoke he pointed to the
door, through which streamed a flood of sunlight; and, at
that very moment, MÕrzà 'Alf Muhammad crossed the
threshold and entered the room. We did not, however,'
continued the narrator, 'apprehend his meaning until His
Holiness was manifested'."
Another of Seyyid KAzim's disciples related as follows:-
One day I entered the Seyyid's private apartment, and

saw His Holiness the Pole of the Universe, generally known
as 'the Most Great Gate of God' [Bdbu'11dhu'1-a'zam],
seated in the place of honour, while the Seyyid was over-
shadowed by the shadow of His Holiness, who was saying
to him, 'Have you communicated the matter to mankind?'
'Yes,' answered he, humbly and deferentially, 'I have com-
municated what you commanded, and composed treatises
thereon.' He was further describing what lie had done
when I entered, whereupon he at once changed his manner.
But I marvelled greatly at this reverence which he shewed
to his Holiness, whom I had repeatedly seen enter his
presence without receiving any special mark of attention."
So likewi se MullA Yfisuf 'Alf, who subsequently " burned-
himself like a moth in the flame of Love in the Land of B."
(i.e. Bdrfuru'sh), addressed a letter to his master Seyyid
Kdzim requesting him to specif I y some of the 'aligns whereby
the " Gate 6f the ImAm" might be known. eyyid Kizim.
in response to this request wrote a long list of these signs,
and sealed it with his seal. This document remained in
Mulli Yfisuf 'Alf's possession for three years, till the
I I Manifestation" -of Mirzi 'Alf Muhammad; whom, be-
cause in him these prognostications were fulfilled, P MulU
Y-hsuf 'Alf accepted as, the promised Proof. 1 In Medina
also Seyyid K64ini promised one' who questioned him on
the matter that he should meet the "Gate of the ImAm,
mentioning his name and the tokens whereby he might be
known, and adding, " Convey my salutations to him."
1 Probably Suleymin Kh6n. Cf. the bottom of p. 31 and
top of p. 32 supra, where allusion seems to be made to the same
tradition. HAjf MÕrzà JAnf says that he had this from the person
to whom this promise was given.

Seyyid KAzim, like Sheykh Ahmad, met with much
hostility and opposition from the " BAlAsarf " Shi'ites.
Once his turban was plucked from his head while he was at
his prayers. On another occasion, aa-, he was walking in
the street, a fanatic spat in his face; an insult which he
only noticed by wiping his face with his hand and saying
with a smile "I have attained to the Lord
of the Ka'ba"; for tfiere is a'tradition to the effect that no
one attains to the highest degree of faith ere lie is spat on
and cursed as a heretic by seventy persons. His followers,
too, were continually exposed to insults and annoyances of
one sort and another. Thus MullA 'Abdu'l-KhAlik of
Yezd', notwithstanding his undisputed learning and piety,
was forbidden to preach in Mesh-hed, was regarded by the
fanatical " BAlAsarfs " as unclean, and was forbidden to go
to the public baths or visit the tomb of the 1mAin RizA.
HAjf MÕrzà JAnf adds that he saw one fanatic in Mesh-1;ed
who refused to perform the "visitation" of the shrine be-
cause he considered that it had been contaminated by the
approach of MullA 'Abdu'l-KhAlik; while an acquaintance
of his was treated- as unclean by another equally unreason-
able "BAIdsarf " because he had listened with pleasure to a
discourse on the woes of the Holy Family delivered by the
aforesaid Mulli.
To what extent MÕrzà 'Alf Muliammad studied under
Seyyid KAzim is, says MÕrzà Jinf, a debateable point. He
remained for about a year in the neighbourhood of KerbelA
and Nejef, of which three months were passed at the
former place; and during this time he used occasionally to
frequent the lectures of Seyyid KAzim. That this was
not for purposes of study MÕrzà JAW is careful to explain,
1 Concerning Mul16 'Abdu'l-Kh6lik we learn the following
particulars from Mfrzi J4nf. His father was a Jew who was
converted to IslAm. He himself followed the Sheykhf school
till, on the appearance of the 136b, he became a Bibf. His son
Sheykh 'Alf, a youth twenty years of age, was killed amongst
the Bibfs (apparently at Sheykh Tabarsf), whereupon MullA
'Abdu'l-Khdlik seems to have grown lukewarm in the faith, if
he did not actually forsake it.
I f
I a
for Seyyid KAzim, says he, was 11 helped " by his mere
presence; "and this," he adds, "is a thing whereof men
Wot not."
The substance of what is related in the New History
concerning Seyyid KAzim's death, and the prophecies there

uttered by him, is also given by Mfrza4 JAnf, but he omits
the narrative from the C.-codex which occupies the greater
part of pp. 31-2 supra, and adds a few unimportant par-
ticulars. The retirement of his disciples for forty days'
prayer and fasting to the mosque of Khftfa (p. 33 supra) is
also mentioned, but while on the one hand MÕrzà Jinf
records the substance, if not the form, of their prayer for
help and guidance, he suppresses their names, probably
because he did not wish to mention needlessly the -names
of persons most of whom were still living when he wrote.
2. The Buib's youth, and the earlier period of his
(Cf. Trav. Narr., vol. ii, pp. 249-251; and supra,
pp. 33-39.)
Concerning the BAb's career previously to his " Mani-
festation " H.1jf Mfrz.A JAnf gives some particulars which
are wanting in the other histories. Allusion is made to
the miraculous faculties which he possessed even as a child,
and the story of his having exclaimed at his birth I' El-
mulk li'lldh " (" The Kingdom is God's"), given at p. 262
supra, is noticed. Mfrz6 J6nf further relates that one day
when he was at the bath with his father he- exclaimed
suddenly, "Arise, and let us depart, for the earth is going
to move, and such-and-such a bazaar will be destroyed,"
which thing actually came to pass. Of his childhood no
further particulars are given, but it is stated that he was
( I "' (illiterate) and had no right knowledge of Arabic
grammar (cf. pp. 262-4 supra). He left Shiriz for
Bfishire at the, age of 17, and remained there for 5 years
engaged in commercial pursuits. During this time he won
the esteem of all the merchants with whom he was brought
in contact by his integrity and piety. He was extremely
attentive to his religious duties, and gave away large sums

in charity. On one occasion he gave 70 Wmdns (about
X22) to a poor neighbour. On another occasion a customer
came to negotiate for the purchase of a quantity of indigo
which had been consigned to him. He happened at the
time to be engaged in his devotions, and so told the intend-
ing purchaser to wait for a while till he should be free to
attend to him. The customer at first consented - but
afterwards, being tired of waiting, departed without buying
the indigo. The price of indigo fell within the next few
days, and MÕrzà 'Alf Muhammad had to sell his stock at a
loss of 70 Wmains, all of which he bore himself. The
stories of his having practised austerities and put himself
under the guidance of a spiritual director (murshid) are
flatly contradicted by MÕrzà JAnf, who characterizes them
as "absolute calumnies and sheer falsehoods."
When Mfrzi 'Alf Mul ' iamngiad had been engaged in com-
merce for 5 years (according to the nuiliber of the letter
M and the word BW), and had sufficiently demonstrated
his capacity for the conduct of practical affairs, that men
might not afterwards be able to say that he was a mere
dreamer, he left Bushire to visit the Holy Shrines of Nejef
and KerbelA, remaining for about a year at the former, and
for about three months at the latter. It was during this
time that, as has been already mentioned, he foregathered
with Seyyid KAzim of Resht. Having completed these
visitations," he returned to Shfrdz.
On the death of Seyyid Kizim and the dispersion of his
disciples, MullA Huseyn of Bushraweyh came to ShfrAz.
The account of his conversion given by MÕrzà JAnf agrees
substantially, and often word for word, with that given in
the New History (pp. 33--39 supra)~ AsMullAHuseynis
universally called " the First who believed J31),
there seems to be no doubt that it was in ShfrAz that the
Bib first declared himself; indeed MÕrzà JAnf expressly
I See p. 330 supra.
2 It is worth noting, however, that HAji MirzA JAnf does not
give the isndd, or channel by which Mulla' Huseyn's account of
his conversion reached him, as the New History does (p. 34
states that " he concealed the mystery of his mission from
mankind till such time as Seyyid Kdzim passed away to
God's mercy, and Mulli Muhammad Huseyn of Bushraweyh
came to the La)igd of F4 " (i.e. Shlrdz, the capital of Firs).
The only thing added by MÕrzà JAW in this place is that
the Bdb cured Mulli Huseyn of the palpitation of the
heart from which he su6red with a spoonful of sherbet.
3. History of the Bdb from the time of his pilgrimage

to Mecca till the death of Alfinu'chihr Khan.
(Cf. pp. 198-213 supra; and Trav. Narr., vol. ii,
pp. 249-253, and 262-8.)
Having made several important converts in ShfrAz, and
despatched missionaries provided with copies of the new
sacred books, oil the verses or " signs " ((~y(tt) of which he
based his claim, to the King and clergy of Persia, as well
as "to all parts of the Muhammadan world," the BAb set
out for Mecca. It appears from MÕrzà JAnf's explicit state-
ment that his original intention was, as asserted by the
Muhammadan historians, to " make known his affair at the
back of Kilfa," that is to say, to declare himself as the
long-expected ImAm Mahdf. As, however, the Muslim
world shewed,no great readiness to respond to such a call,
while many of the missionaries sent out to proclaim the
"Manifestation" met with disrespectful and even cruel
~reatment, he changed his plan, and declared himself
instead at Mecca, where his-claim soon became generally
known. MirzA JAW here gives the narrative of one who
saw him there, cited from his work in the New History
(pp. 199-200 supra). The narrator is described by MÕrzà
JAnf in the text as "a fellow-townsman," but a marginal
note added in another hand gives his name, and a brief
sketch of his career (see ii. I at the foot of p. 199 supra).
The account of the B.4b's history after his return from
Mecca to ShfrAz given by MÕrzà JAW runs very closely
parallel to the version of the New History, and I shall
therefore only notice the divergences. The arrest of the
BAb on the road between Bushire and Shfrdz, his confine-

nient to his house, the attack oil his house on Raiiiazdn
21st and the punishment inflicted bythe governor Huse*yn
Kh& on his uncle Seyyid 'Alf (known as flazrat-i-Habib,
"the Friend") and his missionaries Mu!14' Muhammad
Sddik of KhurAsAn and Mulli,'Alf Akbar of ArdistAn are
ihe same in both histories, except that MÕrzà JAW has not
got the narrative of the L.-text translated at pp. 200-202
supra. The account of the circumstances which enabled
the Bib to escape from ShfrAz is evidently copied almost
verbatim from MÕrzà Jitif, as also are the miracles related
on the authority of .44 Muhammad Huseyn of ArdistAn
at pp. 205-207 supra, and the account of his martyrdom.
The price paid by him for the three horses is, however,
given as fifty-five instead of fifty tftmdns. Two other
incidents of the journey to Isfahin, related by Mfrzd Jdnf
on the same authority, are omitted by both mss. of the
New History. To whichever of the three liorsea-, the Bib
rode, says MÕrzà JAnf, a peculiar virtue seemed to be com-
municated, so that it went more smoothly and swiftly than
the other horses, and, so long as it bore him, forbore from
voiding its excreta. Again, as MÕrzà Jainf relates) at one
stage where they halted an old tribesman met them, and,
on beholding the Bib (though he knew not who it was),
became affected with so strong an emotion that lie wept
till he was like to die. In the account of the death of Aki
Seyyid KAzim, as a result of the awe produced in him by
witnessing the Bib's transfiguration, MÕrzà JAnf says that
MullA Muhammad Takf of HerAt read the prayers over his
body, which was subsequently- sent -to KerbelA for in-
Concerning the Bib's residence at Isfahin, MÕrzà JAnf
adds the following particulars. The Jmdm-Jum'a, whose
guest the Bib was for a time, at first shewed so much
respect to his visitor that lie would bring the basin for him
to wash his hands at meals. The naine of the son of
MullA 'Alf of NAr (p. 209 supra) was MÕrzà Hasan. The
tribesmen whose services Minftchilir KhAu o6red to place
at the Bib's disposal in case he was disposed to make
war with Muhammad ShAh were BakhtiyAris, not Slidh-
sevans (p. 21i), and their number is given as 5000, not
50)000. The New History seems to be guilty of another
similar exaggeration with regard to the speed wherewith
the Bib wrote down his "verses"; a thousand verses in
six, not in three hours, being twice mentioned by MirzA
JAni. The transmutation of a metal pipe-cover to gold at

the Bib's touch, as well as his foretelling Minfichilir
KhAn's death 19 days before its occurrence to Seyyid
YahyA of DArAb, is referred to in n. 2 on p. 212 supra.
Minwdchihr Klidn's sincere devotion to the Bib is brought
out even more strongly by MirzA JAuf than in the New
History, and, according to him, the Bib used repeatedly to
say after his death, " Khudd rahmat kunad Mu'tamad-ra`
(" May God shew mercy to the Mib'tamad "). MÕrzà JAnf
also adds that after his death the Bib wrote to the
prime minister, HAjf Mimi Akisf, stating that the late
H,Wtamadu'd-Dawla' had made over to him all his goods
and possessions, and demanding that these should accord-
ingly be handed over to him; a request to which the
minister paid no attention whatever.
4. Conversion of Seyyid Ya6y' o ara
a f D i &
-(Cf. pp. 111-115 supra; and Trav. Narr., vol. ii, p. 254.)
The account of Seyyid YahyA's conversion, cited in the
New History in connection with the Nfrfz war, is intro-
duced by Mirzi JAnf in this place. The narrative, which
MÕrzà JAnf heard directly from Seyyid Yahyi, is correctly
quoted in the New History, except that the following
passage, which concludes it, is suppressed. " I enquired of
him , writes MÕrzà Jinf, "saying, '0 Unique One' of the
Age! What says your noble father concerning His Holi-
ness the Truth (gazrat-i-Hakk)?' He answered, 'Ile pro-
fesses himself undecided.' Then he added, confirming his
words with an oath, 'By the Truth of God's Holy Essence,
should my father deny this most luminous Manifestation, I
would assuredly, notwithstanding his conspicuous virtues
and eminent position, slay him with my own hand for the
I I have elsewhere pointed out that Wahid is numerically
equivalent to YahYA. Hence not only Mfrzi YahvA Subh-i-Ezel,
but also Seyyid Yahyi of Dirib enjoyed this title.

sake of the Beloved; and this although such a father as he
and such a son as I are soldonhi met with under the Heaven
of the Moon."'
5. History of the Bab, contivued till his E,,ra?niiiatiogn
at Tabrfz.
(Cf. pp. 213-228, 238-240, and 284-288 spr,.)
The points wherein MÕrzà J6nf corrects or shlipplements
the passages of the New History above referred to are as
follows. On the death of Minu'chihr KhAn, Gurgfn KhAn,
the acting governor, sent a message to the Bib expressing
his intention of calling on him ; but afterwards sent a
second message, saying that he was prevented frorn
carrying out this intention, and requesting the Bib to
visit hiin. When, agreeably to this invitation, the Bib
came to his abode, he thus addressed him. " Seeing that
the people have become aware of your being in this place,
they, and' especially the clergy, will assuredly make soine
attempt to molest you. Should I deliver you over to
them, I should be acting as a traitor towards my bene-
factor, inasmuch as I should be injuring one whom he held
dear. If, on the other hand, I should refuse to surrender
you, they will write to TeherAn, the HAjf [i.e. HAjf Mfrzi
AkAsf] will demand you at my hands, and I shall be
obiiged to submit, since I have not the strength of the late
J[Wtamadu'd-Dawla. It is therefore best that you should
depart, to Telierdn, if it so please you, or, according to
your original intention, to KhurAsAn." The Bib at once
expressed his willingness to accede to this proposal. "You
must start to-night," continued Gurgfn KhAn. The Bib
objected that he bad made no preparations for so sudden a
departure. " I have men ready to escort you," said Gurgfn
KhAn; " and you must set out at once." The Bib was
accordingly obliged to mount, all unequipped for travel as
he was, and was not even permitted to bid farewell to the
wife whom. he had recently married in Isfalidn. So in-
censed was he at this treatment that he determined to eat
nothing til ' I he arrived at KAshAn (a journey of five stages),
and in this resolution he persisted, in spite of the renion-
strances of the six horsemen composing his escort, till he
reached the second stage, MArch6-KhAr. There, however,
he met Mulli Sheykh 'Alf, called "Jena'b-i-'Azfm"' and
another of his missionaries, whom he had commissioned
two days previously to proceed to TeherAn; and these, on
learning from his guards how matters stood, succeeded in
prevailing on him to take some food.
Concerning the Bib's stay at KishAn, it is very re-
markable that MÕrzà JAnf, whose guest he was, says
nothing beyond what is given in the footnote on p. 214
supra, notwithstanding the assertion of the New History

that he "gives in his book a full description of all the
wonderful thinas which they witnessed in those two days
and nights." The only other reference to this halt occurs
in the narrative of Muhammad Beg Chdpairchi'-baishi' who
remarks incidentally that both in the journey to Khinlik
and in the journey thence to Tabriz, the Bib's escort as far
as possible avoided all large towns, such as Kum and
Kazvfn, and that the Bib's entry into KAshAn was only
"by reason of the sincere devotion of one of his friends
and servants, who desired to give himself this honour."
The halt at KhAnlik is briefly noticed by MÕrzà JAnf as in
the New History, except that he says nothing about Behi
having visited the Bib there. HAjf MÕrzà Akdsf he bitterly
describes as " the Haman of the age'j
The narrative of Muhammad Beg Ch6paircht'-b6ishil'
stands almost exactly the same in both histories, except
that, in describing the halt at Zanjin, it is interrupted by
the following account given to Mirzi JAW by MullA Mu-
hammad 'Alf of Zanjin ("Jendb-i-t1,ujjat") of his con-
version. "I met him," says Mirzi Jinf, "in Teherain, in
the house of Mahinfid KhAn the kal4ntar, where he was
confined because of his devotion to His Holiness. He
said, 'I was a mu114, so proud and masterful that I would
abase myself to no one, not even the late HAjf Seyyid
BAkir of Resht, who was regarded as the " Proof of IslAm.
and the most learned of doctors. My doctrines being after
the Akhbirf school, I differed in certain questions with
the mass of the clergy. People complained of me, and
Muhammad Shdh summoned me to TeherAn. I came, and
he perused my books and informed himself of their purport.

1 350 APPENDIX 11. mfRzk J_iNf'S 11ISTORY.
I asked him to summon the Seyyid [i.e. Seyyid BAkir of
Resht] also, that we might dispute. At first he intended
to do so, but afterwards, having considered the mischief
which might result, suspended the proposed discussion.
To be brief, notwithstanding all this self-sufficiency, so
soon as news of the Manifestation of His Holiness reached
me, and I had perused a small page of the verses of that
Point of the FurkAn, I became as one beside himself, and
involuntarily, ye~ with full option, confessed the truth of
his claim, and became his devoted slave; for I beheld in
him the most noble of the Prophet's miracles, and, had I
rejected it, I should have rejected the truth of the religion
of IslAm. Therefore did I make confession of faith, take
upon my neck the yoke of his service, and devote myself
to the furtherance of the religion of that Lord of the
World. Amongst other things, 1 circulated his "Seven
Works" (-Ath(ir-i-sab'a 1) ' and forbade the smoking of the
~alyain. Many followed me; and the True Religion
waxed so strong that the unbelievers no longer dared to
smoke the kalydn in the bazaars. So my support of the
Bibf doctrine became notorious, and was represented to
the King and his Minister, who, knowing my-power and
influence, and that two or three thousand families in the
Khamsa' were wholly devoted to me, feared lest 1 might
deliver His Holiness out of the hands of the escort'. They
therefore sent fifty horsemen, who, ere I was aware of it,
surrounded my house. These brought a royal mandate
bidding me, in the most absolute and peremptory terms, to
come to TeherAn, whatever might be my condition. Being
at the time in bad health, I considered with myself whether
I should do better to go to TeherAn, or to resist them.
His Holiness, however, bade me go, so I came, and it is
now some while that I have been in confinement. As soon
1 4
as His Holiness reached MAh-ku , he honoured me with one
I I do not know whether the work generally called the 11 Seven
Proofs " (Dald'il-i-sab'a) is here intended, or simply seven of
the Bib's earlier works.
2 The district of which ZaniAn s the capital.
3 Cf. pp. 137-140 supra.
4 So MÕrzà JAnf generally writes Mikii, as though he would
of his most blessed Epistles, wherein he wrote) " I swear by
the Truth of God that thy questioning me in the Land of
Zanj6n concerning the duty incumbent on thee was more
excellent than the worship of the two grosser races'." 2 P)
The continuation of Muhammad Beg Cha'pdrchi-bdsht`s
parrative as given by Mfrz~ JAnf differs from the version
in the lVew History only in a few points of any conse-

quence. Thus (p. 220 supra, 1. 3) the BAb says, am so
tired! " a remark which is probably su ressed in the New
History as conflicting with the conclu ing sentence of the
first paragraph on p. 221. Again, after the account of the
healing of the scald-headed child at Mflin, and the con-
version of 200 of the inhabitants of that place (p. 221 supra,
1. 8), MÕrzà JAnf adds:-"And His Holiness remarked.,
'Mfldn is one of the regions of Paradise.' Now when we
were come nigh to Tabrfz, one day he said while on the
road, 'It would be, very nice if we could have somg e roast
lamb to-day.' No sooner had we reached our halting-place
than one brought a lamb, which we roasted. ' The mounted
guards, having heard some remarks about the wealth of
His Holiness, one day seized him by the collar and de-
manded money. He replied, 'I have no money.' When
those accursed ones importuned him yet more, he at length
produced a purse of dollars amounting in value to ten or
twenty Nmains (I do not at this moment recollect the
exact sum),and angrily cast them on the ground. I was
much astonished, knowing that His Holiness had no
money." " It would appear," adds Mirzi JAnf, as a paren-
thesis to Muhammad Beg's narrative, 11 that this took place
between Teherin and Kazvfn." Again, at the end of the
first paragraph on p. 2~2, MÕrzà JAW makes the BAb add,
"0 God, do Thou judge between me and these creatures of
Thine! " A few lines lower, Muhammad Beg, in speaking
of the BAb's sojourn in his house', adds that they were in
the habit of using the water in which he had washed hias
hands as a cure for divers maladies, and that it proved
make it signify ','the dwelling of the Moon"; for he frequently
speaks of the Bib as "that Moon of Saintship"
' ie. Men and genies.

most efficacious. Again, in the instructions which the Bib As regards the BAb's sojourn at Chibrik (p. 240 supra),
gives to Muhammad Beg at the bottom of p. 222, he is it is worth noticing, though natural, thai MullA Sheykh
made by MfriA JAnf to say, "Tell him [i.e. the Prince] that 'Alf of Khur4sAn, entitled Jendib-i-'Azzm, is spoken of by
1 will not move unless they kill me and then take me"; MirzA JAnf as still living. He is also entitled Ba'b-i-
and it is further stated that actual violence was resorted to
Khaitam, and it is stated that the BAb wrote a treatise
by the new escort ere he could be induced to leave Tabriz. explaining why his name 'Alf was equivalent to 'Az in. It
i f
Muhammad Beg also adds, in describing his visit to MAkfi, appears from Mirzi JAnf that Yah A KhAn, when removed
thai the BAb kissed him oil the face as he raised him from from the wardenship of Chihrik, was imprisoned at Tabriz,
the ground, on which he had cast himself in supplication. but it is not quite clear whether this was brought about
if isoner, or
The account of Ashraf KhAn's disgrace is, as already by his devotion to his pri by some other cause.
remarked in the foot-note on p. 224, substaDtially the same We now come to the BAb's examination before the
in Mfrzal Jinf, but a marginal note adds that he " reached Crown-Prince at Tabriz, the account of the " Indian
hell through the malady of insanity." The remark made believer," inserted here the New History, being placed
by the BAb on hearing of Bahman MirzA's disgrace is also later in MirzA Jinf's work. In the account of this exami-
somewhat differently reported, as follows:-" Yes, since be iiat'on it is worth noting that every
I expression of Mirzi
would not help the Truth [or God, "Hakk"], and consented JA . nf's which reflects on the conduct of the Crown-Prince
to the abasement thereof, God naturally brought about his (the present Shih) is carefully suppressed in the New
abasement. History. Thus MÕrzà JAnf remarks with evident disap-
The narratives of MÕrzà 'Abdu'l-Walih6b and Mirzi proval that the Crown-Prince sat in the place of honour
Muhammad 'Alf, together with the long dissertation on the (which he clearly thinks should have been left for the
di6rent classes of believerag, the list of eminent converts to BAb); calls him a " wretch " (~araimzaida) for disrespect-
the BàbÕ faith, the account of SuleymAii Klidn's martyrdom,
fully rolling a globe towards the Bib and bidding him
&c. (pp. 224.-239 supra), are all entirely omitted by explain its structure (p. 288, n. 1, supra); and makes it
MÕrzà JAnf, the last for the obvious reason that he and clear that it was in the first instance he, not the clergy,
SuleymAn KhAn suffered death on the same day. The who ordered the bastinado. Concerning the actual discus-
account of the BAb's confinement at MAkft is substantially
sion, the following passage is the only thing of importance
the same in both histories, but the following additions and added by MÕrzà JAW. "' What,' said Mulld Muhammad
variants occur in the older narrative. The BAb used to (there is no mention of the "scornful smile" with which
descend from the hill on which stood the castle in which the narrative is embellished in the New History), " 'does
he was confined to go to the bath, and on these occasions ~iBdb" mean?' 'How' replied the Bdb, 'dost thou under-
he would also visit the warden 'Alf KhAn, whose family stand the holy saying  "I am the City of
shewed him many attentions. The number of the. BAb's Knowledge, and 'Alf is its Gate"? Hast thou not con-
cc " in circulation at this time is estimated by MirzA sidered thine own face, how it has four organs of perception
J6nf at a hundred thousand, not a million. It is also situated on one surface, which makes five in all, according
stated that when one day the principal nuilld of MAkA to the number  Bb', which accords also
came to see the BAb, and, in the course of their conversa- with the number of the hei in Huwiyyat'? Now these
tion, behaved somewhat disrespectfully, the BAb struck four organs of perception are the Eye, which tells of the
the unclean form of that foul creature " so violently with "Station of the Heart" (Makim-i-Fit'rid), is maintained
his staff that it broke in two. He is also made to address by the " Support of the Divine Unity" (Rukn-i-Tawh~d),
'Alf KhAn in his parting speech as " 0 accursed one

Ey mal'u'n See pp. 330 and 344 supra.
N. H.

354 APPENDIX 11. mfRzl ikNf'S HISTORY.
and is the location of flic, Will (J1ash,iyyat); the Ear,
l ~) 'i), is maintained
which tells of the, "Station of Reasol ('Ak-
by the "Support of Prophetliood " (,Rukn-i-Nubavvat), and
a Oro-all of Smell, which tells
typifies Devotion (Irdda); the
of the, "Station of the Soul" (J1ak(im-i-.ATq/s), corresponds
to the, ,Support of Saintship" (Rukn-i- ViNyat), and holcla,3
tile position of Providence (Kadar), and tile Month, which
tells of the "Station of the iWy " (Aak(tm-i-Jism) and the
Support of the Perfect Believer" (Ritkn-i-SVa)', and corre-
sponds to Predestination (Kaz(t).' One of those present (it
would appear to have been'H~jf Mulld Mahmfid) said, 'Sir
Seyyid, the eyes, the nostrils, and the ears are each
double; why do you count them as one?' He replied, ' 0
my dear friend, they are each reckoned as one. Yea,
though the ear has two channels, it hears but one voice.'
Then he added, 'Give ear.' For it appears that at the
beginning of the conference they had agreed that not more
than one person should speak, and that that one should be
MwLillA Muliammad. Therefore it was that His Holiness
said, 'Give ear ' ' intending thereby to signify two things ;
firstly, 'You agreed to be as the ear, not as the tongue, so
you have contravened your agreement' ; seco?ld~y, ' Open
the ear of the heart, and -understand the things of Truth;
thus, and not by argument, will your cravings be ful-
filled."' Mfrz6 JAni further adds that the BAb requested
that a physician might be allowed to feel his pulse and
1 The extent to which the classification of things into groups
of four prevails throughout Mfrza' Jinf's work is very noticeable.
Indeed this number is brought much ngiore prominently forward
in his book than the number 19, probably owing to the predomi-
nant influence of the Sheykhf doctrine of the " Four Supports "
(Ark6n-i-arbala) here alluded to. It will be seen that these
11 Four Supports" are given by Mfrz6 J6nf (and this holds good
throughout his work) as
above, viz.
9.3, " , and
the or C,.,j ently,
tj (these two being, appar
only different views of the same not as on p. 243 of
Vol. ii of my Traveller's Narrative.
certify to his perfect sanity, which (p. 285 supra) had been
called in question.
To the account of these proceedings Mfrzal JAnf append
the following curious narrative. About forty days before
the death of Mullammad ShAh, Prince Mahdi-Kulf Mirzi

dreamed that he was attending a levee at the court, when
suddenly a young Seyyid entered and rapidly approached
the royal throne. As soon as the King saw him, he shewed
signs of extreme disquietude, and cried out, "0 my lords,
this is the Seyyid BAb; seize him, for he purposeth my
destruction!" No one paid any heed to his words, and
the young Seyyid continued to approach the King, till,
when lie waas close to him, he suddenly drew forth a pistol
and shot him dead. The levee at once broke up in dis-
order; "and," continued the Prince, "if any harm befall
the King in these days, I shall know for a surety that the
BAb is of a truth from God."
6. Kurratu'l-'Ayn, and the Sluihru'd or Badasht
(Cf. pp. 43-44, and 270-282 supra.)
Haviihl(, carried the history of the Bib to- this point,
Mfrz.A JAW, obser i g a truer chronological sequence than
the New flistor ' y, proceeds to speak of the events which
immediately preceded the MdzandarAn insurrection. In
the course of this lie relates the history of -Kurratu'l-Ayn
(0111ittil1g, of course, all reference to her martyrdom, which
had not taken place when his book was composed), and
describes. with some fullness of detail the Badasht or
SliAbr,dd Conference. As before, 1 shall only notice the
points wherein MÕrzà Jini corrects or supplements, the
New History.
The passage cited from MÕrzà JAW in the New History
(from p. 43, 1. 5 to the word " KhurisAn " at the beginning
of 1. 18 on p. 44) agrees very closely with the original, the
only additional items of information contained in the latter
being that MullA Mithammad Huseyn of Busbraweyh
(thus he is always named by MÕrzà JAW) stayed with
tta;rat-i-Kudd4s at BArfurdsh ; that the commentary g on

the words "God the Eternal " written by the latter coin-
prised. not 3000, but 20,000 verses ; that the fOrIlgler, just
before his departure into KliurAsAn, received from the latter
(not, as stated on p. 44 of the lVen, History, from the 136b)
the epistle known as " the Eternal 18" itness, " together' with
a white robe (kab(t) and a turban; and that Ha-rat-i-
Kuddi'ts was expelled from Barfurftsh by the
Having reached this point, Mirzk Ani, as a preliminary
to his very remarkable account of what took place at
Badasht, introduces Kurratu'l-Ayn to the reader. The
author of the New History has evidently considered it
desirable to suppress the Badasht episode altogether, and,
there being no other reason for mentioning Kurratti'l-'Ayn
at this point of the story than the prominent part which
she took in this conference, continues the narrative of the
MAzandarAn insurrection without inteyruption.
Concerning Kurratu'l-Ayn, MÕrzà JAnf adds the follow-
ing particulars to those given on pp. 270-282 supra. Her
lectures at KerbelA (p. 271) were attended by women as
well as inen, the former being admitted within the curtain
which separated her from the male portion of her audience.
It appears that it was not so much the scruples entertained
by her and her followers as to the legality of meats pro-
chlired from the bazaars (p. 272) that attracted the attention
and called down the disapprobation of the TuTkish Govern-
Ifflent, as the claim advanced by Kurratu'l-'Ayn that she
was a " manifestation " (mazhar) of the Prophet's daughter
FAtima, and that any unclean thing was rendered pure by
being submitted to her gaze. It appears also that (pro-
bably in consequence of' these pretensions) the chief Muftf
of Baghdad nearly determined to put her to death. That
she received the title of Tcihira (" the Pure") from the
BAb (p. 273) and was included amongst the " Letters of
the Living " is also stated by Mirz& J411f.
MÕrzà JAnVs description of the meetitig of Kurratu'l-
'Ayn with Hazrat-i-ICudd~s at ShAhr~id or Badas~lit (which
latter MÕrzà JAnf in one place fancifully calls e-i
" the Land of the Plain of Innovation ") is chiefly re-
markable for a long homily on certain points of BAN doc-
trine, Of which the tradition of Kumeyl referred to at pp. 329
-330 supra forms the text. Unfortunately the ms. is rather
corrupt at this point, so that itgis not quite clear whether
this is intended to be a report of the address actually
delivered by Kurratu'l-'Ayn (see Gobineau, p. 181), or of
an address defivered by Hazrat-i-Kuddiis, or whether it is
merely one of MÕrzà JAni's 'Own di-ssertations on doctrine.
Its length, and the amount of commentary which would be

required to make clear certain obscure points of doctrine
which it raises, render it impossible for me to attempt a
full translation of it here, but certain points demand notice.
The doctrine of "Return " (rij'at) is treated of at some
length, and the manner in which it is explained ives at
least some colour to the oft-repeated allegation t1lat the
B,Ibfs believe in Metempsychosis (see pp. 334- 9 supra).
The outward forms of religion (prayer, fastin,~, pilgrimage,
and alms) are explained allegorically, after t e fashion of
the Isma'flfs. All men's goods are declared to be the
property of the " Point" (i.e. the BAb). The abrogation
of the laws of the previous dispensation is announced, and
laws in general are declared to be necessary only till such
time as men have learned to comprehend the " Doctrine of
the Unity " (Tawhid), by which is meant the recognition
of the true nature of the " Point," or Divine Manifestation
of the age. Here is a translation of a typical passage from
the concluding pOrtiOD of the homily:-
" It is declared in many traditions touching the religion
of the Kd'im that it shall abrogate all [previous] religions,
for ' the perj~ction o the doctrine of the Divine Unity is
the negation of [all] predicates from Him,' and 'Mankind
shall become a single church,' and He will make all religions
one. Now His ordinances are esoteric ordinances, and
when the esoteric comes, the exoteric order must needs
depart. Thus it is to be understood from certain tra-
ditions that, tinder the rule of Him who is to arise of the
Family of Muhammad, men will go to the bazaars, invoke
blessings, and take ~as an equivalent] whatever they please
from the shops; which thing should one do now, he would,
according to the Law of the Prophet of God, forfeit his
hand. In short, the ordinances of the religion of the Kd'im
(upon whom be peace) are the ordinances of Unit~: all

goods are His goods; all men are His servants; and -ill
women are His handmaidens, whom He giveth to whom-
soever He pleasetb, and taketh from whomsoever He
pleaseth, according to the plhirport of the holy text, 'Say,
" 0 God, Lo?-d of the Kingdo?n ! Yliou givest the Khigdom
to whontsoever 7`kou pleasest, and strippest the Kingdom
from whomsoever I'liou pleasest'.` There is likewise a
tradition to the effect that His Holiness [the K(Vivz] will
change wives and husbands, even as the Master', who hath
given his aservaiit and his handmaid' to one another [, hath
done]. And this is assuredly sanctioned by the Holy Law,
for our Master hath certainly as much authority as every
Master liath over his slaves and his handinaidens. The
essence of His religion is the Doctrine of Unity, and Wis-
dom, and Love all around us is the !Cibla', and this is
the meaning of IVItitkersoever ye turn, there is the Pace
Of God',' and the realization of Vle it is who is mainfest in
everit qnainj~station',- although His manifestation will be
the last, as, for instance, ' 0 God, vei-ily 1pray 7'liee of Thy
Spleadour [Beh(i], whereof the Gate is HV, in which is
all Thy Splendour; 0 God, 1pra ' y Thee by all Thy Splen-
dour' ... to the end of the prayer, is nineteen Gates [.B4b]',
which is the number of the Unity And should
men not be able to receive the doctrine of the Unity at the
beginning of the Manifestation, ordinances and restrictions
will again be prescribed for them, till they acquire such
power, when these in turn will be abolished. But during
the continuance of the Return" the veils will gradually be
lifted, till the verities [of religion] be established, and men
learn to explore the Prophetic Mystery, which is the
Paradise of Primal Unity [Jannat-i-Ahadiggat]. Of this
there is no occasion to speak at prese~t, and 1 have only
submitted to you these remarks that, when people say,
'A company [of Bibis] went to Badaslit and conducted
1 Kur'dn, iii, 25.
2 :
Le. the Bib.
3 i.e. I zrat-i-Kuddfts and Kurratu'l-'Ayn.
, as it would seem, Ia.
4 The point towards which one turns in prayer.
5 Kur'in, ii, 109.
7 Or I clauses.'
6 See pp. 330 and 353 supra.
8 See pp. 334-8 supra.
themselves in an unseemly fashion',' you may know that
they were persons of no mean quality, but the elect of the
world; that they did a great work; and that when men
heap curses and censures on them, it is because of their own
benighted condition. For there is a tradition that, 'when

the standard of the Truth appearas, the people of the East
and of the West shall curse it. - "'
MirzA JAnf then alludes to another tradition about the
four standards " which shall represent the Truth, to wit,
the " Standard of the South " or " of Yaman " (Reiyat-i-
Yanzainz'), which is the Bib or " Zikr ".,- the " Standard of
Huseyn " (Rdyat-i Huseyni'), which is Hazrat-i-Kuddiis;
the " Standard of KhurAsin " (Rdyat-i-khurdseini), which
is Mulli Huseyn of Bushraweyh; and the "Standard of
TilikAn " (R4yat-i-T(ilik6ni), which is Kurratu'l-'Ayii.
osed to these stands the " Standard of' Ab' Sofydn
(Jedyat-i-Sqfy(ini), which is the royal ensign of NA~iru'd-
Din ShAh.
It was at Badasht, as would appear from MÕrzà Jinf's
narrative, that MuIR Muhammad 'Ali of BArfurAsh took
the title of 'Wuddhs," by which, as is explained, he ifitended
to signify that he was a "return" of the Prophet Mullanimad.
This announcement, together with other " sprinklings from
the Ocean of the Doctrine of Unity," and, as it would
seem, a certain apparent lawlessness which characterized
the assembly, proved a cause of agtumbling to no few of the
Bibfs, some of whom withdrew. The continually increasing
noise and clamour presently attracted a number of the
inhabitants to the spot, and these attacked the BàbÕs (who
offered no resistance) and plundered them. The assembly
then broke 'Lip in disorder; some of the BàbÕs, as has been
said, withdrew; while the remainder made their way in
small bands to Ashraf, Amul, BArfurdsh, and other places
in MAzandardn'. Rumours of what had taken place at
2 A great deal of what Mimi JAnf says concerning the
Badasht conference agrees pretty closely with the account given
in the Ndgsikliu't-Tazvdrikh. The expression "the Sun and Moon
are in conjunction," wherewith the BàbÕs bailed the meetiDg Of

Badasht, "partly true and partly 'false," had, however,
preceded them, and from most places where they desired
to halt they were expelled by the inhabitants. Hazrat-i-
Kudd~s made his way secretly to BArfur*sh, but his
inveterate enemy the 8a'?&u'1-'U1ama', becoming aware of
his arrival, informed the governor of SA,rf, who sent far-
r6shes to arrest him and bring him thither. Kurratu'l-
'Ayn, meanwhile, withdrew to NAr, taking with her, as
we learn from another passage of MirzA Jini's history,
Mfrzi YahyA Subh-i-Ezel.
7. The siege of Sheykli Tabarst'
(Cf. pp. 44-110 supra.).
MÕrzà Jainf's narrative now re-unites with the Nev7
History (p. 44 supra), which omits all the details above
recorded. Of MullA Huseyn's expulsion from Mash-had,
however, a somev~nhat fuller account is given. After the
departure of Hazrat-i-Kuddiis from that city, he continued
there for some while. One day he visited the shrine of the
ImAm RizA in company with seventy of his followers, in-
tending afterwards to leave Mash-had for MAzandardn. A
collision occurred between his followers and some of the
townsfolk. Prince Hamz6 Mirz6, who was then encamped
at RAdagAD, being informed of this, sent and brought
MullA Huseyn to the camp, and there detained him for
several aays, treating him, however, respectfully. After a
few days MullA Huseyn was released, whereupon he collected
his followers (amongst whom a certain major of artillery
named 'Abdu'l- Muhammad KhAn subsequently distin-
guished himself by his devotion and faithful service), and
set out westwards. At MiyAml he was reinforced as
described at pp. 44-5 supra.
On reaching the confines of MAzandarAn, MullA Huseyn
and his companions fell in with a body of troops unaer ille
command of the Prince-Governor of the province, who
stopped the BàbÕs, and enquired whence they came and
VaFrat-i-KVdd,Cm and Kurratu'l-'Ayn, occurs, for instance, in
both versions. Cf. Traveller's Narrative, vol. ii, p. 176.
whither they were going. " From KhurAsan," replied they,
('and we are going to KerbelA." The Prince was at first
inclined to dispute their passage, but they presented him
with a sum of two hundred tiimains, whereupon he suffered
them to proceed. A few days later came the news of
Muhammad ShAh's death (p. 45 supra), on receiving which
Mulli Huseyin halted his followers at Ffrfizkfih, and de-
livered to them the address which, in a somewhat em-
bellislied and expanded form, occupies pp. 45-47 supra.
It appears that at this time MullA Huseyn was disposed to
censure the conduct of the BàbÕs at Badasht (not knowing,
y, that Hazrat-i-Kuddfts had been responsible for

ok place), for he expressed his intention of chastising
The entry of MullA Huseyn and his Bibfs into BAr-
furAsh, their -skirmishes witgh the Musulmins, -and the
events which led them to take up their quarters in Slieykh
Tabarsf, are described by Mfrzd JAW as in the New History,
with the following additions. In the first affray, seven
MusulmAns, including the baker whom Mulli Huseyn
C' sliced in two like a fresh cucumber " (see p. 49, supra,
and footnote), were killed. - It is not true, says Mirz&
JAW, that the BàbÕs, as asserted by their enemies, de-
liberately slew several children, but one child was killed
accidentally with its father, a dervish, whom they slew be-
cause he purposely gave them a misleading answer to a
question which they put to him. as to their road. One of
the BAbis who was taken by the townsfolk was buried alive
by them in a well. 'AbbAs-Kulf KhAn is described as
having- been on bad terms with the Sa'fdu'l'U1ami, and
disposed at first to look favourably on the Baibfs and their
doctrine ; and even after ambition and self-interest, as well
as unwillingness to adopt the principles of fraternity' which
prevailed with them, had caused him to abandon the idea
of joining them, he was very unwilling to -fight against
I Certain remarks of Mulli Huseyn's concerning the com-
munity of property recommended to the garrison of Tabarsf,
taken in conjunction with this passage, and certain passages in
the address at Badasht, certainly do suggest some ground for the
ascription of communistic principles to the early BàbÕs.

1 See footnote on p. 53 supra.
them. His son-in-law, Sa'Adat-Kulf Beg, is described as
being actually a believer'.
The askirmish described at pp. 58-59 sitpra, which
resulted in the sack of a village called Dili-i-Nazar KhAn,
wherein the enemy had entrenched themselves, concluded,
according to MÕrzà JAnf, with a massacre of the soldiers
and villagers alike to the number of a hundred and thirty.
This severity on the part of the BAbis, explains the author,
was due to the fact that the villagers bad previously made
professions of friendship, if not of actual faith; for which
reason they were punished as renegades.
The letter written by tla~rat-i-KuddAs to the Prince,
as reported by Mfrz6 JAnf, is in~ch shorter and more
forcibly worded than the version given in the New History
(pp. 59-63 supra), and indications of a most uncompro-
mising attitude towards the establislied government on the
part of the Bibf leader are not waiihng. " We," says lie,
4C are the rightful rulers, and the world is set under our
signet-ring." " Be not thou, 0 Prince," he says in the
concluding passage of his letter, " misled by worldly glory
and the pride of thy youth; know that NAsiru'd-Din ShAh
is no true king, and that such as support hilli shall be
tormented in hell-fire." The capture of Mulli Ylisuf 'Alf
of KhAy and another by the royalists at BArfurfish (p. 64
sitpra) is duly recorded by MirzA JAnf, but the passage
relating to lilas arrest with BehA, cited as from his work by
the New History (pp. 64 -65), appears to be a forgery,
as no trace of it exists in the original. In MÕrzà JAnf's
account of the night attack on Mahdf-Kulf MÕrzà's quarters,
AkA -Rasfil is called, as in the C.-codex of the 714rikh-i-
J~drd, "Bahmfzi" (see footnote on p. 67 supra), and it
is added that the MAzandarAni patois in which lie and his
comrades conversed served to put the royalist troops off
their guard by making them imagine that their visitors
were a detachment of 'Abb(ts-Kulf KhAn's troops. Prince
Malidf-Kuh MÕrzà is reported ~for what purpose does not
clearly appear) to have shot his own servant before effeCtiDg
his escape from the burning building.
The death of MullA Huseyn is said by MÕrzà JAnf to
have taken place on RabiNt'l-aveal 9th [A.H. 1265 = Janu-
ary 2nd, A.D. 18491, and it is stated that he died in his
asaddle as his horse entered the gates of Sheykh Tabarsf.
His death appears to have profoundly discouraged the
Bdbfs : "the back of their courage was broken," says MÕrzà
JAnf, "and many of them dispersed from the Castle into
the surrounding country." We ca n- hardly wonder at this,
for, judged from an external standpoint, Hazrat-i-Kudd~s
seems to have been in every respect his iuf~rior. *Of the

boastful tone which he adopted several instances have been
already given. Of his egotism the following anecdote
recorded by MÕrzà JAnf affords evidence. A few days
~efore Mull& Huseyn's death, Hazrat-i-Kguddgs was walk-
ing with him in the enclosure 4 the Nstle, resting his
hand on his shoulder. 1n the enclosure were some lambs
whose mothers had been carried off by the enemy,- and
tbese, deprived of milk, were bleating piteously. One of
the BàbÕs, moved to pity by their evident distress ' ap-
proached Ha;;rat-i-Kuddfts and said, " These accursed inen.
have wronged these poor beasts, and how great is the w-rong
done them 1 " Thereupon the eyes of lfazrat-i-Kudd~ts
filled with tears,_ -and he replied ' " No, by God, it is not
they who are wronged so much as we." Then he raised
his hand and clapped Mu11A Huseyn on the shoulder,
adding, "By God, this is Huseyn the much-wronged, and
no Antichrist." The narrator adds that he subsequently
came across a tradition in the Bibe'lru'l-Anva'r to the effect
that the ImAin Huseyn will one day return to KerbelA in
company with the Mahdf or Kd'im; that the army of the
unbelievers will also return, and will declare the former to
be Antichrist; that the Kd'im will deny this with an oath;
that the unbelievers will pay no heed to this, but will kill
ImArn Huseyn; that the Kd'im will demand his blood at
their hands; and that forty days after his martyrdom all
things will be plunged into confusion.
Grievous as was the loss incurred by the Bibfs in the
death of Mulli Huseyn, its full results did not at once
become apparent. His younger brother, Mimi Muhammad
Hasan, a youth of 18 or 19 years of age, was made*captain
in his g place. ' (His biography, which MÕrzà JAnf inserts
here, will be found at pp. 93-95 sapra.) The royalists,

moreover, did not discover for some while that the heavy
losses which they had sustained on the night of Rabf'u'l-
Avval 9th had not been without their equivalent. At
length, however, when the stores of the garrison ' were
running low, and they were reduced to eating horse-flesh,
as recorded at pp. 80-82 sul)ra, one of them named MÕrzà
Muliammad Huseyn of Kum, finding his courage and his
faith failing Iiiin, asked *permission of Hazrat-,i-A7,udd,6s to
withdraw. " Very well," answered he, " depart if you call."
So the deserter went forth frolhn the Castle to the royalist
canip, at the outskirts of which lie halted and called out,
cc 1 am asucli an one ; take me before the Prince." 'Phis
was done, and the Prince accorded him a gracious reception;
whereupon lie gave full information as to the distressed
condition of the BàbÕs and the death of MullA Huseyn.
Subsequently he seems to have repented of his disloyalty,
for at times lie -would praise his late companions and curse
his own weakness in abandoning them, so that the Prince
becaine suspicious as to his real sentiments, and, thinking
that lie might be a spy, sent him as a prisoner to S6ri.
Shortly after this occurred the desertion of ~kd RasAl
of Balimfz, together with thirty of his MAzandarAnf BAbis.
He too was at first received graciously by the Prince, but
'Abbds-Kull KhAn ordered hiiii tobe shot, and caused his
followers to be beheaded, ten at Amul, ten at SAri, and
ten at BA-rfurdshl. " God curse Aki llasAl," exclaimed
these, as they were led out to die, '; who has deceived us,
and debarred us from the service of Hazrat-i-1Cuddfts."
But the latter said, when tidings came to him of AkA
Rasu'l's fate, "We have forgiven him his fault, and God
hath pardoned him."
It is after the capitulation that Hazrat-i-lCudd,(ts ap-
pears in his worst light. When questioned by the Prince
as to his object in foinenting so great a disturbance, lie,
"knowing that the purpose of that accursed one was not to
enquire but to find fault, spoke in a manner calculated to
prove a stumbling-block (bi-nalw-i-fitizfl, and this was
what lie said:-'The cause of all this disturbance was
I Cf. Gobineau, pp. 225--6, where a different accounb of ~,ka'
-Rasu'l's death is given.
Mulli Muhammad Huseyn, not 1: 1 went thither only to
make enquiries, and so fell into his clutches."' " It is
even said," adds MÕrzà JAnf, "that he cursed Mulli Huseyn.
Such as have understood the secret of what passed between
ga~rat-i-Kudd~ks and Jen6b-i-Tdhira at Badasht, and their
real natures, and what they meant, may understand the
true meaning of this saying also, but not otherwise."
It appears from what MÕrzà JAnf says that the BàbÕs, so
far from laying aside their weapons "cheerfully and willingly"

(p. 86 supra), were very loth to part with them. Hazrat-i-
tCudd,~s had said to them before setting out for the Piince's
quarters, " If a message comes from me bidding you lay down
your arms, do just as you feel inclined : ' if you like, cast
them away; if not, keep them." When, therefore, such
a message came, some of the BàbÕs laid down their arms,
while some retained them. Word of this was brought to
the Prince, who again urged Hazrat-i-Kudd?is to command
his followers to disarm. Another message was accordingly
sent by MullA Yu'suf 'Alf of Khu'y, who, supposing that
Hazrat-i-Kuddi~s really wished the Bdbfs to lay down their
weapons, prevailed upon them with some difficulty- to do sol
whereupon ensued the massacre described at p. 87 supra.
It appears, however, that all this took place on the day
after the surrender, and that supper had been provided for
them on the previohlis night, so that they did not die fasting
as asserted, in the New Historg. Their bodies were left
unburied, and were eaten by wild beasts or disintegrated
by the elements. The fate of the BàbÕ chiefs, and the
accounts of RizA KhAn, Murshid, and the youth who volun-
tarily gave himself up to death (pp. 96-103 sttpra) are
given by MÕrzà JAnf as in the New History with a few
additional particulars. It is uncertain whether MÕrzà1 Mu-
hammad Hasan (the brother of MullA Huseyn of Bushra-
weyh), H~jf MÕrzà Hasan of KhurAsAn, and MullA Mu-
bammad of NAr entitled "JI[Wallim" ("the Teacher")
were slain in the camp or afterwards. Concerning RizA
KhAn, MirzA JAnf adds that he was present at the Badasht
conference, "but," says he, "I have beard that he did
somewhat backslide on that occasion, so that Ha_~rat-i-
Kuddiis wounded him on the head, but afterwards forgave

366 APPENDIX 11. mfiitz~, ikNf'S HISTORY.
The execution of Hazrat-i-KuddAs took place, accord-
ing to MirzA J6nf, on tfie last night of JemAdf-uth-thAnf
[A.H. 1265 =May 22nd, A.D. 1849], agreeably to a saying
ascribed to 'Alf ibn Abi T41ib:-
TVonder, and yet more wonder between Jumdd6 and
Some curious particulars, wanting in the New History,
are given about his life. Tliua-, it, is said that when his
mother married his reputed father AkA Silih she was three
months gone with child, and that she gave birth to her son
six months after her marriage, wherefore his enemies subse-
quently questioned his legitimacy, but his friends inter-
preted the matter in a favourable manner ' recalling the
circumstances of the birth of Christ. Again, while Prince
Mahdf-Kulf MÕrzà was besieging the Castle of Sheykh
Tabarsf, and could in no wise prevail against it, it occurred
to him to summon AkA SAlih and his wife and daughter
to the camp. When they were come, he said to AkA SAlih)
"What is all this disturbance which this son of yours is
making, and what is the claim which lie advances?" The
father answered with an oath, "I know not, and I am
filled with amazement at his conduct." " Go then," said
the Prince, "and adin0DiSh thy SOU." So AkA SAlili went
to the BàbÕ stronghold, but when lie was brought in before
his son he was so overwhelmed with awe that lie could not
speak. Hazrat-i-Kuddfts, however, treated him with the
utmost 2ndness, and gradually elicited froni him an ac-
count of what the Prince had done, and the message be
had sent. Then lie said, "As for the wrong done you,
God will recompense you for it, and to be wronged is a
high dignity. But as for your admonitions to me, know
that I am not your son, and that your son lost his way
behind a stack of fire-wood on such-and-suclia day whereon
you sent him on an errand, and ia-, now in such-and-such a
city, while I am the Lord Jesus who have appeared in the
form of your son, and, for a wise purpose, have elected you
as my reputed father. Go, and tell this to the Prince."
Aki SAlih did as he was directed, and, after a few more
days of detention, was set free.
The following anecdote is also related by MÕrzà JAnf.
On the eve of the festival of the Naw-rfiz or Persian New
Year's Day (March 19th, A.D. 1849) it was represented to
Hazrat-i-A-udd?is by some of his followers that their gun-
powder was all used up. He replied, " To-morrow 1 will
give you a New Year's present of gunpowder." The BàbÕs
supposed that be had promised them a victory over their
enemies whereby they should obtain possession of the

ammunition stored in the camp, and accordingly were filled
with joy at the anticipated triumph; but Hazrat-i-Kuddgs
smiled to himself. Next day they were subjected to an
unusually heavy bombardment from the enemy, and showers
of bombs and cannon-balls fell amongst them. In the
midst of this Hazrat-i-Kuddiis came out from- his -quarters
and said, "My men, this is God's New Year's gift, which
He hath sent down from the heaven of glory and trial for
you much-suffering ones." Then he added, "Affliction
is love's portion," and recited the following verses
~J31 j - LA" 4_46 U
tiox. ,,~ Lo
tia-a VJ:J 1J)U, LA
We vouchsafe affliction to none till we have inscribed
him 4mongst the saints.
This affliction is the jewel of our treasure-house : we
do not bestow jewels on every one."
Then he instructed them to pour water over the shells
as soon as they touched the ground, and ' having thus
extinguished the fuses, to extract the powder with which
they were filled. "This," added he, "will suffice you,
for soon you will need no more powder." These words
were understood by those most advanced in faith as signi-
fying that their martyrdom was' at hand; but the weaker
brethren imagined that a speedy triumph was promised to
MÕrzà JAnf adds a good deal more concerning the
spiritual rank occupied by tlaz~rat-i-Kuddiis, making it
1 My. transcript has_,*~,,%-.J, which the rhyme forbids.

quite clear that he regards him as the K(Vim, and as
supreme in the spiritual hierarchy, even above the BAb
himself, who, as is further stated, refrained from writing or
circulating anything during the period of the 'Manifesta-
tion' of Yazrat-i-Kztddi~s, and only after his death claimed
to be himself the K(t'inz.
It was on the death of H4rat-i-Kuddets also that
MÕrzà YahyA Subli-i-Eyzel fir;t rose to prominence, this
being the fulfilmen't of the sign of the fifth year of the
Theophany "a Light shining forth from the Morning of
Eternity'." For nineteen days after the tidings of the~
death of Hazrat-i-Kuddets came to him, the B6b mourned
unceasingly for him and the other martyrs of MdzandarAn,
weeping night and day, and hardly tasting food. Then he
wrote a form of "visitation" to be used by pilgrims visit-
ing the scene of their sufferings', and, being Iiimaself a
prisoner, sent one of his followers called "Say?161V ("the
Traveller'T to perform lifs visitation by proxy, requesting
him to bring back a handful of earth from the spot as a
present, and adding that in a short while lofty buildings
would be erected there in honour of the martyrs, and that
from all-quarters of the world crowds of believers would
flock to visit Sheykh Tabarsf.
The Ba-b as K(Virn; the "Indian Believer"; and the
"Seven Aartyrs-"
(Cf. pp. 241-244; 250-262, and 265-268 supra.)
According to MITZ6 J&nf, the BAb first ann0UDCeC1
himself as the K(t,janZ4 in a letter which he addressed to
1 See pp. 329--330 supra.
2 A copy of this is in my possession. See my Catalogue and
Description of 27 Bdbi MSS. in the J. R. A. S. for 1892, pp.
3 perhaps the same Sheykh 'Alf Sagyah who was subse-
quently exiled to Cyprus, and there died. See Traveller's Nar-
ra6ve, vol. ii, pp. 352, 361, 380-2, and 386-7.
4 This is inconsistent with the accounts of the Bdb's exami-
1 369
MullA Sheykh 'Alf (better known as "Jena'b-i-'Azz`m") at
about this time in the following words --
LpW Wo JLjjtm. 9 .0 JUA~J .0 61
U L51r.
au~ "te _-V5W I a-we
.0 VJ
- I zX::..La A.U I
~J~ -V$-W LJ
" 0 'A If, verily we have chosen thee for our work, and have
made thee an angel to cry before the Kd'im that he hath
appeared, by the Permission of his -Loid: this is of God's

grace towards thee and towards inagiikigid, that perchance
they may be thankful."
Here follows the history of the " Indian Believer,"
which agrees very closely with the account given in the
New 11istory (pp. 241-4 supra), save that he is stated to
have said, wlien brought before the Prince-Governor of Khu'y,
f' I am one who with the blows of my sword will do thus
and tliiias," and to have subsequently gone to Turkey and
there gathered round himself many disciples.
In the account given, of the "Seven Martyrs" MÕrzà
JAW corrects or supplements the New History in the
following points. A rising of some sort was actually
meditated by the BàbÕs of TelierAn, thoughg not on so
extensive a scale as was believed by the crovernment (cJ:
p. 251, supra), The project, whatever it w~s, was betrayed
by one of themselves, and thirty-seven persons were arrested
and cast into prison. The names of the seven who deter-
mined to die rather than renounce their faith are given as in
the New II-istory, save that the mujtahid of Turshiz is called
AkA Seyyid Muliammad Huseyn. The prisoners remained
in confinement for a week, and during this time MullA
Isma'il of Kum ate scarcely anything till the night before
his execution, when, though most of his companions could
hardly touch the food set before them, "some for fear, some
for bewilderment, and some for ecstasy," he made a very
hearty supper.
nation at Tabrfz (see pp. 286-7 supra, and Trav. Narr., vol, ii,
pp. 20, 24, and 288-9), which took place during Mubanimad
Shah's life-time.

As regards the execution of the "Seven Martyrs,"
MÕrzà JAnf adds the following particulars. As HiJf Mulli
Isma'il was led out from the prison, he heard some of the
bystanders saying to one another, "This is one of the
BàbÕs," whereat he laughed, and said, "Yes, I am a Bdbf,
and I am going to die for you." The second misrii of the
verse which he recited just before he was killed is given
somewhat differently as follows
MÕrzà KurbAn-'Alf's dying words are also given some-
what differently as follows :-"Know that this man [i.e.
the BAb] is He who is to arise of the family of Muhammad,
and we are his servants. Were I possessed of a thousand
lives, I would sacrifice them all for him. I will return in
the Returns of that Lord of men, and for us is reserved
everlastiDg dominion and an eternal mansion, while your
dominion and glory shall pass away, and the end thereof
shall be sorrow and remorse." HAif 'Alf KhAn's account
of one incident of the execution (pp. 256-8) does not
occur in MÕrzà JAnf's history. The reflections on the
whole episode whic occupy pp. 258-26.1 and 265-268
supra agree almost exactly with the text of MÕrzà JAnf,
but the account of the BAb's precocious wisdoin contained
in the L.-codex of the T6rikh-i-Jad,[d (pp. 262-5 supra)
is wanting. MÕrzà JAnf adds that the BAb was not
informed of the matter at all, inasmuch as lie had declared
the very mention of painful and distressing occurrences to
be unlawfigil amongst believers.
9. The Nt'riz Episode.
(Cf. pp. 115-124, and the second paragraph on p. 128.)
The account of Seyyid YahyA's conversion given by
MÕrzà JAnf has been already compared with that given in
the New Histog (pp. 111-115 supra) at pp. 347-8 supra.
His account of the TNfrfz war, properly inserted in this
place, presents the following points of divergence from the
version contained in the 7,Irt'kh-i-Jadid. On his arrival
at SbfrAz on his way from Yezd to Nfri Seyyid Yahyi
received by the hand of Seyyid 'Abdu'l-!Azfm of Mariglia
a letter from the BAb, together with a talismanic figure
(heykal) of remarkable size. When requested by the
governor to leave Nfrfz, he answered in less moderate

fashion than is implied in the first paragraph on 118
sgitpra, and only withdrew from the town, "because Le saw
the outward might and power of his enemies, and the
weakness of his followers." In his address to the congre-
gation in the mosque he warns all who refrain from helping
him that they will be deprived of the intercession of his
ancestor ImAm Huseyn in the Day of Judgment. KU'chaJc
'Alf Beg's narrative, quoted in the New History (pp. 124-8
supra) as from Mfrzi JAnf, is wanting in the text before
me, as, of course, is the account of the second Nfrfz war,
which did not take place till about the time of Mfrzi Jinf's
death (A.D. 1852). The Only other toints worth noticing
are that the confusion between Far .4d Mfrzi and FfrAz
MÕrzà already exists in MÕrzà JAW (c.f p. 120 supra, and
n. 1), and that in place of the expression "had lost two
brothers in the earlier part of the war" on p. - 123 supra he
has "whose brother had gone to hell."
10. The Zaniain Episode.
Of Mull6 Muhammad 'Alf of Zaniin himself, an account
given by Mfrzi Jinf in an earlier part of his work has been
already noticed at pp. 349-351 supra. His narrative of the
ZanjAn- siege, though comparatively brief, differs widely
from that given in either codex of the -TdrikA-i-Jad&.
The gist of it is as follows. The -Bib wrote to Mulli
Muhammad 'Alf authorizing him to perform public prayer
on Friday in the mosque, which he had .-for a while ceased
to do on learning that the Bib had declared it unlawful
for any one to. officiate at public worship without his
express permission. But when MullA Muhammad 'Alf,
agreeably to these instructions, repaired to the mosque, his
entry was opposed by the orthodox. Thereupon a conflict
ensued between the Bibfs and the Musulmins, in which
the former finally prevailed over the latter, and installed

their leader in the pulpit. The matter was reported to the
governor, who invited MullA Muhammad 'Ali to confer
with him at his residence. As they could not come to an
agreement, the latter presently rose to depart, but was
prevented by the governor'as myrmidons. The BàbÕs, hear-
ing of this, and knowing at if their leader were sent to
TeherAn he would be put to death for having returned to
ZanjAn in spite of the ShAh's prohibition, attacked the
governor's house and rescued MullA Muhammad 'Alf i who
thereupon occupied the citadel and the adjacent quarter of
the town, where his followers entrenched themselves as
described in the secoiid paragraph on p. 157 supra. Troops
soon began to arrive from TeherAn, and, as the position of
the Bibfs grew more critical, soiihie of the weaker ones
began to desert, till only about three hundred and odd were
left; but these were all men of proved courage "ewh one
of whom," as MÕrzà JAnf says, "could have held his own
against forty." Their wives and children also took part in
the war, crying out, " Y6 8rihibu'z-zamdn," and attacking
the foe with slings and the lil~e. The refusal of Mir Seyyid
Vuseyn KhAn of Ffru'z-K11h and Ja'far-Kulf KhAn, brother
of the Ttinzadit'd-Dawla, as well as of some of the tribes-
men belonging to the 'Alf 114hf sect, to act against the
BAbis is recorded by Mfrz4, JAnf as in the New History.
The number of troops finally brought against the BAbis is
estimated at 30,000, with 19 pieces of artillery.
That MullA Muhammad 'Alf did actually during the
course of the siege address a letter to MÕrzà Takf KhAn,
the Prime -Minister, is confirmed by Mirzi JAnf, but the
tone of this letter, as reported by him, is by no means so
conciliatory as is that of the version given at pp. 169-170
supra, though the substance is the same. But MÕrzà JAnf
adds that when the Amfr replied " There is nothing for it
but to kill you," Mulli Muhammad 'Alf addressed several
letters to the ambassadors of foreign powers resident in
TeherAn, requesting their good offices on his behalf. These
accordingly remoiiastrated with the Prime Minister, but to
no purpose. " I have heard," adds MÕrzà JAnf, " that one
of the things for which the Emperor of Russia found fault
with the Amfr, and which resulted in his dismissal, was
this same massacre of this much-wroDged people. The
ambassadors of Russia and Turkey subsequently came to

see His Holiness 'the Proof,' and conversed with him ; and
he made the following explanation to them :-'We have no
political contention, but only apprize the Muslim world of
the appearance of that ImAm who vanished from us, and
whose return we expect. We say that he has now appeared,-
and they answer that we are liars. We reply, " By that
same proof for which you have accepted IslAm, the proof of
which is the Kur'àn, accept this person also." This they
refuse to do. We further say, "Examine the traditions
concerning his Manifestation handed down from the ImAms,
and accept them." Still they heed us not. We further
say, " Consider the multitude of those who have believed,
and their godliness, piety, and self-renunciation." They
return us no answer. We further say, " Come, let us curse
one another'." They reply that this is not permitted -in
their law. We a-,ay, "Come, let us kindle a fire, and, go
together into the midstthereof'." They answer, "You are
mad." We say, "We have witnessed miracles on the part
of this man." They retort, " He is a sorcerer." In short,
whatever we say, they answer beside the point."'
The death of MullA Muhammad 'Alf thirty days after he
had been wounded on the ramparts, whither, contrary to his
usual custom, he had ascended, and his burial in a deep
ffrave, by a well, are briefly recorded. His followers, how-
ever, though deeply afflicted by his loss, did not lose heart,
and continued to fight with a courage which amazed -their
enemies, " who knew not," says MÕrzà Anf, "that Almighty
God Hima-,elf was their Captain, nor had read [to any good
purpose the text] ' Verity God is with the well-doer$'."'
The treacherous promises whereby the BàbÕs were induced
to capitulate, and the fate which they thereby incurred, are
very briefly described. The men were killed, some few
being sent to " Damascus " (i.e. TeherAn) to suffer death;
the women and children were sold into slavery,; the houses
and property of the Bdbf s were given over to plunder; and
their dead were exhumed and burned. The elaborate
details of the siege given by Haydar-Beg in the L.-codex
of the T(tr-~kk-i-Jadid are entirely wanting in MÕrzà JAnf.
I Cf. p. 61 supra.
2 Kur'* xxix, 69.

11. Subli-i-Ezel and Beh6.
We now come to what is without doubt the most interest-
in and most important portion of MÕrzà JAnf's history, to wit'
tl!e account of the appearance of MÕrzà YahyA Subli-i-Ezel,
his election as successor and vicegerent to ihe BAb, . and his
relations to his half-brother and subsequent rival Mfrz.4
1juseyn 'Alf Beha"u'lldh- This portion, needless to say,
has been entirely suppressed by the compilers of the
Tdrikh-i-Jadid, whose sympathies, as has been already
shown, were entirely with Behi ; and it more than any
other cause has probably conduced to the extreme rarity of
MÕrzà JAnf's -most precious history, even amongst the
BàbÕs; for we can hardly doubt that the BehA'fs would do
all in their power to suppress a book which would place so
formidable a weapon in the hands of their opponents the
Ezelfs. This portion, then, I propose to translate in full,
with as much accuracy as the occasional corruptness of the
transcript on which I am compelled to work will admit of
11 Now the remainder of the history of His Holiness
the Reminder' [Z~ikr, ie. the BAb] (may my life be his
sacrifice) is as follows. After the martyrdom of Hazrat-i-
Kuddgits and his companions, the Master was filled with
sadness, until such time as the writings of Jenaib-i-Ezel
met his gaze, when, through the violence of his delight,
he rose up and sat down several times, pouring forth his
gratitude to the God whom he worshipped. As for Jenaib-i-
Ezel, the following is a brief epitome of much that might be
said. He is a scion of one of the noble families of Persia.
His father was accomplished, wealthy, and much respected,
and enjoyed the high consideration of the King and nobles
of Persia. His mother died when be was a child, she being
also of distinguished parentage'. His father tliereihipon
entrusted him to the keeping of his honourable spouse',
So I understand the words A-oLd- CjV-~l  .3,
though they may perhaps signify that she was the first, chief,
or favourite wife of Subh-i-Ezel's father.
2 &IA.-6J;ft C,:A L:jl i.e. his second wife, or rather, as
saying, 'Do you take care of this child, and, see that
your handmaids attend to him properly.' 1 The concubine,
actuated by a sense of her own importance', paid no atten-
tion to this ; until one night in the World of Actuality"
she saw His Holiness the Apostle of God and the King of
Saintship [i.e. 'Alf ibn AN TAR] enter her house with all
dignity and majesty, and bia her bring the child to them.

When she had brought him, they kissed him and placed
him in her hands, saying, 'This child is ours : guard him
well, that he may come to the hands of our Kd'im.' This
believing woman thus continued the narrative. 'When it
was morning, and I arose from this dream of bliss' and
sought the child, 1 perceived that such a love for him had
arisen in my heart as I had never experienced towards my
own children. So 1 continued to minister to the child
with the utmost faithfulness and reverence, until he reached
his fourteenth year, when the Manifestation of His Holiness
(the BAb] took place.'
" This woman'.-, beatified spirit in that same year was
joined to God's mercy, and this narrative [above given] was
related by ga~rat-i-Ezel's brother, who was her son. He
too is a man of excellence, thoroughly versed in the
Doctrine of the Divine Unity, endowed with all good
qualities and laudable attributes, and entitled Jendb-i-
BeIU. In brief he related as follows. 1 1 busied myself
with the instruction of Jendb-i-Ezel. The signs of his
natural excellence and goodness of disposition were ap-
parent in the mirror of his being. He ever loved gravity
of demeanour, silence, courtesy, and modesty, avoiding the
society of other children, and their behaviour. - I did not,
however, know that he would become the possessor of [so
high] a station. He studied Persian, but made little,
progress in Arabic. He wrote, however, a good nasta'lik
appears from what immediately follows,his lawful concubine
1 So ~ I translate the words C)LL  Zqtj j 1.
2 ie. the World of Dreams (Axilj _,*Ra).
3 6y. Gobineau, p. 277.

hand, and was very fond of the poems of the mystics and
initiates of the Doctrine of the Divine Unity.'
" 1, the author of this book, once met him. He appeared
to me an amiable child. I subsequently enquired his
experiences, and asked him, 'How was it that you were
first drawn towards this society?' He replied, 'The an-
nouiieeignent of the mission of His Holiness took place when
I had just reached the age of puberty. Not liking to follow
blindly any one of the doctors of religion, I made enquiries
about Iiiiii. At the time when my lionoured brother used
to bring the followers of His Holiiiesag to the house, and
converse with thern by night, and read his writings, I too
used to listen to what passed, till one time when they were
reading a prayer of his in which the expression " Igia'a'k 6h,
ye"i _114/1" ". occurred very frequently, the attraction of the
spirit of this word enthralled my heart, and love for hirri
[whose words these were] established itself firmly within
me. Afterwards I saw his [explanations of the] Traditioris
of the ImAms and other perspicuous signs, and believed
with full assurance.' Although at the time when I met
him he had no very evident learning or excellence, yet his
love was very beautiful. So great, indeed, was it, that
when the order was issued by His Holiness the Supreme
Lord, that is to say the 'Reminder',' for his followers to
proceed to KliurAgAn, lie i.e. Ezel] also resolved to go
thither. So, having made ~or himself a knapsack, and got
together a few necessaries, lie advanced the foot of emanci-
pation from the realin of Plurality into the plain of Unity, and
set out. Although lie was not then more than fifteen years
of age, and had never travelled, and was ignorant of all
the customs of the road, he went forth with perfect trust
in his Beloved, and in obedience to his command. But
when his brother' was informed of this, he sent and pre-
vented him.
" After a little time had elapsed, his relations journeyed
into MAzandarAD, and he too Set Out in their company, and
1 (40, 0 iny God!." (Udl U. al 6U).
2 A~ YL;g~., ie. the Bib.
3 i.e. BehA.
went to Mizandarin, that perchance he might proceed
thence to KhurAsAn, though he had no equipment for such
a journey. After this his brother [i.e. Behi] set out for
the Most Holy Land [i.e. Mash-had], and on the way thither
met with Jen(ib-i-T614ral, with whom he tarried, doing
her much service both there and at TeherAn, and, indeed,
providing her and her coinyanions with the means of con-
tinuing their journey, an bearing all their expenses,
which certainly did not amount to less than five hundred

tig~ma',iis. In short, he remained in SabzawAr till Hazrat-i-
Kuddqis came thither, on whom he. had the honour of
waiting, and for whom he entertained the truest devotion.
Ile became one of the most illustrious of the believers, was
present at the disturbance at Badaslit, stood firm in his
love, expended large sums of money, and helped the faith-
ful in every way.
" After the collapse of the Badaslit conference, which
we have already briefly described, Jenaib-i-Ezel came to
BArfurAsh, and on the way thither had the honour of being
admitted to the presence of HaV-at-i-Kudd7is. The nar-
rator says:-'No sooner did Hazi-at-i-Kuddiis see him
than he rejoiced exceedingly, and, taking with him Jenaib-
i-Ezel, for whom he manifested much kindness and affection,
he withdrew some little distance apart from the crowd to
converse with him, addressing to im an exhortation in
those sweet tones by the spirit of which the breath of Jesuas
was inspired so that it was able to restore the dead to life.
Thus did Hazrat-i-Kuddfts sow the seed of his love, which
* ~dise d the Doctrine of the Divine Unity in
was the Par  y
Ezel's heart, inscribe on the tablet of his spirit the image
of devotion and emancipation, constrain and attract him by
the breaths of his inward and outward influences, and
intoxicate him with a wine of alchemic virtue~ which made
him glorious in his tiMe2. Yes,
It is worth noting the expression in the orig nal,
_~W~-, as it shews that in Mfrzi Jinfs eyes
#'urraht'l-'Ayn heid higher rank than BehA. Cf. p. 283 supra.
2 1 arn not certain as to the correctness of these last few
words of the sentence. The original has
0> X, 0 3  21 L
t.*j '% A.)>5j*JL ').4 L;

'It needs a substance pure to be receptive of the light;
Not every stone or clod can change to pearl or coral
At all events he filled him to his fullest capacity with sus-
tenance of light, and Ezel attended him to B6rfurfish, and
there was presented to Jenaib-i-Tdhira, whom, at the com-
mand of ffazrat-i-Kttddi~s, lie 'conducted to a place ap-
pointed, ~Aer* which he did not, to outward appearance,
again enjoy the lionour of meeting ga~rat-i-lDtddiis,
though the palate of his affection was continually refreshed
by the sweet breatlis of his influence-,, while the eye of his
holy heart was so illuminated by the efftilgences of his
secret splendours that from that day forth the signs of
Beauty and Majesty became apparent in his august coun-
tenance, so that all the believers understood.
" 1n short lie was often with Jen0ib-i-T6thh-a, and that
Mother of the World fed the child Elzel fike a iiwlirse with
' milk whereof the savour altereth not',' rocked him. in the
cradle of godly conversation and laudable qualities, and
taught him to walk in the garb of conduct assuigned by
people of' upright disposition, until his frame gathered
strength. When Hazrat-i-Kuddws, being then [besieged]
in the Castle [of T~barsfl,* demanded help, Jenaib-i-Ezel
with his brother rBehaj and several otlieras' set out in
response to this summons. On their way, however, they
were arrested by the governor of Amul, and brought thither.
One of the faithful known as HAjf KAshAnP related as fol-
lows :-'I was with them. Th~tnightHazrat-i-Ezeldisap-
peared. They brought us to Amul and de,,poiled us of ohtir
goods. Next morning they captured Hazrat-i-Ezel and
brought him to the city. The townsfoll~ o#ered him many
I 1~ur'611, X]Vi, 16.
2 Qf. pp. 64-5 supra, where, of course, all mention of Subli-
i-Ezel is suppressed.
3 This allusion might tempt some to doubt whether this his-
tory, though unquestionably the work quoted as Mfrzi JAnfs in
the Tdrikh-i-Jadid, was really composed by him. But I think
it probable on the whole that Mfrzi JAnf either chooses to speak
of himself in the third person, or that lie alludes to his brother
HAjf MÕrzà, Isma'fl of KAshin.
t  i
insults as he passed through the streets and bazaars. ~When-
he arrived I beheld him joyous and wreathed in smiles.
I enquired how it had gone with him. He replied, "As
they were capturing you I concealed myself in a certain

place. I did not sleep till morning, and when morning was
come the people of a neighbouring hamlet found me out
and captured me. They took me to a certain artilleryman
who was the head-man of that village, changed my clothes
for others, frightened me a little, and threatened to kill me.
4t length he [i.e. the artilleryman] said, 'Take him to
Amul.' I beguiled the way to the city, a distance of two
parasan 'gs, now with prayers in the Arabic language, now
with the recitation of poems in Persian; and so ardent was
I in communion and supplication with my Beloved that
I heeded not a whit my bondage in the hands of the
foe. When we reached the city, the people cursed me,
threw stones at me, and spat on me, while I looked on
"At all events, they brought him and his brother [Behd
before the mull6s, who, according to their belief, inflicte~
the legal castigation, besides which they suffered all manner
of annoyances at the hands- of the townsfolk, all of which
they welcomed for the Beloved's sake. But Jena'b-i-Ezel
and HAjf KAshdnf were not beaten. They were imprisoned
for a while, but subsequently God, the Gracious and Loving,
brought about the deliverence of each by some means.
They continued for a while after this in the confines of
MAzandarAn, and then returned to their own homes.
" HAjf KAshAiif says :-'I was in attendance on Jenaib-
i-Efzel in MAzandarAn, night and day, for- four months or
more, both before and after his imprisonment. He shewed
me particular kindness, and I was one of his most intimate
friends, and had full knowledge of all that concerned him.
As for what I certainly knew of him, he was filled with
ardour and ecstasy, and I found him ever disposed by
nature to devotion and emancipation such that he utterly
disregarded the world and its circumstance, g being wholly
absorbed in love and self-annihilation, and occupied with
praise. He shewed a wonderful attachment to Hazrat-i-
Kuddils, and used often to read aloud with sweet utterance
ihe homilies and prayers of that Master of the World,

intoxicating his hearers with frequent life-giving draughts
from the cup of his influence. He himself uased also to
repeat and write original verses and prayers, but lie ad-
vanced no claim to be a " Proof." Soignetiiiies he would
Wu~stion igile about matters relating to the Doctrine of the
nity, or enquire the inner meaning of certain verses of
the Holy Kur'Aii ; but he loved brevity and subtlety in
explanation, and his delicate nature was distressed by any
tendency to elaboration and prolixity, so restless was the
steed of his understanding, and so swift in its sure and
steadfast course.'
" To be brief, his brother [B,46] fell under suspicion,
and it was said that lie not improbably harboured designs
of setting up a standard [on his own account], and so
creating further disturbances in those regions. Therefore
the notables of the district, such as MÕrzà Hasan the
1'tinziida'd-Dawla's brother, considered it expedient to
send him to the capital. About forty days after his de-
parture the iiewas of the martyrdom of J[az9-at-i-Kudd?is
came to Jenrib-i-Efzel. I have heard that after receiving
this news he suffered for three days from a violent fever,
induced by the burning heat of the fire of-separation ; and
that after the three days the signs of holiness (rithair-i-
Ptdsl') appeared in his blessed form', and the mystery of the
' Return' was 1011ce more] manifest. This event took place
in the fifth year of the Manifestation of the Truth, so that
Jen(ib-i-Eyzel became the blessed Earth of Devotion, and
His Holiness 'the Reminder' [i.e. the BAb] appeared as the
Heaven of Volition. And it was under tl)is dispensation
that the catastrophes of ' the Seven Martyrs,' of Hazrat-i-
IgVahi'd [i.e. Seyyid YahyA of DArAb]', and Of ZaDjdn took
I By the appearance of these Cithdr-i-kudsi (L-5--ki Jur)
the writer mean"s that the virtues and gifts of the martyred saint
Hazrat-i-Ifhu,ldgs were transferred, according to the doctrine of
the " return " or rijlat, to Suhh-i-Ezel.
2 The title of IValtid (" the One ") is numerically equivalent
to Ya~tyd (=28), and was consequently bestowed both on W
Seyyid YahyA of DArAb (called " the first Wahid," 11 Tf'altid-i-
I  i
"Now when the letters of Jendb-i-Ezel came to His
Holiness 'the -Reminder' [i.e. the BAb], he rejoiced ex-
ceedingly, and thenceforth began the decline of the Sun of
'the Reminder' and the rising of the Moon of Ezel'. So
lie [i.e. the BAb] sent of his own personal effects, suchas
pen-cases, paper, writings, his own blessed rainient, and his
holy rings, according to the 'Number of the Unity' [ V(iligid
=19], that the outward form might correspond with ihe

inward reality'. He also wrote a testamentary deposition,
explicitly nominating him i.e. -Ezel] as his successor
JValfl, and added, 'Write t~ie eight [unwritten] Viihids
of the BeyAn', and, if "He whom God shall manife4"
should appear in His power in thy time, abrogate the
BeyAn; and put into practice that which we shall inspire
into thineheart.' Now the mystery of his bestowing his
effects on Ezel according to the 'Number of the Unity' is
perfectly evident, namely that he intended the inner
meaning thereof, that it might be known to all his followers
that after himself Ezel should bear the Divine influences.
And his object in explicitly nominating him as his successor
also was to re-assure the hearts of the weak, so that they
might not be bewildered as to his real nature, but that
enemies and friends alike might know that there is no
intermission in God's grace, and that God's religion is a
thing which must be made manifest. And the reason why
[the Bib] himself refrained from writing the eight [un-
written] va'Aids of the BeyAn, but left them to Ezel, was
that all men might know that the Tongue of God is one,
and that Ile in Himself is a sovereign Proof. And what he
meant by 'Him whom God should manifest' after himself was
Hazrat-i-Ezel and none other than him, for there may not
be two 'Points' at one time. And the secret of the Bib's
saying, 'Do thus and thus,' while. Ezel, was himself also a
avval ") and on Mirzi Yahyi, A~ubA-i-Ezel (called 11 the second
Waliid," " lVaIdd-i-thani").
I W I  W
O.A44 4j ~5 t -5 d.~A~ " Y.3,*b-
2 Cf. Gobineau, pp. 319-322.
3 Cf. Travelle?s Narrative, vol. ii, pp. 353-4, and n. 4 on
the former.

I  I
'ProoV was that at this time His Holiness I the Reminder' previously to his execution. MÕrzà Muhammad A~lf was
was the Heaven of Volition, and Efzel was accounted the
Earth of Devotion and the product of purified gifts, where- first tied up to be shot, and, just after this first volley was
fired, the BAb exclaimed, as the body of his faithful disciple
fore was he thus addressed. W ~
11 In short, as soon as the gtime had come when the fell at his feet, L5 x4 Z;.ftJl ui "Thou art with me in
'Eternal Fruit' [Thamara-i-Ezeliyyo~] had reached ma- Paradise'." Three volleys were fired in all; the first was
turity, the Red Blossom of Reminder-hood [i.e. the Bib], not aimed at the Bib; the second severed the ropes by
casting itself from the branch of the Blessed Tree of the which he was bound without injuring him ; the third
Kei'imate (which is ' neither of the Fast nor of the West") proved fatal, three bullets ("according to the  name 'Alf, which bears the 'Support of
and prepared to ascend from the outward and visible Saintship "') entering his body. According to MÕrzà Jiiif,
the Bib exclaimed, when he was seized by his executioners
'World of Dominion' to the Inward realiihi of the Mystery
of Godhead. Wherefore it was that the accessories of his after his almost miraculous escape from the first volley,
martyrdom appeared in the world; for it is sufficiently a[ " 0 people, am I not after all the son of God's Apostle ?
obvious that, had he not himself been content with martyr- Do not approve such injustice and cruelty towards me!
dom, none would have had power to harm him " Fear God, and have some shame before His Apostle! What'
is my crime, save that I have invited you to the knowledge
of God, and called you from the world of Plurality to the
12. The BaWs martyrdom. Kingdom of Unity, and cast myself into affliction and
(C sufferiDg for your sake?" " And," adds MÕrzà JAW,
.f pp. 293, 297-312 supra.) lie, uttered many such pathetic and moving words: for
Here follows the account of the Bib's martyrdom, which the completion of the Proof; but they produced no effect
differs from that given in the New History in the following on the hearts of those cruel men."
pts. The Ion, narrative of "a certain man of position The bodies of the two victims were exposed for two
oin ~ 0 days, after which they were buried. Some of the BàbÕs
and probitv who waas the confidential attendant of Prince
Sal (not named by MÕrzà JAnf) exhumed thein, -wrapped them
Hamzd MÕrzà" (pp. 293-296 tpra) is omitted by Mfrzi
in white a,~il~, and, according to the Bib's own instructions,
JAW. Concerning the four Bdbfs imprisoned at Tabriz brought them to Subh-i-E~_zel [" Hazrat-i- Wahi'd-i-Thainf"
(p. 297 supra) before the BAb and his two intimate dis-
see 380 supra, n. 2], who, with his own hands,
ciples, ~,kA Seyyi4,Jfuhammad Huseyn, called 'Azz'z ("the
buriesIthem in a certain spot mentioned in a tradition
Dear One"), and AkA Seyyid Hasan of Yezd, were brought
handed down from the ImAms as the last resting-place'of
thither from Chilirik, Mirzi jAnf thinks that all except
MÕrzà (or MulIA) Muhainmad 'Ali of Tabriz (the, BAb's the Kd'im-*. "This matter' adds MÕrzà JAnf, "is' at
fellow-martyr) were liberated, and not, as asserted by some, resent kept secret, and it is unlawful for anyone who haa,,
poisoned in the prison. The Bib's request to his fellow- tnowledge of it to divulge it till such time as the Lord
prisoners that they should kill him, and the manner in may see fit to make it known."
which the request was received by them is described as in Cf. Traveller's Sarrative, vol. ii, p. 322, and n. 2 on p. 301
the New History, but no mention is made of the letter
written by MÕrzà Muhammad 'Ali to his brother. The sztpra.
Bib, it is added, was paraded through the town on an ass 2 Cf. Traveller's Narrative, vol. ii, p. 46, n. 1; and p. 110, n. 3.

3 ie. the site of the Bab's grave.
Kur~An, xxiv, 35.

13. Events of the period intervening between the BaWs
death and the 31assacre of Teherain.
Of the attempt on the Shili's life and the fearful perse-
cution of the BAbis to which it gave rise Mfrz& JAnf, S
history naturally contains no account , since the author
himself was one of the victims of the fatal summer of 1852.
But of the two years~ period of transition-I had almost
said of cliaos-which intervened between the Bib's death
and this, and of the numerous claimants to supreme au-
thority in the BàbÕ church which it produced, he gives
a most valuable notice, which contains numerous data of
great interest, omitted, so far as I know, by all other
histories, save the ffasht Bihisht, which alludes briefly to
certain of the pretenders about to be noticed, -Amongst
these is Seyyid Basir the Indian, whose history, shorn of
those details deemed unedifying, occurs at pp. 244-7
supra. Of this portion of MÕrzà JAnfs history I shall
translate the more interesting passages, and give an abstract
of the remainder.
9~ After the setting of the Sun of Unity," continues
MirzA Jinf, after a digression of one or two pages the
Sun of Eternity [8h(uns-i-A:;e1iyyat, i.e. rose
to the meridian ; the illumination of the rays of his bounty
beamed on the Temples of the Unity [i.e. the believers in
the BàbÕ doctrine] ; sturdy branches grew forth from that
Blessed Trec'; si~iia3 of manifestations fructified - writings
of new verses were inscribed on its leaves; melodious birds
circled round it with warblings of ecstasy; the face of the
earth of existence was decked and adorned; and the stain
of ignorance was cleansed from hearts endowed with natural
capacity. And in the year '67' occurred the conjunction
of the Seven Stars in one sign', and the fiery blaze of
sedition appeared in the world. The full detail of these
'Manifestations' is more than much, but the following is
a brief epitome.
I See n. 2 on p. 273 supra.
2 i.e. A.R. 1267 (A.D. 1850-1).
3 The death of the " Seven Martyrs" is probably allud
to. Cf. p. 258 and n. 1.
I  I
"The first 'Manifestation' which took place~in the
seventh year [of the Bib's mission, i.e. A.H. 1267 ~ and
which was a branch growing forth from the b ~ com-
munion of Ezell, was a youtli seventeen or eighteen years
of age, whose narne was Zabih', and whose trade was that

of a confectioner [~amultd], from the reed-bed of whose
wisdom grew sugar-canes of affection, and by whose sweet
qualities the palates of the Children of the Spirit were
gratified. So far as outward knowledge went, however,
lie was quite illiterate. The means whereby his 'Mani-
festation' came about were such as he thus described.
'One day I was passing along a road when my eyes fell
on a youth whose beauteous countenance was wonderfully
charming and life-inspiriDg. I knew not who he was, nor
what his sweet name might be, but this much I knew, that
he was a saint of high degree and a prince of noble cha-
racter. His cypress-l'ke form was a manifestation of the
Alif of Unity3; his majestic eyes were as God's all-seeing
Eye, which discriminates between every good and evil
thing; his eyebrows were a noose to ensnare pilgrims
on the Path of Truth; his delicate ears had received the
attribute of God's Hearing, that they should hear no voice
but his own; and his- sweet tongue might be called the
Speaking Tongue of God, that it mig lit judge rightly as to
the right. By his sweet smile he introduced a new joy
into the vqry Essence of Heavenly Bliss, while by the,
angry contraction of his brows the seven g stories of hell
were set ablaze. Each hair of his head was a fetter for the
heart of one of his subjects, and a hope at which a sinner
might clutch. His walking was--the Glory -of God, his
looking the Influence of God, his silence Wisdom, his
speech Mercy. By his rising up he established a Resur-
rection, and by his movement he accomplished the creation
In the original, 4jl A_,*=.jL-o  by which, I sup-
pose, is meant the band of Ezel's chosen and intimate disciples.
2 Cf. pp. 139, and 213, n. 2, and Traveller'31Varrative, vol. ii,
p. 332.
3 The letter alif stands for 1 in the abjad notation, and is
also the initial of the word Ahad (one).
N. H.

of a New World. I said to myself, "Glory be to God!
Who is this youth, beside whom the youths of the world
would be as aged men, and before whose beauty the Sun
in heaven would flee away in shame; whose best description
is in refraining from description, and whose praise is ac-
ceptable only in his absence?" This much I knew, that
he had taken from me whatsoever I had in the hand of my
being, and vouchsafed to me a draught of the wine of
Annihilation. In this world of Annihilation I knew that
he was [GodJ the Self-Subsisting, and he the Manifestation
of the Everlasting; the Mystery Uncreate; the Eternal
Essence; that he it was whose will was the Will of God,
that "when He willetli aught, Ile doth, but say 'BE,' and
it is'." In short, after the moist mist of my selfhood had
been dried up by the heat of that Effulgence, and I had
won to the mystery of his Emancipation and Perfect
Service, the signs of his Eternal Godhead became manifest
in the mirror of my being; my tongue was loosed in verses
and supplications at his Court; and from him to him I
continued to cry, " Verity I am God! There is no God
but me! " '
"When the other brethren heard this cry they were
vexed and distressed, for, because of the benighted condition
of their own souls and the duality of their standpoint,
they heard it as the voice of another', and so opened their
lips in repudiation of his [i.e. Zabth's] words, and carried
their complaint of him before his Holiness [i.e. _Ezel], who
said, 'I know him not,' that is to say, 'There is no Truth
but me, and I am all the Truth. Wherever the voice of
the Truth arises, I am be who crieth, since I behold none
save myself. Therefore do I say, " I know him not."'
For in the beginning of his 'Manifestation' he [i.e. Fzel]
had said, 'Ask me not concerning aught, for this is for-
bidden unto you,' that is to say, 'It is the Cycle of Mani-
festation : open Truth-seeing eyes, and, wherever the Truth
becomes manifest, there prostrate yourselves in adoration,
and understand the meaning of "Ile it is who is manifest
I Kur'AD, ii, 111 ; iii, 42 &c.
2 ie. as the voice of one who still abode in his own selfhood
and had not reached the state of "Annihilation in the Beloved."
in everi fflani/~station," and know that the root [of the
matterTiss in the Theophany itself, and in the claim " Verily
-1 am God " on the part of every soul. For the sign of
the Unity and the exemplification of " I" will make thee
like unto myseV" is in all things; whosoever perforineth
faithful service, the tongue of his Godhead will be loosed,
while whosoever is veiled must continue afflicted with his

own sickness. . . "'
In short, MÕrzà Jini considers that Subh-i-Ezel, though
outwardly disavowing the several 'Manifestations' which
took place in his time, really approved of them, regarding
them as enhancing the glory of the Theophany centred in
himself "'He advances a claim,"' says MÕrzàJAnf speak-
ing for Subh-i-Ezel "' and we love such as advance claims,
provided 6at they' be sincere in their claims. And the
proof of such sincerity is that if the claimant be not a
" Point " Wukta], but only one of the " Letters of the
Living," he must take upon his shoulders the yoke of
service of the " Point " and of the Manifestation superior
to himself in excellence, and speak only of his love towards
them."' " Certain of the brethren, however," continues
MÕrzà JAni, " who lacked understanding, not apprehending
Hazrat-i-Ezel's meaning, again complained to him of
Yaz*rat-i-7,abih. He again said 'I know him not;' where-
upon the breihren began to speak ill of him. Then
Ha;2*at-i-E,1zel wrote three mi'ms for Jendb-i-Zabih, who
said, 'He means "Speak not [ma-gifl, write not [ma-nivfs],
and consort not [ma-nishi'n] with the brethren." I consent,
and shut the door of my grace in the faces of mankind,
because of the perversion of the perverted.' This was the
first wrong that the people of the Beydn did to the Mani-
festations of the Blessed Tree of the Eternal', not under-
standing that the more branches and leaves a tree bears,
the greater is its perfection, and the more abundant its
fruitfulness, and supposing, poor unfortunates, that a tree's
perfection is in the lack of branches and leaves. Such
wrongs, at all events, are more grievous than the injustice
of foes, since the injustice of foes conduces to the exal,
I Shajara-i-niubdraka-i-Ezeliyye, i.e. Subh-i-Ezel* See n. 2
at the foot of p. 273 supra.

tation of the Word of Truth, while the injustice of friends
causeth its extinction ....
" Now the second of the Manifestations of the Blessed
Tree of the Eternal which took place in the seventh year
was the Manifestation of the -Indian Seyyid, whom Rd- -at-
i-Ezel inamed Jendb-i-Baszr. A full account of his history
would require much space, but the gist of it is as follows."
Here ensues an account of Jena'b-i-Bash- which agrees
very closely with that given at pp. 244-7 supra. My
conjecture as to the name of the dervish order (DAgliddri)
with which he was connected is confirmed by MÕrzà JAnf.
His age at the time he quitted India is given as twenty.
There is no other material divergence between the two
accounts till we reach the point where the L.-codex of the
T6ri'kh-i-Jadid (pp. 246-7 supra) inserts an evidently
spurious passage describing Jen(tb-i-Basir's disregard of
Subh-i-Elzel and devotion to BeliA, which passage is, of
course, wanting in MÕrzà J6nf. Jenaib-i-Basi'r's journey
to NAr in MAzandarAn, and his unsuccessful attempt to
join the BàbÕs besieged at Sheykh Tabarsf are briefly de-
scribed by MirzA JAnf. At this point -the two accounts
diverge entirely, for while on the one hand MÕrzà J6uf
omits the account of Jen6b-i-Basir's death given in the
L.-codex of the Tdrikh-i-JadU, on the other hand he gives
a long description of his conduct and the claims he ad-
vanced which has been suppressed, evidently not by a
mere oversight, in the later history. This account runs
as follows.
" For some while [after his failure to reach Sheykh
Tabarsi] Jeneitb-i-Bash- was in the company of the -Name
~f the Olost ffighty, the 141ost High'. In his blessed form
he beheld the si~ns of love, wisdom, and annihilation of self ;
and, having apprehended the effulgences of the lights of
Godhead from that Essence of the Light of Apprehension,
he was attracted to him, quaffed successive draughts of
love from the bowl of his regard, and continued thus
intoxicated with the wine of gladness till such time as the
banquet of the garrison of the Castle [of Tabarsf] was
1 Ism-i-'Azam-i-A'1d) or 'Ism-i-'Azim was the title borne by
Mulli Sheykh 'Alf.
broken up in confusion, and the thread whereby that little
knot of believers was bound together was broken asunder.
Then Jenrtb-i-Ba~i'r, in company with Mfrz6, MustafA the
Kurd (who was habited in the garb of a Kalandar, and
claimed to belong to the World of Emancipation; beside
whom Majnfin would have appeared the sanest of men;
whose tongue was ever rapturously reciting new and
wondrous poems; who wandered continually in the deserts

and mountains seeking for his Leyldl; and who had be-
come the devoted admirer of Jenrtb-i-Bas~i-, and girded
his soul with the girdle of a sincere attachment to him),
set out for the province of GflAn, from the inhabitants
of which they suffered much harsh treatment, so that the
people of Enzelf' thrust them forth violently by night
from their town, and none would give them bread or water.
So their burning sighs flew forth as sparks and in a little
while many of the people's houses were utterly destroyed
in a conflagration wherein much of their wealth perished.
Then they [i.e. Jendb-i-Basi'r and MÕrzà MustaR the
Kurd] came to the land of Kazvln, where they ma~e many
disciples, as well as many enemies, for these, like the
darkness of- night, penetrate everywhere . . . . Then
'they set out for the 'Land of Holiness' [Arz-i-.K~uds, i.e.
TeherAn], so as to be near Hazrat-i- Wah& , and he [i.e.
Jendb-i-_Basi'r] obtained the honour of admission to the
10orious presence of the 'Splendour of the World' [Beha`u'l-
imkain, i.e. BeliA'u'lldhl. On his arrival, Hazrat-i-Behd,
to try him, began to display his fire and his wrath, osten-
sibly shut the door of regard in his face, and absolutely
forbade his admission. But as he, placing the foot of
sincerity on the carpet of intercession, drained with affec-
tion the goblet of affliction without suffering one sigh of
complaint to rise from his patient heart, Beb.4, seeing him
thus sincere in the path of love, and thus observant of the
rule of constancy, removed the veil from the face of his
compassion, and disclosed the countenance of his mercy.
I The maiden for love of whom Majnuln became 11 the Mad."
2 The chief Persian port on the Caspian, and the harbour of
the town of Resht.
3 i.e. Subh-i-Ezel. See n. 2 on p. 380 supra.

And the effulgences of Godhead from that 'Splendour of
Paradise' [Behai-i-Rizvain, i.e. BehAVIIAh] became reflected
in his [i.e. Jendb-i-Basir's] body of servitude.
"Thereafter Hazra't-i-Zabilt. one day entered his pre-
sence, and, though they were to all outward appearance
unacquainted, and Zabrli was but a man of the people,
nevertheless lie had no sooner entered and spoken a few
words than the breath of his influence so played upon the
palate of Jen6b-i-Baszir's heart that it took possession alike
of his spirit and body, seized him in the grasp of the
power of its loveliness, cleansed the mirror of his being
from every stain of not-being, and cast thereon the image
of its sublime beauty, so that Jentib-i-Basib- recognised
with the Eye of God the Glory of God and knew Him
through Himself, according to the purport of-
I I see the Loved One with the Loved One's eyes,'
and of ' 0 thou whose Essence sheweth Tltine Bssence, and
who art exempt fi-om all community of nature with TIql
In short, Jewitb-i-Basllr, impelled by his perfect jus-
tice, took his stand in the station of Annihilation Lof Self]
and transmuted the poisons of affliction by the alchemy of
love, till lie was able to pour the honey of PermaiieDce [iii
God] from the brimming bowl of the Theophanies into the
mouth of Union, and the Essence of 7,abih.'s Godhead be-
came manifest in the alembic of his 8erviiude. Then lie
announced himself to be a'return' of [the Iiii6m] 1juseyn,
which claim was substantiated by the production of verses,
homilies, and prayers; and he wrote letters to Hazrat-i-
Ezel and Jendb-i-Beha' concerning his ma14esiation.
Hazrat-i-Efzel in reply lionoured him with an epistle ex-
~res*sing his regards and his pleasure, as the superscription
of which he wrote '1n His name, the Most Discerning, the
Most Discerning' &-o ), and in the course
of which he said, ' 0 Friend, we have elected thee fi-om
amongst mankind' (,,aLJI Cj~ JL;tAl, I xi
Here follows the passage already quoted at p. 338 supra,
describing how Jendb-i-Bash-, while in the I Land of K6f '
(Kazvi'n. or Kum), whither he went on leaving Teherin,
pretended to recognize in a dog which was howling outside
the house the 'return' of a certain unbeliever. "After
that," continues MÕrzà JAnf, " he went to the 'Land of
A7(if' (K6shAn), where he alighted at the house of Jendb-i-
Nukta-i-K6fi ('His Excellence the Point of Kif,' i.e. 'of
K6s!~An')', because for four months they had [both] been
gladdened by attendance on Hazrat-i-Wahid [i.e. Subh-i-
Ezel] and Jendb-i-Behd in iheland of Mr [in MAza'n-
dar6n], had tasted of the wine of one another's affection,
and bad so intertwined the cords of friendship that no

sword of deceit could sever them.
Now 'His Excellence the Point of KAV had supposed
himself to be superior in station to Jendb-i-Basir, but
when he came within the sphere of his influence he was
attracted by him. And the symptoms of such attraction
and illumination are as follows. Firstly, that when [two
believers] ~ome to speak of the subtle points of the Doctrine
of the Divine Unity, his rank is highest whose range has
~een greatest. Another way is that they should engage
in a competition of affection, wherein whichever attracts
the other has the greater force of spirit. A third way is
that they should become angered one with the other, when-
he who is subdued is proved the weaker. To be brief,
although 'His Excellence the Point of KAV was by far the
more eminent and learned as regards outward accomplish-
ments and,power of exposition, yet so fair-minded was he
that so soon as he recognized the illumination and superior
I I confess that I am unable at present to identify this I Point
of Kdf.' Since KishAn is called 11 the Land of KAf " (Arz_i-Kdf),
it would seem probable that he was a native of that town; and since
Mfrza' Jinf entitles his book Nuktatu'I-Kdf, " the Point of Kif," it
would appear probable that some relation existed between the two.
I-lAjf Mfrzi J6nf had two brothers who were Bhbfs, Hijf Mfrzi
Ismalil (Trav.Nan,., vol. ii, p. 332) entitled Zabih (p. 213, n. 2 8upra),
who died in TeherAn ; and 116ji MirzA Ahmad the Ezelf, who
was killed at Baghdad by the Behi'fs. It seems possible that
the former may here be intended, in which case he is identical
with the Zabih whose manifestation is described at pp. 385-390

station of Jriia'b-i-B(isgi'r lie became. entirely aa-inihilated in
him, although many of his actions were [in appearance] of
an extremely mischievous character, and the very essence
of 'dark, dreadful, dire calamity" was apparent in his
words and deeds, inasmuch as he was a type of 'the Gate
which is inwardly Xlercy and outwardly of the nature of
Torinegitt.' For this reason most of the brethren fled from
him, notwithstanding which 'His Excellence the Point of
KAV was steadfast in devotion to him, by God's help,
shutting his eyes to the strictures of the benighted, especi-
ally on the occasion of the quarrel between Jenlib-i-'Azz'M '
and Jenrib-i-Bast'r, whereby the hearts Of the brethren
were torn [with conflicting sentiments].
cc Now the cause of this difference was that Jen6b-i-
A'-am (sic) said, 'I am the Gate of the two Masters', and
the friend of "the Fruit of the Eternal" (i.e. Subh-i-Ezel%
and King Man~ftr', and this by many explicit declarations
[on their part]; wherefore 1 should be obeyed by you and
all the brethren, and it is incumbent upon all in every
case to humble themselves before me.' To this Jena'b-i-
Basir replied, 'You speak truly and rightly, but those
thi~gs which form the basis -of your greatness before His
Holiness 'the Point' are two : firstly, that you claim the
position of Perfect Service and Proximity to him; secondly,
that you assert that the true signs of the Sun of his
Godhead are manifest in the Mirror of Service in your soul.
Both of these claims of yours are true, and you have,
See p. 216, supra, and n, 1.
i.e. Mullh Sheykh 'Alf.
3 C),
I suppose that the Bib and Subh-i-Ezel are
4 1 do not know who is meant by "King Mansu'r
I suppose that there is an allusion to Nansro-i-Hallay
the SAff, who suffered death for his words "And-'1-Hakl,"
('IT a *in the Truth"), and that this title was given to one of th~o`se
who clainied to be Divine Manifestations after the Bib's death.
I think that I heard Subh-i-Ezel once allude to " SultAn Man-
u'r," and it runs in my mind that Huseyn of Milin (see Trav.
Yarn, vol. ii, p. 357) was so designated.
JENJkB-I-'AZfM AND JENkll-I-IlAf~f& 393
nioreover, explicit declarations [in support of your claim
but 1 advance the same claim, and this standard hoNs
good [in my case also], and I think that I recogDize my
service and self-annihilation before the Glory of that Sun
of Might as superior to yours. Therefore the signs of His
Godhead, to wit verses spontaneously uttered [dydt-i-fitr'l
which are the greatest of all signs, flow from my lips.'
,'Je?dib-i-'Azz`m, however, hesitated to admit his claim,
either from considerations of expediency, or as a trial [to

test the faith of the brethren], or because the contest was
left undecided. At all events, as the conduct of Jenaib-i-
-Basz'r was the greater stumbling-block (it being inwardly
inspired by the Doctrine of the Unity, but oastensibly op-
posed thereunto), therefore some of the bret-hren complained
of him to Ha-rat[-i-j0_-e1], saying, 'The blind Seyyid' has
put forward certain claims, and -acted thus and thus.' So
Hazrat[-i-_&e1], seeing that in a time of apparent impo-
ienc'e' it was his duty to make 'apportionment to every
claimant of his rights',' issued a manifesto designed to put
men to the trial, so that the state of every soul might
become -known to him, whether they possessed spiritual
vision, or were impelled by a mere blind conformity. No
sooner was this manifesto issued than differences arose
amongst the brethren, especially in the 'Land of 86d,'
where many believed, but some few remained veiled. Ana
these differences endured for a space of six months, after
which they passed away, and the brethren were greatly
By  the blind Seyyid," Seyyid Basir is of course
meant, for we learn from p. 245 supra that he lost his sight in
his youth. He was called Bagir, " the Seeing " or " Discerning,"
because of his spiritual efflightenment, and it was no doubt
because the Ba'bfs regarded the claim which he now advanced
as the sign of a benighted condition of soul that they thus
renamed him.
2 i.e. during a period of 'Minor Occultation' when the I Sun
of the Theophany I was no longer visible.
W W  W
411. L;91b-Ls~
4 i.e. Isfalia'11.

edified, having appreliended the mysteries of the Doctrine
of the Unity, and understood the Essence of the Trial.
" And besides these two 'Manifestations' which His
Holiness 'the Reminder' [Jen6b-i-7,ik7-, i.e. the BAbj and
Jena'b-i-'AzfM had foretold, saying, After me there will
be two Manifestations, one the Manifestation of Huseyn,
and the other the Manifestation of YahyA, and neither
will remain in the womb more than six months,' there,were
many other 'Manifestations,' one in the 'Land of TA'
[i.e. Tabrfzll; Olle in the 'Land of FA' [i.e. FArs]; one
in Baghdq(f, to wit lie whom they call 8eyyid-i-'U1uvLail 6A-~Jl
alqj o-0
" Let the name of God the High, the Supreme, peruse it.
" He is the Most Exalted, the Supreme.
" In the Name of God the Sublime, the Sublime. Glory
be to Tkee, 0 my God and the God of all things, my Lord
and the Lord of all things, my Creator and the Creator of
all things, my Provider and the Provider of all things, He
who causeth me and all things to die, He who causeth, me
and all things to live, my Maker and the Maker of all
things, my Limner and the Limner of all things. Verily
I and all things bear witness that Thou art God, there is
no God save Thee. To Thee belongeth, the Dominion and
the Kingdom; to Thee the Glory and the Power; to Thee
Might and Godkead; to Thee Strength and the Universal
80ull; to T1we Sovereignty and the World of Men; to Thee
Majesty and Splendour; to Thee Eyfulgence and Beauty; to
Thee Comeliness and Perfection; to Thee Power and Deed;
to Thee.Ylercy and Bounteousness; to Thee Awfulness and
Justice. To Thee belongeth whatsoever Thou hast created
or shalt create, be it what it may; naught disappeareth
from Thy Knowledge, and naught baffleth Thee, neither in
the Kingdom of Thy Command, nor in the Power of Thy
Creation; verily Thou hast Knowledge of all things, and
1 So I translate Ydkat, which seems to be used in this sense
by the mystics. See Juridni's De
.finitionm, ed. FRigel, p. 279, sx.
So Mulk ("Dominion") means the Material
World; JfalakQ ("Kingdom") the Angel World; Jabarat
("Power") the Spirit World, &c.
verily Thou hast power over all things. - I pray Thee to
bless Him whom God shall manifest, then his Proofs, ~ with
every salutation which Thou comprehendest in, Thy know-
ledge: verily Thou art able and powerful to do this.
" But after this. You have written of the receipt of the
second epistle, wherewith you were honoured from the Land
of tC(if', and by the perusal of which you were gladdened.
Praise be to God for that which he hath, conferred on

you, and for having furthered your pilgrimage in the
journeys of His love and His good pleasure, now from His
Creation to the annihilation of His Sanctity, and now from
the highest pinnacle of His Tkrone towards His Creation.
Well is it with him who journeys in the paths of his Be-
loved, and severs himselffrom the love of all save the Object
of his desire. 0 how great is our longing to behold your
beauty overshadowed by the beauty of your Beloved! -I
also ask not from my Lord aught else than that which you
ask from you?- Lord, neither do I desire aught save that
which you desire from the Object of your devotion. I hope
of the Grace of my Lord that He will vouchsafe help unto
His Saints according to what hath already appeared of
His help, whereby He rejoiceth the hearts of His Saints '
and refresheth the souls of His friends: is -not this indeed
the Victory near at hand, and the Morning ardently de-
sired? Praise be to God for the Light which he hath, vouch-
safed, and thanks be to God for the blaze which Ile hath,
flashed forth , , and glory be to God for what He hath dis-
played and caused to shine and gleam forth from the Light
of His Essence and the Mirror of His Nature, that all may
be assured that there is no god but He, the Alighty, the
Beloved, and that there is no god but He, the Protecting,
the Self-Existent
"As for what you wrote, all was submitted to the
notice of the Zenith of Si~preme Sanctity-, who will ap-
portion to his saints what is best for those who love him.
We have not yet been honoured by receiving your first
letter, which you wrote before this. Subsequently to the
ie. Kazvfn, as explained by $ubh i-Ezel in his letter of
Muharram 12, A.H. 1309 (Aug. 18, A.D. 1891).
~ ie. the Bib.

Day of Deprivation' two letters in the handwriting of His
Holiness the Eternally-Beloved, and two letters in the
handwriting of this insignificant mote, together with several
'Names',' were sent to the 'Proofs of the Truth','but, such
obstacles having arisen on the way as have arisen by reason
of certain movements, the communication thereof has
hitherto been deferred; though, in accordance with 'None
shall touch it save the pure , the writings are in safe
keeping until such time as God shall convey th~nz to you;
and He will convey them to you; and He will convey them
when He pleasetk: verily He is Able and Powe?ful.
" He' maketh mention of the Friends of that land,
especially the father of the Chief Martyr' (upon him be the
1 That is, as I suppose, the day when the person addressed in
the letter was parted from the Bib.
2 ie. Sections of the I Book of Divine Nantes.' See my Cata-
logue and Descr?]ption of 27 Bdbi MW. in the J. R. A. S. for 1892,
pp. 648-659.
3 ie. the 18 chief disciples of the Bib, called also "Letters of
the Living" (&m- %:Aij
and- "Proofs of the Living
which latter term is thus explained in the Hasht
4 Kur'àn, lvi, 78.
6 ~hat is, as I understand it, the Bib ; but the words are
6 In answer to my enquiries, $ubh-i-Ezel thus explained this
expression in the letter referred to on pp. 42 1, and 43 1, n. 1 supra.
"[The term] 'Chief Martyr' [Shahid-i-Akbar] is applicable to all
the I Letters,' but here his [ie. XkA Seyyid Huseyn's] father A'ki
Seyyid AVmad is intended, who, notwithstanding his extreme
weakness and old age, sacrificed himself and his little child Seyyid
Muhammad 'Ali (see pp. 82-3 supra]. Two of his other sons,
His Excellence hi Seyyid Huseyn [of Yezd, the writer of this
letter], and kki Seyyid Hasan, both lost their lives in the Cause
These had another younger brother, but whether he still lives,
or in what condition, is unknown. The father of these is [here
intended by the term] I the father of the Chief Martyr'."
I  I
Splendour!); and He will reveal unto them ~'whatsoever
may be dictated by His Grace and Bounty,
" With respect to the sum of gold specified', the impli-
cation of the words appears to be as you suggest, but no

further indication has been given which I can offer to you.
And God is the Protector of the pious.
" Continue always to write accounts of your condition.
You will convey takbt'rs to all such as give greeting with
the takbtr', especially to him who is [now] present beside
you, the Traveller of Truth (upon whom be the Splendour
of God!).
I Subli-i-Ezel's note on this passage in the letter referred to
in the last foot-note is as follows:
JL3 Cjtz.,33 jcj A-46 r-AJ j1 Lpj a ~-
31 j1 La
L)J_1 A-46 .53.0~
vi  A
yl.~5 4A
The sum of gold spec~ged was a sumpf money which a former
friend had squandered for him on pretence of finding the Philo-
sopher's Stone. This man then ran away, leaving with him some
chemicals which be supposed to be the residue of that money of
his, which had disappeared. Such is the condition of'those who
forsake generosity and justice, and shew mercy unto none. _- May
God increase their remotene8s, or direct t'hem aright: verily He ii
quick to repent and vierciful."
2 The Bibfs used to salute one another with the takbir, %*.e.
the formula "Alld/tu Akbar" ("God is Most Great"). Takbir-in
this place therefore means "greeting "; while by " such as give
greeting with the takbir" all believers in the New Revelation are
N. H.

"I praise God, my Lord, and the Lord ql'all things,
the Lord of the 11isible and the Invisible, the Lord of the
Worlds, at all times, and before a time, and after a time.
He' hath revealed for thee an epistle from thy Lord, which
hath been sent unto the faithful believer in the Land oj'
6etid', that it may reach thee, or thy brother. This is men-
tioned for your information. Praise be to God, the Lord,
of the Worlds
,:-wl "-041" 61' L-0. 'L,01 -jI 4=~Oa,.A,u~4
;.- - U--&
W  w
I Aj I S) Lei 1
.j -Auu
C~-* LTLO (14* AiL;'91 JAI
' ie. the Bib.
I IsfahAn.
(frO177 VerSO)
c c
11. Vit. -1 -1 5 -_p
Fac-st'mile of Lz letter
'r,-aZ J /,? Jt7 1$11471,i ~heVhlj'Al~.

11  %a
.1aj I 4b 1 O.X*Z I C" U
c), Lo
~j L4
J05- Lo
amri -.7di -GJ
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Talismanic Form; and that he is of the Letters of the Face I
of Him, the Living, than whom there is no other god,
resplendent in the. Heaven of Glory; and that God huth
purified him from all that taketh, origin from the Shadow-
Plane', and hath, chosen him to stand sublime in the place
of Him, the Living, the Nost High, the Supreme.
" God! He is Mighty beyond the magnification of all
creatures, and Supreme above the glorification of all wor-
shippers; and He hath fizithful~y observed His promise, and
hath brought somewhat of His signsfor a surety. He hath,
illumined the earth with the. Light of His Face, and hath
made it a Iffirror bright~y polished.
" 0 thou whom God kath, displayed as a new wonder to
His New Creation, and hath, taken for the Waising of
His Support on high, God is the constraining attraction of
thine inmost soul, and Re, in His ou)n Liring Person, hatA
shone forth upon thee every moment, all-encompassing, re-
splendent. It is not given to desc2-giptive powers or utterance
to describe thee, nor can thy state be reached by any impli-
cations of praise or any explanation: thou art thou, thou
in thyself the Livin g-, enthro??ged in holiness, mighty, lofty,
sublime, splendid.
" The heart of the Zi was gladdened, and the Letter F~t
Mighty" (Ismu'l-'Azim), or "His Excellence the Mighty" (Jendb-
i-'Azim), to whom the laudatory expressions which follow are
addressed. See the first paragraph on p. 353 supra.
I ie. the Bib, one of whose titles was Wqjhu'lldh ("The Face
of God").
2 See pp. 328-9 supra. Subh-i-Ezel writes.-
4 a
,)0_t.6 0-~MN J3 .3 a,-bW -.dV- _  SL4j
j UA~ 6wA; j "..A L54 L;.&. JqU.6 6_1i6 Zwl L$..!&
* Z.W1 Z-.01W
44Xa8h'atu'dh-dhi114at. This phenomenal world; or, in some
passages, one who stands opposed to the. Truth and is the In-
carnation of Denial and Darkness."
re * iced, and the bosom of the TV was elated for that she
,1, 0
saw thy signs from the red lea?" arising: This is of the
Grace of God the Mighty unto me, and verily the Grace of
God, unto this Tree3 hath been great.
" 0 light of the Fire, and Mystery of Revolution', an&
Essence of Stability, how long wilt thou enoin on me pa-
tience, when. the Cause hath appeared resplendent, and the
Order hath come determined? I conjure thee by thy Truth,
the Mighty, the Most Mighty, 0 venerated Talisman, and
0 V, nigma bearing on thyself the imprints of the Spirit' I
Patience and endurance are at an end, and there remaineth

not aught save reprimand and self-reproach dominant in
this moment of just retribution. 0 most beloved of the
Beloved, 0 influence of the Friend, haw long wilt thou make
intercession for theaze drunkards and brutes', all of them 2
By "the Zd" (ZaArd, "the Bright"), "the Lette,-_ Fd".
(Fitima. the daughter of the Prophet Muhammad) who, as the
B6bfs say "returned" in 1~urratu'l-'Ayn), and "the Td" (Y~dhirq
"the Pure"), 1~urratu'l-'Ayn herself is meant, as explained by
2 A letter sent on a former occasion is referred to. &bh-i-
3 By "the Tree" also Kurratu'l-'Ayn is meant. Cf. n. 2 on
p. 273 supra:
4 The wordj1.x..-," wl cannot, of course, be really derived from the
root j.3>, but should come from the root j>,3. In face of the
splendid contempt for grammar manifested by the early Bibfs,
however, one has to look not so much to the actual meaning of
the words employed as to the sense which the writers appear to
have attached to them.
The word munamnain  which I thus translate, is
properly applied to sand striated and blown into small ridges by
the action of the wind.
6 That isl 11 these unbelievers who are intoxicated with the
wine of heedlessness and sunk in brutish indifference." On this
passage Subh-i-Ezel made the following observation:-
j1 Z^AUZ .0 AZI~t)_O~ A-1:6U31.0.~

By thy Truth, they will not believe in the signs, neither will
admonition profit them as an intimidation. God the True
hath willed to see the Tree cast down on the dusty earth in
most great abasement', and./rom all, in all, by all cut of:
His, then, is the command, and His the decision, universaily,
partiaZly, particularly, all-consuming.
" Now by thy Glory, .0 Attraction of the inmost soul,
Mystery of the Cause, standing immoveable at the Centre of
&!Ez, .0 6.5-4.0.;
"The words written by Jendb-i-'Azinz contained intercession for
certain persons, that they should be pardoned. The answer was
written thihis:-'Ho?v long wilt thou make intercession'... &c."
I By " the Tree", as before, ]~Curratu'l-'Ayn is meant. On
this passage Subh-i-Ezel remarks:--
.J3 AMI..;Wb. J._S%fl X.0ij I J AD I . U, J%_~
A.ZJ1 6j!~Jjd.. 6Lft..w 3 V-01
L;JAI.6 L;3,j ,.J
Ls-~.~ J3 A3.x-~l JUN. L;.5,ta :)3t j1
uw C
. ~ ".)WI -1
11 1 God hath willed to see the Tree cast down on the dusty earth
in greatest abasement,' even as she did certainly in her prison abd
bondage experience many sufferings ere she suffered martyrdom,
as she says, 'east down on the dusty earth,' thrown on the face of
the earth. The earth is to be taken literally, for after her mar-
tyrdom they cast her on the earth in a dusty plot of ground.
ITlie Tgree'in this passage is that same much-wronged woman,
and 'the dusty earth' is the place of her martyrdom, where she
was cast in the dust."
the New Dispensation, I am nigh making complaint to my
Lord of a people chilled and soulless, all of them, for that
they have forgotten the Way of God, and have taken the
Matter as a thing of little account. Were it not for thy
intercession, 0 Essence of Generosity, and thy grace, 0 Face
of the Eternal, God would assuredly have punished them with
the loss of the Letter Zd' from this dusty land many days
before this as a retribution. flo, then, 0 Rd! Verily so
long as they continue to sojourn in the lands of God' they
will not humble themselves. May God in His Mercy com-
passionate them, and compel them to enter into the Paradise
of His Proximity I"
(Here ends the first part of Kurratu'l-'Ayn's letter,
which alone is translaied.)
I ie. Kurratull-'Ayn (Zahrd, "the Bright"), as already ex-
2 According to the law contained in the Bey4n, unbelievers
are not suffered to remain in the Land8 of Fd (FArs), 'Ayn

('IrAk), Alif (~kzarbaijin), Khd (KhurisAn), and Nim (MAzan-
darAn). See my second paper on the BàbÕs in the J. R. A. S. for
1889, p. 927. It- would appear that Kurratu'l-Ayn advocated an
attempt to give immediate effect to this law, which was depre-
cated by MullA Sheykh 'Alf

Aaron, 52, n. 1 'Abdu'llkh, Mullk, of I
'Abbhs Efendi (Behh'ullkh's son), 'Abdu'l-Maj'd, HAj1
xxxi, xxxii, XIV
'Abbhs-Kuli KhAn, of Lhrijin, 52,
53, 59, 67, 69, 70, 72, 74, 76,
85, 106, 107, 109, n. 1, 361,
362, 364, 406, n. 1, 408 -
'Abbhs Mirzk, 190, n. 1
"Abdu'l-'Ali, 143
'Abdu'l-'Ali, Mullh, 283
Abdu'l-'Azim ~.kb, Seyyid, of
Khfiy (or kaAgha), 87, 371
'Abdu'l-'Azim, Shhh, sanctuary
of, x1l, 152 and n. 2, 230,
-Abdu'l-B&ki, AkA Miizh, 232
'Abdu'l-B&ki, H~ji Mullk, of KA-
shAn, ~32
1Abdu'l-BAtki,'Mfr, xlix, n. 1, 215
-Abdu'l-Bhki, Mirzit, 67
'Abdu'l-Bhki, MirzA, of Gilfin, 232
'Abdull-HAdf, MirzA, 33
'Abdu'l-Hamid KbAn, the Dd-
r4ghd, 204, 205
6Abdu'l-Jalil, Akk, the Turk, 33
'Abdu'l-Jawid, Mirzh, 239
'Abdu'l-Karim, Mullh, of Kazvin,
297, n. 2
,Abdull-KhAlik, Mullh, of Yezd,
29, 231, 232, n. 3, 342 and
n. 1
'Abdu'llhh, 1kh 58
Abdulllhh Khil (same as the
above), 407
'Abdu'll&h KbAn, Sarddr, 84
,Abdulllhh, Mullh, of Mahallht,
Nishfiptir, 232
'Abdu'l- Muhammad Khbn, 360
'Abdu'l-Muitalib, Hi6ji, of Isfahfin,
'Abdu'l-Wahhhb, Mirzh, of Khu-
rfishu, 34, 224, 232, 233 and
n. 2, 239, 352
'Abdu'l-Whsil, H!Lji Mir, 29
'Abid, Sheykh, the BiLb's preceP7
tor, 262-264
Abraham, 331, 337
Abfi Bekr, 76
Ab*'I-Fa~l, Mirzk, of Gulpbya-

gAn' xxiv, n. 1, xxxii, xxxiii
-xxxvi, xxxvii, n. 2, x1ii,
x1iii, 1, 172 and n.-I, 313,-n.
2, 318, n. 2. 322 -
Abf1 Hanifa, 276 and n. 1, -
Abfi'l-Hasan, 168
AUVI-KILsim, Mirzk, the mujta-
hi~, 164
Abid SofyAn, xvii, 337, 359,-g-
Ab I Thlib, Mullk 202 - - g - ~g
Abift Turfib, Sheykh, of Ashta-
I . hird, 232
Abfi TurAb, Sheykh, of Kazvin,
93, 139 J
Abwkb (pl. of.B~b, q.v.), ~,32, 333,
and n. 3 on latter
Acheamenian Kings, 182, 183
Acre ('Akkd, in Syria), xxi, xxiii,
Adam, 337
Adrianople (Edirng), xx, xxi, xxiii,

Afghan invasion of Persia, 196
Afghhnisthn, 88
Ahmad AbdAl, Mullh, 33
Ahmad Alik, 149, 150
"mad, Sheykh, of Ahsh (or
Lahsk), 45, 139, 21 - 6, 232,
26i, 2-jO, 274, 332, 333, 335,
339, 342, 397, 398, 403
Ahmad, Hhji Mirzh, of KAshhn,
xiv, 391, n. 1
Ahmad-i-Kdtib, MirzA, 297, n. 2
Ahmad KhAn, 191
Ahmad, Mashhadi, 136
"mad Mirzh, Prince, 106
A~mad, Mirzh, 290
A~mad, Mirzh, of Azghand, 44,
Ahmad, Mullh, of HisAx, 233
A~mad, Mullh, of ka~hallht, 233
Ahmad, kkl Seyyid, of SemnAn,
101-06, 232
A4mad, ~kk& Seyyid, of Tabriz,
297 and n. 2
Ahmad, kkh Seyyid, of Yezd,
432 , n.*6
Ahmad, Sheykh, of MaImfira, 232
Ahmed Beg Agaeff, xxxi, Iii
ALsanu'l-Kisas (11 Best of Sto-
ries "), ~9, n. 5. See Com-
nientary on Sdra-i-Yi1suf
JAn Beg, the Ezeli, xxiii
,kik KhAn, MirzA, the Sadr, 414,
"A, MirzA, 58
,kik, Mullh, of Herfit, 232
Akh ltasiil, 67, 362, 364
Aihbhris, 135, 188 and n. 1, 333,
,kkhfind's Mosque, ZanjAn, 149
Alexander, Epistle of (Rishl6-i-
lskandariyya), xxxiv
Alexander, Wall of, 63
Alexandria, author of New His-
tory at, 22
CAR b. Abi Titlib, the first Imhm,
76, 97, b8, 194, 248, 249, 263,
266, 286, 321, 329, 331, 336,
'Alihbhd (Mhzandarhn), 85, 405

'All Akbar, 155
'Ali Akbar, Mullh, of Ardisthn,
200-202, 204, 346
'Ali, ~kkh Seyyid, the Arab, xxiv
'Ali As
.ghar, nephew of the Imhm.
Huseyn, 305, n. 4
'Ali, Rhji Seyyid, the BAb's uncle,
204, 252, 255, 256, 261, 262,
265, 346, 410, 421
'All, Hhji Seyyid, Letter ad.
dressed to, by Seyyid Huseyn
of Yezd, 421, 427-431
'Ali-Ilhbis, sect of the, 141, 157,
'Ali Khhn, HAji, 44jibu'd-Dawla,
168, 256-258, 266,370, 413,
'Ali Khhn, the Warden of MhVi,
238-240, 352, 402
'Ali KhAn, Seyyid, of Fit-Azkfih,
'Ali, Mashhadi, 226
'Ali, Mullh, of Bistkm, 33,231,401
'Ali M 114, of Burkhn, 232
,Al,: Muullh, of Nfir*, 209, 346
'Ali, Mullh Sheykh, of Khurhshn
("Jendib-i-1,4jim"), xv, li,
215, n. 1, 233, 240, 264, 349,
353, 369, 388 and n. 1, 392,
393, 394, 400 and n. 1, 402,
'Ali, Mullk Sheykh, Letters ad-
dressed to, by the Bhb and
Kurratu'l-'Ayn, 420, 421, 423
-425, 434-441
'Ali, Sheyhh, the son of MulU
'Abdu'l-Khklik of Yezd, 342,
n. 1
'Ali-MurAd KhAn, Castle of, at
Zanjkn,.145, 155, 156
'Ali Muhammad, Mirzh, or Sey-
yid. See Bdb
'Ali Muhammad, of Zanjhn, 168
'Ali Muhaminad,.,kkh,'the Ezeli,
Alif, Land of (,kzarbaijkn), 441,
n. 2
'Alin, 293 and n. 3
Allhhu Abhh, " ejaculation used
by Bhbis, 145, 146, 157

Allegorical interpretation, xiii,,
46, n. 1, 268, 269, 321, 323-
325, 334, 335, 357
Alwhh-i-Salhtin (Epistles to the
kings), i77, n. 1. See also
Ameer Aft, Syed, xi
America, 195
Amin, MirzA, of IsfahAn, 193
Amir-i-Kabir (or Ainir-Nizdm),
Mirzk Taki Khhn, 138,*139,
140, 156, 157, 169, 170, 251,
291-293, 372, 410,411, 413,
,kmul (Mkzandarfin), xv, 72, 73,
103, 359, 364, 378, 379, 409
Anglo-Persian War, 419
Anis (title of Hiji Mirz& Jfini),
'Ankh (a fabulous bird), 800 and
n. 2
Antichrist (Dajidl), 234, 237, 324,
1,krif, 136, n. 1, 139
Irim (in Sawitd-Kfih), 45
Arkh1dik (under-coat), 294, n. I
Armenians (Ardmina), term loo-se-
ly applied to all Persian
Christians, 242
Arz-i-Akdas ("the Most Holy
Land"), i.e. Mashhad, q.v.
Arz-i-Kuds CIthe Land of Holi-
n~ss"), Teherhn so called,
Asadu'llhh, Hhjf, 278,'280, n. 1
Asadu'llhh, PahlavAn, Zirih-pdsh,
Asadu'lllih, Mirzh, of Tabriz,
called Deyydn, 394, n. 1
Ashraf (in Mfizandarhn), 359
Ashraf KhAn, governor of Zanj4n,
223, 224, 352 -
1,kshfirb, (Muharram 10th), 195
and n. I
AslAn KhAn, Amir, Majdu'd-
Dawla, 138, 162, 287, n. 2.
See also Majdu'd-Dawla
Astronomy, wonderful results of,
applauded, 7, 326
"Austrian tea" (chdy-i-nams6),

'Ayn, Land of arn), 441, 2'
AzAn, the Fatal, 50; 51
Azarbaijim, 06, 197, 241,g n. 2,
:A~im, lkkA Seyyid, the Turk,'103
Azim, JLfib-i-. See 'Ali, Mulld
,Aziz (11 the Beloved title of
,kkh Seyyid Huseyn of Yezd,
83 382
'Azizu'il&h, Aka, xxxiv-xxxvi
B., Land of, BArfurfish so called,
Bit, the [Letter], 399 and n. 2
BIB, Mirzk 'Ali Muhammad the,
xii--xiv, xxvi, xxvii, li, 24,
25, 27, 34-39, 41, 42, 93,
136-138, 198-228 238--
242, 284-312, 368, '371, 880
autograph letter of, li
miracles ascribed to, 42, 206,
207, 212, n. 2, 220, 221, 225,
226, 240, 262-265, 312, 343-2
346,347,-351 - - - -
system devised by, its charac-
teristics, xii, xiii, xxvi
title of,' its meaning and ap-
plications, xiii, 286, 330, 33 1,
335-337 and n. I on latter,
339, 344, 353, 354, 398, 399
writings of, their style and
character, xii, xxvi, xxvii,
422; their extent, 238, 239,
352 -
his birth, parentage, and child-
hood, 262-265, 343, 370
his youth, 325, 340-345
his 11 Manifestation," 34-39,
330 ; date of, 307, n. 2
at KerbeU and Nejef, 340-345
at Mecca, 198, 199 -
his return to Bushire, 200
his return to Shirhz, 203-205,
his journey to IsfahAn, 205~
1 208,.346 ,
at Isfahin, 208-213, 322, 346,

446 INDEX. INDEX. 447
B", his journey to MAkd, 213,
217, 228
at Mfirch6-khf1r, 349
at KAshAn, xiv, 213-216, 349
at KhAnlik, 216, 217, 226, 349
at Kazvin, 275, 349, 402
at ;kanjhn and MilAn, 137, 219
-221, 351
at Mhkfi, 221-228, 238- 240,
at Chihrik, 240-242, 290, 353,
,,declares himself to be the
Ayd'im, 241, 296
examined at Tabrfz, 284-289,
322, 353-355, 403
his death decided upon, 291-
293, 411
examined before Hamz6 MirzA,
his martyrdom, 297-310, 325,
382, 383, 411-413; date of,
307 and n. 1; foretold by
himself, 235, 309-311
,,disposal of his remains, 311,
312 and n. 2 on latter, 412,
413 -
Letter from (facsimile, text,
and translation), 420, 423-
425. See also p. 417 and
n. 4
Babbicombe murder, 308, n. 2
BAbis, their probable number, vii,
n. 1
their attitude towards the
Crown and the established
religion, xvii, xxv, xxviii, 362
schism amongst them, xx-
popular misconceptions con.
cerning them, 25, 234, 322,
their actual characteristics, 26,
doctrines of primitive, 327-
their salutation, 433, n. 2
ilibu'l-BAb ("The Gate of the
Gate "). See Huseyn, Mull&,
of Bushraweyh

Bfibul, river, 406
Badakhsbhn, 242, n. 4
Badasbt, 99, 251, 283, 330, 355-
360, 361, 365, 377
Bad-rk'i, 401 and n. 3
Baghdhd, xx, xxiv, 31, 88,.93, igi.
1, 272, 339, 356, 391, n. 1,
394, 401
Bhgh-i-Misha, 191
Bahman Mirzk, 221-223, 224,
Bakhtiyhris, 346
Bkkir, Hhji Seyyid, of Resht, 349,
Bhkir, Mullh, of Kan, 232
Bhkir, Mulli, the Turk, 33
Bhkir, Muhammad. See Alu-
havtma~ Bdkir
Bhlhsaris, 333, 342
Balkh, 88
BaWichistAn, 88
Bannh, Hhjf, 154
Barbier de Meynard, M., Iii
Bhrfurfisb, xvii, 47, 48, 52, 53
and n. 2, 55, 65, 73, 88, 92,
95, 103, 337, 341, 355, 359,
360, 361, 362, 364, 377, 378,
404, 405, 408, 409
Barzakh, 46, n. 1, 332
Bashir, Mullh, 33
Basir, Seyyid, the Indian, 244-
247, 249, 338, 384, 388-394
Bhsiri tribe, 124
Basra, 397
Bast (sanctuary), 152, n. 2
Batffl, Seyyida-i- (11 the Lady
Virgin"), Fittima so called,
307, n. 3
Bhyazid of Bisthm, the Sifi, 9
and n. 1
BEHPU'LL111 (Mirzh Huseyn 'Ali
of Nfir), xv, xx-xxlv, xxxi,
xxxii, xxxv, xxxvi, xl-xliii,
64 and nn. 1 and 2, 65, 139,
n. 1, 177, n. 1, 178, n. 1, 200,
n. 4, 217, 247, 273, n. 2, 283,
310, n. 1, 316, n. 3, 349, 362,
n. 1
his character and policy, xxi,

his "Manifestation," and its
date ' Xx, xxi, xxxii, Xxxv,
n. 3
BEH!'U'LLiH, called Tallat-i-Abhd
(" the Most Precious Appear-
ance "), 139, n. 1, 247, n. 2
called Tal'at-i--Alaks4d (11 the
Desir~d Appearan'c*e," or ra-
ther I I the Apparition of the
Desired One "), 283
called Tuld'-i-Akdas-i-Abhd
("the Aiost Hol~ and Most
Splendid Dawn"), xl, n. 3
,,called Ufuk-i-Alld ("the Su-
preme H~rizon "), xxxvi
Belfich, 134
"Best of Stories." See Commen-
tary on Sf2ra-i-Y?!suf
BeyAn, xxvi, n. 1, 26, 46, n. 1,
64, 267, n. 2, 326, 334, 381,
399, 417, 418, 422, n. 1, 441,
n. 2
BibliotUque Nationale, xxx, x1vii,
Bihhru'l-AnvAr (a work on tradi-
tion), 325, 363
Bismi'llhh, 263
Br6al, M. Michel, Iii
Brothers of Purity" (Ikhwdnu's-
sqfid), BAbis so called, 106,
BukhArA, 88
Burton's Pilgrimage, 312, n. 3
Burfijird, 247
Bushire, 158, 200, 202
Chshfir Chiman (booy),-Xxxviii
Chashm6-i- 'Ali (Mazandarhn),
Chihrik, 156, 239-241, 284, 290,
26~, 309, 403
Chihrik, called "the Grievous
M;untain" (Jabal-i-Shadtd),
403 and n. 1
Christ, 2, 13, 106, 132, 236, 237,
321, 325, 326, 331. 335, 337,
Christians, xxv, 60, 323, 396
Churchill, Mr Sidney, x1iii
Classes antagonistic to new truths,
clergy, Mu4ammadan, jealous of

power, 25, 26; their para-
mount influence, 180-185,
189-193; their ignorance,
obstinacy, and meanness, 193
-198, 314, 321-323
Commentary on Sfiratu'l-,Asr,
Sdratu'l-Bakara, 35--37
Sfiratu'I-Ka-~tbar, 209
S6xa-i-Yiisuf, 39, 330,398 and
n. 5, 399, n. I
the Names of God, 396, 432,
n. 2
Communistic tendencies of early
BàbÕism, 361, n. I
Cucumbers, letters enclosed in,
Cursing, mutual (fflubdhala), 61,
Curzon, Hon. G. N., vii, n. 1,
124, n. 3
Cyprus. See FaMagu8ta
DAghdAri dervishes, 245, 388
Dalh'il-i--sab a ("Seven Proofs
329, 350, n. 1
Damascus, 125 and n. 2; Teherhn
so called by BiLhis, 337, 373
Daniel, book of, xxxv, xxxvi and
n. 3 on former
DArhb, 111, 130
Dasak-sar, 104
Dashtfr, xxxviii, 323, 324
DasWs, 104, n. I
Mfid MirzA, 67
David, 57, 133, n. 1, 166, n. 2
Delisle, M., Iii
Deylamite, 132, 134, 191, 325
Dew-Smith, Mr, li, 420
Dih-i-Bizfi, 59
Dih-i-Nazar KhAn, 362
Din-Muh~mmad, xlix, n. 1, 140,
142-148, 150-153, 158, 161
"Direful Mischief 11 (Fitn&i-say-
lam), xxiv, 392
Discussions between BAb1s and
Muhammadans, 172-180,
314 and n. 1, 32.3--327
Dorn, 396

448  INDEX.
English, 87, 197, 308, 414, 419
Enzell, 389
"Eternal Witness" (Shahddat-i-
~Ezeliyy6), 44, 65, 72, 90, 356
Europeans praised, 15, 17, 21, 22,
Ezel. See Subh-i-Ezel
Ezelis, xxiii, xxiv, xxvii, xxviii,
x1ii, x1iii, 301, n. 1, 421
FA, Land of, Fhrs so called, 345,
394, 441, n. 2
Fh, Letter, Kurratu'l-,Ayn so
called, 436 and n. 1
Fakhri, el-, 279, n. 1
Falsehood, its prevalence and
noxious influeDCe in Persia,
Famagusta (Cyprus), xix, xxi,
xlv, li, 140, n. 1, 421
Farhmusb-kbhn6 ("House of Ob-
livion," name given to a
masonic lodge), 166, n. I
FArhn (Mount Paran), 91
FarhAd MirzA, 120, n. 1, 124, n.
1, 371
Farrukh Khhn, 154, 155 and n.
1 1 411
at4- 'Ali, ~14, 146, 155, 156, n. 1
Fath- 'Ali Klikn, 191
Fat~-,Ali Shhh, 67, 190, 196, 284,
n. 1
Fathu'llhh, IkA, 148
Fatl~u'llhh, Idullh, of Kum, 229,
n. 1
FAtima, 333, 334, 356
Faitkh, 191
Fhzil, Hhji, 192
Ferrier's Travels, 149, n. I
FirAzisthn (history of ancient
:Kin,,s of Persia), xxxvin
Firdawsi, 340, n. 1
Fire, ordeal by, 61 and n. 1, 373
-First who believed " (avvalu
vian, dmana), Mullh Huseyn
of Busbraweyh so called, 34,
344, 399
Firdzkfih, 361
Firfiz MirzA, 120, 124, n. 1, 371.
Ffriiz, Mullh, 323
FitiA-i-saylam (11 Direful Mis-
chief "), xxiv, 216 and n. 1,

Four, the number, 354, n. 1
Gate, His Excellence the (,Ten6b-i-
Bdb). See Huseyn, Ill-uliti
[Aluhaminad], of Bushraweyh
Gez (a sweetmeat), 225 and n. 1
Ghhlis (GhRiya, Ghuldt, sect of),
20 and n. 1, 28
Gheybat. See Occultation,
GhulAm, HAji, 149
Gobineau, M. le Comte de, xix,
n. 1, xxix, xxx, 40, n. 1, 166,
n. 1, 252, n. 1, 271, nn. 1 and
2, 301, n. 1, 318, n. 3, 357,
364, 39,5
Goliath (idlat), 57 and nn. 1
and 2
Grammar, contempt entertained
for, by Bhbfs, 422, n. I
Gulshan-i-Rhz, 262, n. 2
Guns, Bhbis blown from, 117, 167,
Gilrhn, 141, 157
Gurgin Khfin, 213, 348
Habib (11 the Friend "), the B[ib's
uncle Hkji Seyyid 'Ali so
called, 846
Hhdi Beg, 168
HAfiz, 141, n. 1, 185, 192, 340,
n. I
Hkfiziyya (Tomb of HhfiA 205
Ahji' MirzA kkhsi. See Mirzd
4 kdsi
Hhji Tarkhhn, 189
Hakikat (11 the Truth "), 186, n. 1
Aakliu'l-Yakin (title of two books),
* '262 ana n. 2
Hamadin, 156, 161, 273
Haman, 349
Hamz6 Mirzh, S93, 296 and n. 2,
Hanafiyya, Muhammad ibn, 20
Aanbal, Ibn, 216, n. 1 '
Aandmaiden, Tradition of the,
38 and n. 1, 62
Hanging, 308 and n. 2, 309
Hanifs, 332
Harmala ibnull-Khhin, 305 and
n. 4

Hhrfinu'r-Rashid, 62
Hasan, -kk& Seyyid, of Yezd, 224,
241, 297, 298, 299, 382, 432,
n. 6
Hasan, a youth of Yezd, 116, 117
Hasan, the executioner of the
BAb, 419
Hasan, Hhji Mirzh, Rizavi, 232
Hasan, Hkji Mirzk, of)Khurhshn,
Hasan, Imhm, 336
ilasan Khhn I I the Accursed," 411
flasan, MullA, of Mahallkt, 233
Hasan, Mirzh, brother of the
Iltimddu'd-Dawla, 380
Hasan, Mullh, of Najisthn, 33
flasan, Muhammad. See Mu-
~ammad Ha8an
Ijasaniyya. See Handmaiden,
tradition of the
Hhshim, race of, 31, 325
Hasht Bihisht (Ezeli contro-
versial work), x1ii, 200, n. 4,
384, 395, 422, n. 1
Haydar [or Haydar 'Ali] Beg,
xlix , n. 1,*149,151, 154, 159,
164, 167, 168, 373
Haydar, Kerbelh'i, 146, 155, 156,
n. I
Haydar, Mash~adi, 145
kazrat-i-Allk ("His Supreme
Holiness"). See Bdb
Hazrat-i-Ezel (11 His Holiness the
Eternal "). See Sub#-i-Ezel
Hazrat-i-Habib (11 His Holiness
the Friend "). See Habib
Hazrat-i-Kuddfis (I I His floliness
the S~cred "). See Mu~am-
mad 'Ali
Hazrat-i-Zabih. See,~abih
fter*ht, 146, n.'l
46 He whom God shall manifest
(Man yudh-hiruhu'lldh), xviii,
HidAyat, the poetical pseudonym
of Rizh-Kuli KhAn. See
Hindoos, 21, ~, 60, 326
HishiLm, Ibn, xi, xxix
N. H.
Horse-flesh as food, 80, 81~

Hfid, the prophet, 321 `
Hujjatu'l-Is11Lm. (11 the Proof of
Islhm 11), title of Mullh Mu-
hammad 'Ali of Zanjin, q.v.
Huseyn, ImArn, xvii, 9, 46, n. 3,
51, n. 1, 68, 75, n. 2, 101,
121, nn. 1 and 2, 125, n. 1,
134, n. 2, 139, n. 3, 162,
165, 235, 304, 305, 331, 336,
363, 371
Huseyn of MilAn, 392, n. 4
Huseyn, of ZanjAn, son of Mull&
Muhammad 'Ali, 161, 165
Huseyn, Akk Seyyid, h of Tabriz,
Huseyn, A~kk Seyyid, [Muham-
madl, of Turshiz, mujiahid
(one of the 11 Seven Mar-
tyrs "), 232, 252, 255, 260,
261, 369, 410
Vuseyn, lk& Seyyid [Muham-
mad] 4useyn, of Yezd; en-
titled 'Aziz (q. v.), the BkYs
amanuensis, li, 33, 83, 224,
241, 294, 297-299, 382,195,
396, 402, 412, 4141 420, 42.19
432, n. 6
Letter from (facsimile, text,
and translation), 420, 4211
Huseyn KhAn, Mir Seyyid, of
Flifizkfih, 140, 167, 372
Vuseyn Khfin, Ni~dmu'd-Dawla,
Governor of FArs, 202, 2049
346, 401
Vuseyn, MirzA, - of HamadAn,
author of the New History,
xxxii, xxxvii-xli
Vuseyn, MirzA, of Kum, 103g
Huseyn, MirzA, of Tabriz, 265,
. . 266
Huseyn, Mull& [Muhammadl, of
Bushraweyh, enhtled Jendb-
i-Bdbull-Bd ' b ' (or Jendb-i-
Bdb), and "the First to
believe" (q. v.), xvii, g 25, 32
-39, 42-71, 77, 87, 90, 93
-95, 97, 106-109, 198, 231,
270, 271, 281, 285, 330, 3359

344, 345, 355, 359, 360-365,
399, 401, 402, 404-408
4useyn, Mullh, of Khurfisfin, 243
4useyn, Sulthn, Safavi, 196, 262,
n. 2
4useyn, Muhammad. See MU_
liammad Huseyn
Huseyn 'Ali, MirzA. See Behd'-
. u'lldh
4useyn Pkshlt, house of, at Zan-
jAn, 158, 164
Hypocrisy prevalent in Persia,
lbrhhim, Mullh, 403, 404
IbrAhim, MulU, of MahallAt, 273,
279, 280
Ibn HisbAm) xi xxix
Ibn Is-hhk j I
fkAn (Bhbi controversial work),
xxxii, 26, 235, n. 1, 325
flkbhni mosque at Shirhz, 36
'Ilm-i-kashri, laduni, vahbi, zawki
(different kinds of know.
ledge), 186, nn. 2-4
imhmites (Igntdmiyya), 20
Imhm-Jumla of IstahAn, 208,2109,
Imhms, 268, 333, 334. See also
'Ali, Hasan, Huseyn, etc.
lmkm's money," 77
Inihin Mabdi, or Twelfth Imhm,
xiii, 333. See Kd'im and
Alahdi, lmdm
India, 87, 107
Indian Believer (Mii'min-i-
Hindi), 241-244, 259, 330,
Isaac, 253, n. 1
Isfalihn, 40, 128, 196, 198, 205
'Ishkhbhd (Ashkabad), xxxiii, x1vii
Ishmael, 253 and n. 1
Ishrhkis (Platonists), 333
Iskan~dar, Mashhadi, 137, 140
Ismalil, 114ji Mirzh, of Khshhn,
xiv. See also Zabih and
"Point of Ifdyll o*r' 99 Of
Kdsh6n "
Ismalil, Hhjf MulU, of Kum (one

of the 11 Seven Martyrs"),
232, 251-254, 259, 260, 369,
370, 410
Ismalilis (sect of the), xiii, 357
Istidlhliy.y6 (treatise, also called
Risdl6-i-Ayydbiyya), xxxv
and n. 2
Iltimhdu'd-Dawla, 139
J, the Letter, xxxvii, n. 2, 170
and n. 1
Jhbir, tradition of, 132
JAbulkh and JAbulsh, 287, n. 1
Jalfar-i-Shdik, ImAin, 8, 20, 325
Jalfar-i-Kas lift, AkA Seyyid, father
of Seyyid Yahyh of J)hr!Lb,
111, 231, n. 1, 347, 348
JaTar-Kuli Kbhn, 139, 157, 372
Jalfar, Mullh, of KAshAn, 232
Ja'far, Sheykh, the Arab, 197
Jalhl,.~W Seyyid, the Indian, 245
Jalhlu'd:l)in Rfimi. See fflasnavi
Jalil, Mirzh, 154
Jalil, Mullk, of Urfimiyya, 232
Ani, Hiiji Mirzh, of KkshAn, xiv,
xv, xxxix, x1i, -34, 64, 65,
213, 217, 232; his history,
called Nuktatu'l-Kdf, xv-
xix, xxviii-xxxi, xxxix-xlii,
li, lii, 34, 39, 43, 57, 64, 68,
89, 93, 95, 106, 113, 199 and
n. 1, 206, 214, 241, 244, 282,
n. 1, 309, and passim; date
of its composition, xix, n. 3;
Mss. of, xxx, x1vii, Iii, 199,
n. 1; cited in original, xvi,
306; abstract of its contents,
327-396 (Appendix II.)
JawiLd, Mullh, the Sheykhi, 283
JawAd, Seyyid, of Kerbelh, xxiv
and n. 1, xxxix, x1ii, 200 and
n. 4, 313, n. 2
Jemhl, of Burfijird, xxxvii
and D. 2, 170, 11. 1
JenAb. See the distinctive title
which follows, e.g. for Jendb-
i-'Azim, see 'Agnt, etc.
Jesus. ~ee Christ
Jews, xxv, 21, 60, 92, n. 2, 140,
236, 323, 342, n. 1, 418
JihAd (religious war), 73, 196, 197

JihAn-Shhh, 191
Aka (aigrette worn ky the ShAh),
107, n. 2, 257, n. 2
Job, 132, 325
John the Baptist, 332
Joseph, 326. See also Commen-
tary on S-Ara-i-Ydsuf
Jurisprudence, study of, forbidden
by the Bhb, xxvi
Jurjhni's Definitiones, 430, n. 1
Justi, xxxvii, n. 3
KAf, Land of, 391. See Kdshdn
KU, Land of (KazvIn or Kum),
390, 431 and n. 1
Kfif, Point of (Nukta-i-Kdfi,
Nuktatu'l-Kdfl, xv, 391 and
n. i. See also Jdni, Hdji
Mirz(f, his history, and Zabih
Kahir. See Rajab-'A li, Mi;lld
1~h'im (t~e Mahdi, "He who is
to arise "), xvii, 40, 91, 241-
243, 246, 252, 268, 282, 294,
296, 333, 357, 363, 368, 369,
375, 383. See also Mahdi,
K&jhrs (dynasty), vii, xvii, 337.
See also AW Sofydn, Fat4-
'Ali Sh6h, 11[u?tammad Shdh,
and Ndsiru'd-Din Shdh
Kalb--Ali, 182 '
Kan&t, 147, n. 2
Karim, Mashhadi, 144
Karim Khhn, HAji Muhammad,
of Kirnihn, 200 and n. 3
Karim Khhn, the Zend, 191
K&shhn. See s. v. Bdb.
,, Point of. See K6f, Point of
Khshhni, HAji, 378 and n. 3, 379
Khsim Khhn, 148, 151
1kayyAmu'l-AsmA, 395, n. 5. See
Commentary on S?!ra-i-Yz1suf
Kawthar, Sdratu'l- See s. v.
Kazem-Beg, Mirzk, 200, n. 3, 400
and,ii. 1
Khz . kkh Seyyid, 207
'in' J
KAjim, Ahji Seyyid, of Resht,
x1iii, 31, 32, 34, 35, 38, 39,
44, 139, 245, 271, 272, 332,
1 451

333, 835, 839-343, 346, $98,
Khzimeyn' 31
Ka~vin, 9i, 140, 273-275, 389,
Kerbelh, xvii, 31, 32, 34, 35, 46,
n. 4, 51, 61, 68, 75, 88, 93,
94, 106, 125, n. 1, 134, 180,
195, n. 1, 245, 272, 337, 342,
344, 346, 356, 361, 363, 398,
KetmAn, 252, n. 1
KbA, Land of (Khurishn), 441,
n. 2
Khamsa (district), 144 and n. 1
Khttnlar MirzA, 404, 405
Kh1trilik, 96, 216, 217, 226
KhArijis, 20, 28
Khizr, 337, n. 1
Kht;ins ("fifths"), 10, n. 2
Khurkshn, 29, 43, 44, 48, 90, 94,
281, 348, 359, 361, 376, 377,
Khusraw, of KAU-Kalh, 53-55,
Khfiy, 243  -
KirmAn, 141, n. 1, 198, 200 and
n. 4
KirmAnshhhAn, 273
Kisasu'l-,Ulamh (Biographies of
eminent divines), 275, n. 3
Kithb-i-Akdas, xxv, n. 1
Kiyhmat ("Resurrection," "Up.-
rising"), 334, 385. See also
Allegorical inte7l)retation
Knowledge, different kinds of,
186 and n. 4, 328, 329
Kfichak 'Ali-Beg, xlix, n. 1, 124
-128, 371
Kuddus, Hazrat-i-, or Jenhb-i-
(Hhji M~llk Muhammad 1AU
ofhB&rfur,dsh), xv, xviii, 33,
39, 40, 42-44, 48, 57, 59, 65
-71, 73, 77-81, 83, 85-92,
95 and n. 1, 97, 99, 100, 102,
105, 201, 204, 231, 281, 282,
374, 377-380, 399, 400, 401,
KAfa, xvii, 33, 121 and n. 1, 139,
n. 3, 337, 343, 345, 401


INDEX. 453:h
452  INDEX.
Kufr, meaning of, 8
Kulhh-i-Firangi, summer-house
at Shirhz, 126 and'n. 1
Kum, 152, n. 2
Ikumeyl ibn Ziyhd, 281, n. 3, 329,
Kur'kn, 3, 4, 94; oaths sworn on,
85, 86, 120, 121, 162, 163,
Vurb~n-'Ali, Mirzh, the dervish,
of Astarhbhd (one of the
"Seven Martyrs"), 96, 226,
229, n. 2, 232, 252, 254, 255,
Kurratu'l-'Ayn (Za?-?-iit-tdj, also
entitled Jendb-i-Tdhira), xv,
If, 94, n. 1, 232, n. 4, 269-
284, 355-360, 365, 377, 378,
399 and n. 3, 400, 413, 414,
417 and n. 3
Letter from (facsimile, text,
and translation), 420, 421,
434-441. See also 417 and
n. 3
Kursi, 91 and n. 4, 277 and n. 1
Lawh-i-Bashhrht, xxv, n. 1
Lawh-i-Fktima, 212, n. I
Law~-i-Ra~is, x1i and n. 2
,,Leaf" Ovaraka), 273 and n. 2
Legal quibbles of the ShVite
clergy, 10, 11
Letters of the Living" (~Iurufdt-
i-Hayy), 336, 356, 401, 417,
424, 425, 432, n. 3. See also
"Letters of Affirmation and Ne-
gation " (4urC1fdt-i-ithbdt, -i-
nafy), 425, n. 1
Lisknu'l-Mulk, xiv, xxxix, n. 1
Logic, study of, forbidden by
Bhb, xxvi
"Lord of the Age." See 11 Yd
qaZiibu'z-za,ntdn "
Magians, 21, n. 1. See Zoroas-
Mhhhn (near KirmAn), 141, n. 1
Mahdi, Imhm, 25, 69, 75, 333;
signs heralding his advent,
234, 236, 267, 321, 324-327,

376. See also 1fd'im
Mahdi, Mullh, of K~n, 232
Mahdi, Mullit, of Khiiy, 232
Mahdi-Kuli Mirzh, 59, 67, 73, 99,
10f, n. 1, 291, n. 1, 355, 362,
Mahmfid, ~,kh, of Teherfin, muj-
tahid, 278
Mahm6d, HAji Mullh, jiluild-
b(igshi, 285, 354
Mahmfid Khhn, the 11[alcintar,
283, 349
Mahmfid, Mir, Ghilzk'i, 196
Ma~miid Shabistari, Sheykh, 262,
n. 2. See Gulshan-i-Rdz
Majdu'd-Dawla, 141-144, 162,
167. See also A.~ldn Khdn,
Mhkfi, xiv, 43, 96, n. 1, 137, 139,
206, 221-223, 226, 238, 239,
241, 402, 403; called Mdh-kel
("the Dwelling of theMoon"),
350 and n. 4; called Jabal-i-
Betsit ("the Open Mountain"),
403 and n. I
Mhlik 276, n. 1
Ma'mun, the Caliph, 121
Man yudh-hiruhu'llkh. See He
whont God shall manifest
Mhnakji, xxxii, xxxvi-xxxviii,
xl, x1ii, 21, n. 1, 313, n. 1,
318, n. 2, 320, 324, 326, 327
Manichreans, 28
MansAni-Hallhj, the Sfiff, 93 and
n. 1, ~42 and n. b, 243, 392
and n. 4
Mansfir, King, 392 and n. 4
Mara'gha, 252, 257, n. 1
Marjhna, son of, 127 and n. 2
Martyrs, the Seven, 249-267,
368-370, 380, 384
Maryam, Jenhb-i-, sister of Mullh
Huseyn of Bushraweyh, 94,
n. 2
Mashhad, 29, 48, n. 1, 99,154, n.
Masih, Mirzh, 197
Masjfd-i-Shhh, Isfahhn, 210
Masnavi, 33, 92, 93, 112, 195,
230, 236, 237, 242, 243, 340
Mfizandarhn' xv, .24, 43~46, -67, Muhammad.: Shhh,g xvii,~ xli;-45,

78, 81, k, 99, 109, 142, 205, *48, g 96,,185;: 139,--~216gt-, 223,
207, 208, 234, 247, 251, 291, 273, 278, 290,- 291., 316, n. 1,
2929 355, 356, 376, 377, 400, 349, 355, 361
404-410., See also Tabarsi, Muhammad b. el-Hasan.el-,As-
Sheykh g kari, , 287) - .3A: See' also
Mkzandarhni dialect, 362 Mahdi, Imdm; Jyd'im '' ,
Mazdaki ix Muhammad, kk&, Karhvi,g394
Muhammad, IfAji Seyyid, of I&
fahhn, xxiii
Muhammad, MirzA, of Juveyn,
Muhammad, Mulli MirzA, 42
Mu4ammad, Mullh, ~ of Kazvin
0~urratu'l-,Aynls huAand),
274, 276, 279
Muhammgad,'Mullh, of Mahallit,
232, 233
Muhammad, Mullit, of MitmakAn,
285, 286, 296, 354,
Muhammad, Mullh, of N16r. gsee
11 Mulallim-i-Niarif
MuharnmadBeg, Chdpdrchi-bdshi,
217-226, 228, 349, 351,'352,
Muhammad Beg, the captain,- 59
Muhammad KhAn, Amir-ttlmdn
(Bri.gadier-General), of Gil&n,
147, 151, 162 , 165, 166
Muhammad Khhn, the Turcoman,
father of Riz~ Khkn xxxva"
Muhammad 'Ali ' Hgji' Mnllh,g'of
BArfurfish. See'Ifuddils
Muhammad 'Ali, Mull~, of Zanjfin,
called ~IVjatu'17181dm 'g and
Jendb-i~4ujjat, xv, xlix, n 1
259 135 169j: 219 ' 231, 349
351, 371-3739~ 4009 410,
Muhammad 'Ali, Mirzh, of Tabriz
(the martyr), xlix, n.~ 1, 225,
297-303, 310, 311, Z82, 383,
Muhammad 'Ali, Mirzh, of Yezd
(brother of Seyyid Huseyn),
82, 83, 432, n. 6
Muhammad 'Alf; HAji (slain at
Kazvin), 403, 404
Muhammad 'Alii Hiji, Hatnza%
Mecca, 19., 199, 245, 246, 267,
268, 345, 401

Medina, 200, 401
"Meeting with (Likd'u'l-
ldh), 331
Metempsychosis. See Transmi.
. gration of souls  I I
MeydAn-i-sabz (Teherfin), 252, n.
MeydAn-i-ShAh (TeherAn), 252,
n. 2, 259
Mighty, His Excellence the (J~.
ndb-i-1A;int). SeelA11,Mulld
Mihr 'Ali Khkn, Shujd'u'l-Mulk,
120, 127
MilAn, 220, 221, 227, 351
Mim, Land of (Mkzandarkn), 441,
n. 2
Minfichihr Khku, Multamadu'd-
Dawla, 208, 209, 210-213,
'216, 346, 347 ' 348,402
Miracles ascribed to Bfib. See
. under Bdb
MirzA ~kkhsl, HAjf, 135, 138, 211,
213,* 216, 223, n. 1, 238-
240, 278, 284, 291, 347-349,
MiyAmi, 44, 360
Mochenin, M., 242, n. I
Moghul invasion ' ' 191
Moon, Cleaving of the, 63, 112
Moses, 14, 52 and n. 2, 61, 62,
132, 134, 321, 325, 326, 331,
335, 337 and n. 1.
Moseylima, ix
"Mulallim-i-Wiri" (Mullk Mu.
hammad of N11r), 224, 365,
Mulhviya, xvii, 139, n. 3
Muhammad, the Prophet, xi, 237,
321, 326,, 331, 334, 335, 336,
337 and n. 1

Muhammad 'Ali, Akh, mujtahid,
of KirmhnshWn (or MAzan-
darhn), 278
Muhammad 'Ali, Mirzh, Nehri,
Isfahkni, 232
Muhammad 'Ali, Mullh, of Mahal-
lfit, 233
Muhammad Bitkir, MajUsi, 262,
n. 2
Muhammad BAkir, the surgeon,
Muhammad Bhkir, MirzA, of He-
rht, 232
Muhammad BAkir, Mirzh, of Khn
or Kh'in i~ Khurhskn, i03,
Muhammad HAdi, Mirzh, 33
Mu~ammad Hasan, Mirzk (bro-
ther of Mullk Huseyn of
Bushraweyh) 87, 93-95,
3360 363, 365, 408, n. 1
Muhammad Hasan, HAji Mirzh,
of Khurd,;An, 87, 365
Muhammad Hasan, or Muham-
mad Huseyn, of Tabriz (one
of the' I I Seven Martyrs "), 252
Muhammad Huseyn, ~kkh, of Ar-
disthn, 205-208, 346
Muhammad Huseyn, MirzA, of
Kirmkn, 32
Muhammad Huseyn, MirzA, of
1~um, 364
Muhammad IbrAhirn Kalbksi,
H&j f, 209
Muhammad Ismalil Khhn-i-Zend,
Muhammad Mahdi,,kkg, 209
Mu~ammad Rizh, soh of HAji
Rahim the 4elvet-maker, 199,
n. i
Muhammad Rizfi, Mullh, of Ma-
4allAt, 233
Muhammad Shdik, Mullh, of Khu-
rhshn (entitled
~addas, and Mukadda8-i-
Khurdsdn, 11 the Saint of
Khurhshn), 40-42 83, 87,
102, 103, 198, 200, ~01, 204,
232, 346
Muhammad Taki KhAn. See

Muhammad Taki Khkn, of N*r,
Muhammad Taki, Mirzh, or Mullh,
of Nfir, 79
Muhammad Taki, Hkji, of Kirmkn
(one of the ~, Seven Martyrs"),
Muhammad Taki, Mirzh, of Kir-
mhu (probably identical with
the preceding), 233
Muhammad Taki, Mirzh, of Ju-
veyn, 54
Muhammad Taki, Hhji Mullh, of
Burkhn near Kazvin (entitled
by the Shilites' Shahid-i-Thd-
lith," theTbird Martyr"),269,
n. 1, 274-280, 403 and n. 3
Muhammad Taki, Mullh, of He-
rht, 346
Muhammad Taki, Mullh, of Isfa-
hhn, 232
Muhammara, 419
Mufiiyyu'd - Din ibnu'l - 'Arabi,
Sheykh, xiii
Mukaddas-i-Khurhsin ("the Saint
ofKhurhsdn"). SeeMiduzm_
mad Wikl Jlulld, of Kliurd-
son; aihid also 'Ali, 31ulla', of
Bistdni, to whom this title is
given (p. 401) by ~ubh-i-Ezel
Mukanni (vulgarly ntughanni), a
maker of subterranean aque-
ducts (~andt), 147, n. 2
Mukhthris (sect), 20
Mullhs, hated by Bhbis, xvii ; their
self-seeking and disputatious-
ness 4; their dishonesty, 10,
11. See also Clergy, Muham-
madan, and Discussions be-
tween Bdbis and Mu~tanima.
Murshid, 101, 102, 365
Murtazh, W Seyyid, 224
Murtaih, Sheykh, 187
Mustaih, Mirzh, the Kurd, 389
Mu~iafh Khhn, Hhji, 58
Mu*iafA-Kuli Khhn Khragfizlfi,
Musulmhns, true and false, 9

Multamadu'd-Dawla. See Mimi-
chihr Khdn. (The title was
t I
afterwards given to Farhdd 117-131, 202, n. 1, 205, 234,
Mirzd, q.v., and also 124, 291, 292, 347, 370, 371, 410,
n. 1) 411, 413 ; the second war at,
Mutasharrils (sect), 3 128-132, 415, 416
Muzaffars, 191 Noah, 321, 334, 337
Nukta-i-Beyfin, Nukta-i.tfi. See
Nabil, xxxiii, 131 and n. 1, 293, ' Point, Bdb
296, n. 2, 301, n. 3, 395, 426 Nukta-i-Khf, Nutkatu'l-K&L See
Nhdir Shkh, 191 * *Kdf, Point 6~
Nafs-i-Zakiyya, 279, n. 1 Nfir, 79, 247, 283, n. 1, 330, n. 1,
Nk'ibu's-Saltana (,Abbhs Mirzh),. 333, 360, 388, 414, 415, 416
190-1~3 Nuseyris (sect), 3, 20 and n. 1, 28
Nalim, Mirzk, 127 Nusratu'd-Dawla, 124 and n. 1.
Najaf-,Ali, Mullh, of Tabas, 233 See also Firdz Jlirzd
Narjis Khhtdn, 287
NAsibis (sect), 28 and n. 1 Occultation (gheybat), 331-334
NAsikhu't-Tawhrikh, xxxix and 10thmfin, 76
n. 1, 197, n. 1, 30, n. 1
Nasir, Hhji, of Kazvin, 87, 103 Palmer, Professor, 263, n. 3
N&Oru'd-Din Shhh, xvii, xviii, Parviz, Khusraw, 182 -
xxv, 58, 139, 254, n. 2, 284, Peace, the Most Great, xvii
291, 359, 362; his journey Pelly, Sir Lewis, 127, n. 2, 165,
to Europe, xxxii, xxxvii, 181, n. 1
n. 1 ; the attempt on his life, Persia, its decadence, 14
how regarded by Blibis, 315, Persians, their falsehood, 5, 183;
316 their injustice, 12 ; their
Nasru'llkh Mirzb,, of Tafrish, national character, 17, 18, 22
the Ezeli, xxiii Pharaoh, 52, n. 1, 61
Nhtik 247, n. I Philosophy, study of, forbidden
NhWsis (sect), 20 and n. I by BAb, xxvi
Nawrfiz, 367 Pir, of Ardistim, a mystical poet,
Neil, Mr, lii 141, n. 1
Nejef, 31, 32, 33, 34, 61, 88, 180, Plagues, I I the White " and the
245, 342, 344 Red," 204, 205
New Creation (Ifhalk-i-badil), xii Point (Nukta), 133, 335, 336, 350,
New History (Tdrfk-h-i-Jadid), 357, ~7- See BdV
how it came to be written, "Point of KAf," or 11-of-Kisbfin."
xxviii, xxix; authorship and See Kdf, Point o
date of composition, xxxii- "Point of Knowledge" (Nukta-i-
x1iii ; Mss. of, xliv, x1v, x1vii, 'ilia), 37, 114
1, 237, n. 1 Polak, Dr E., 256, n. 2
NigAristhn (palace), 284 Pope, the, 6, 7
Nilmatu'llhh, Mullh, of Ardabil, 29 Proof " (4ujjat), 31, 32, 38, 39,
Ni'matu'll4h, Shhh, the saint, 60.See also Miigltammad
141, n. 1 'Ali, Mulld, of Zanjda

Ni'matu'llhh, Sheykh (or Mullfi),
of Imul in Mhzandarkn, 87, Querry'sDroit Musulman, 10,
103, 231 n. 2, 77, nn. 2 and 3, 80, n. 1
Nineteen, the number, xiii, xxvi,
81, 143, 157, 381 Rabb-i-Alla, Hazrat-i- ("His Ho-
Niriz,xxxiii,xlix, n.1, 24, 111, linessth~8upremeLord"),

i  I
456  INDEX.
one of the Bfib's titles, 156
and n. 2. Cf. the Persian
verse cited in u. 1 on p. 230
RAdaghn, 360
Radd-i-mazklim ("restitution of
wrongs "), 77, n. 1, 184
er-RAdhi bi'llfih, the Caliph, xiii
RahmAn and Rahim, difference
in meaning of, 263
Railroads, their advantages, 15,
Rajah 'Ali, Mullh, Kahir, xxiv
RamazAn, Seyyid, i47, 153
Rawzatu's-Safh, xxxix and n. 1
Rawzatu';]; Shuhadfi, 305, n. 4
RAzihk Beg, Hkji, 192
Red ii;k used by Bhbis, 322
Religious tolerance praised, 22
Remnant of God" (Bakiyya-
tu'11670, 200 and n. 1
Resurrection denied, 334, 335.
See also Kiydntat, Allegorical
C'Return" (rijcat), doctrine of,
334, 337, 338, 357, 358, 370,
380, n. 1, 390
RisAI6-i-Ayyiibiyya, xxxv
RisAI6-i-Iskandariyya, xxxiv -
Rizh, ImAm, 121, 164, n. 1, 322,
342, 360
Rizh, Akh Seyyid, 49
Riih Kfihn, son of Muhammad
Khkn the Turcoman; xxxvii,
96-101, 217, 226, 228, 365
Rizk-Kuli, MirzA, the Ezelf, xxiii
Riik-lkuli Khhn Ldld-bdshi, xiv,
xxxvii, n. 3, xxxix, n. 1
Rosen, Baron Victor, xxv, n. 1,
xxxiv, x1vii, Iii, 422, n. 1
RAhu'llAh (the Spirit of God),
Christ so called, 134 and n. 3
Russian sugar, 80
Russians, 87, 140, 372) 373, 395,
396, 414
Russo-Persian War (of 1826), 196
Sa'Adat-Kulf Beg, 53 and n. 1,
362, 406 and n. 2
SA'At, Gate of (Damascus), 125

and n. 2
Sibfmht, 130
Aabzawhr, 377
Sacred, His Holiness the. See
de S~cy, 247, n. 1
~hd, Land of (Isfahkn), 393
Sadducees, 334, 335
Saldi's Gate (Shirhz), 125
Sfidik, Mulli, the Turk, 257, n. 1,
Sfidikis (sect), 20
Aadr* of Kazvin, 404 and n. 1.
See aiso Jkd Khdn, lUrzd
SadrA, Mullh, 328, n. 1
Safavi dynasty, 191, 196
9aft KhAn, 191
~ahl b. Salid, 125, n. 2
Salid, Mullk, of Bhrfurfisb, 231
Salid, Mullh, of Zarkanhd or
Zirih-Kiuhr, 79, 80, 232
Salida, "the bearded woman,"
90, 91
Salidu'l-,Ulamk, 48-50, 52, 58,
72-74, 88, 91, 92, 97, 356,
360, 361, 404, 409, 410
S04, .'.kh, father of Hazrat-i-
Kuddu's, 366
~04, HAji Mullh, of Kazvin,
father of Kurratu'l-lAyn, 269,
Skli4, ATirzh (or Sheykh), of
Shiraz, 82, 274, 276-278
and n. I on last ; 403, 404,
where he is called Shhh
Shlih, Sheykb, the Arab, 243,
244, 273, 275, 279, 403, 404
Shlih, Sheykh (or kkk Mir, or
Amir), of Zanjhn, 144-146
Salmhn the Persian, 98, 248, 249,
Salmhs, 243
Shmit, 247, n. I
Aanctuary, 152, n. 2
Shri,. 53, n. 2, 58, 80, 103, 360,
364, 405, 406, 407, 409
Sawhd-KAh, 45
Sayyhh, Sheykh 'Ali, 368 and n. 3
Schism in Bhbi Church, xx -xxiv
Seven Letters, He of the

~tur4f-i-sab 1), one of the Bfib's
titles, 425, n. gl
Seveigi Martyrs. See Martyrs, the
Seyyid Hamza, 191
91 Shadow Plane" (Ma~dm-i-;il-
liyyat), 329, 438 and n. 2
Shafil, lffirzh, Sdhib-Divdn, 278
Shhfi,i, 276, n.* 1
SbAh 'Abdu'l-'Azim, shrine of.
I See 'Abdu'l-'.~zim, Shdh
Shhh-Mirzh, (village), 104
Shihnhma, xxxvi, 61, n. 1, 340,
n. 1
Shahristhni, 20
Slikhrild, 281, 355
Shhh-sevans (tribe), 211, 346
Shakhki regiment, 303
Shaitfik, 78, n. 1
Sbams-i-Tabriz, 94, n. 2
Sharh-i-amthila, 263 and n. 1
Sharflat, 186, n. 1
Sh6tir-bhshf, 99
Sheykh Tabarsi. See Tabarsi,
and ~lso Mdzandard~
Sheykhis (sect), x1iii, 3, 35, 36,
200, n. 3, 285, 328, 333, 342,
n. 1, 398 and n. 1
Sheykhu'l-lslhm, 290
Shilites, 333 and n. 4, 396
Shimr, 107, 127, n. 2, 225
Shirhz, xliv, 33, 34, 40, 111, 113,
115, 120, 124, 136, 198-201,
261, 371, 399, 401, 415, 416,
418, n. 1
Shirfiy4, 182
Shujklu'l-Mulk, Mihr 'Ali Khfin,
Shukru'llkh Khhn, HAji, of NAr,
Sin, the Letter (MullA Huseyn of
Bushraweyh), 399 ind n. 2
Sirit (11 the Bridge "), 46, n. 1, 75
and n. 1, 267, n. 2, 334, 335
Sipihr. See Lisdnit'l-Mulk
Siyitvush, 61, n. 1
Smoking forbidden, 350
Sohritb, 340, n. 1
Spirit-rapping, 321

Straw, heads stuffed with, 123
~ubh-i-Ezel (Mirzha Yahyk), xv,
xviii-xxiv, xlv, Iii, 95,1m.'I,
103, n. 2, 109, n. 1, 123, n. 1,
151, n. 1, 199, n. 1, 200, n. 4,
247, 257, n. 1, 283, n. 1, 296,
n. 1, 301, n. 4, 307, n. 2, 360,
868, 374-382, 383, 384-
390, 392, 393, 420, 421;
autograph and translation,
420, 421, 426; character,
xxi; his SuccinctAccount of
the Bdbig movement, 397-419,
and Irl-T ; portrait, frontis-
piece, li; why so entitled,
329, 330
SAfts, 3, 331, 333, 334
~uleymhn KhAn AfshAr, 31, n. 1,1
85, 101, 102, 150, 162, 411
SuleymAn Khhn, HAji, xv, xlix,
31, 154, 228-230, 301, n. 1,
309-* 311, 341, n. 1, 352,400,
Suleymhn-Kuli, Mirzit, of Nfir, 99
Sulthn Huseyn Mirzfi, 67 '
Sulihn, ~heykh, the Arab, 273 -
Sunnis, 3, 76
Supreme Holiness J' QlaFrat-i-
A lld).- See Bdb
"Supreme Horizon" ~(Ufuk-i.
Alld), Acre so called, xx~xvi
and n. 2
Kra. See Commentary
Surfiri, 263, n. 3
Th, the (Jendb-i-Tdhira), 439
and n. 1
T  127, n. 2
J~a'baarr's'l, Sheykh xv,- xvii, xviii,
xxxvii, li, 4i, 53 and n. 2,
55, 57-59, 64, 65, 69, 79, 99,
104-106, 258, 278, 360-
368, 388, 406-410, 418;
sketches and plans of, 56.
See also Mdzandardn
Tabriz 1 24, 156, 221, 222, 226,
293-311; called -the Place
of the Blow" (Mahall-i-
Zarb), 403 and n. 2. See
also under Bdb
TAhir, Sheykh, of ShirAz, 273,

279, 280
TAhira, Jenhb-i- (,,Her Holiness

the Pure "). See Kurratull- Unbelievers excluded from five
'Ayn sacred provinces, xxvi, 441,
n. 2
Unity, the First jfrahdat-i-avval),
399, 417, n. ~. See also
11 Letters of the Living "
Ur~miyya, 240, 242, n. 1, 403
Usfilis (sect), 333
TahmAsp Mirzh, 129
taki, HAji Mullh, of Kirmhn,
252, 265
Taki, Mirzh, of MAzandarAn, muj-
tahid, 405
Taki Khhn, MirzA. See Amir.i.
Tallat-i-Abhh Bobh'u'llhh so call-
ed, 139, 11, 303, n. 2
Tal'at-i-Mubhrak, the BAb so
called, 303, n. 2
Thlikhn, 359
Tarfkat, 186, n. 1
thriib-i-Jadid. See New History
TeherAn, xv, x1i and n. 5, 65, 74,
93, 94, 99, 113, 115, 135, 138,
139, 140, 141, 197, 299 ; call-
ed " Damascus," xvii, 337,
Theophanies, doctrine of, 331,
332, 336, 337
Thief, anecdote of a, 11, 12, 193,
Tomb, Questioning of the, 46, n. 1
Toumansky, Lieut,, xxiv, n. 1,
xxxiii, xxxvi, x1ii, x1iii, x1vii,
Iii, 313, n. 2, 318, n. 2
Traditions. See BiMri,01-Anvdr,
and under 111ahdi, Imdm
Translation, principles of, x1vi-
Transmigration of souls, 334, 335,
337, 338, 357
Traveller's Narrative, xiv, xxxi,
xxxii, x1v, xlvi
Tree" (Shajara.), meaning of
the word, in Bhbi termino-
logy, 273, n. 2, 384, 387, 439
and n. 3, 440, n. 1
Tfipchf, Sheykh, 145
Turcomans, 88, 134, 157

Turco-Persian War, 190
TurkmAn-ChAy, treaty of, 197
Turks, xx, 88, 192, 373, 401
'Ubeydu'llhh ibn Ziyhd, 139 and
n. 3, 157
,Uluvv, Seyyid-i-, 394
'Uniar, 76
Yiisuf, Mullk, of Ardabil, 64, 87,
Yiisuf 'Ali, Mullh, of KhAy, 29,
232, 341, 362, 365
VAtil, the Armenian, 189
VAsaks 104, n. 1, 407 and n. 1.
Vkzkas See also Dasak-sar,
~  DaskN
Wadhih, Ibn, the historian, 329,
n. I
Wahid, title of, 347, u. 1, 380 and
n. 2, 426
Wajh ("Face," se. "of God"),
123, n. i
Wa'l-'Asr. See Commentary
Waraka'ibn Nawfal, 332
Watson's Hgistory of Persia, 197,
n. 1
White garments worn by BAbis,
70, 283, 356, 383
Wrath, Sermon of (Khutbd-i.
kahriyya), 239
Ya4yh, Mirzh. See Subh-i-Ezel
Yahyk, kkk Seyyid, of Dhrhb xv
25, lil-123, 133, 134, '209,'
212, n. 2, 231 and n. 2, 264,
347, 348, 370, 371, 399, 400
and n. 3, 410, 411, 415, 416
Ya4yh Khhn, Warden of Chihrik
239, 240, 353 . 0
YahyA Khin, of Tabriz, father of
Hhji Suleymhu Khhn, 31, n.
1, 154
Yaman, standard of, 359
YAr Muhammad Kh6n, 149, n. 1
Yk Sh1libu'z-ZamAn " (" 0 Lord
o~ the Age I"), the battle-cry
of the Bhbis, 69, 74, 128, 144,
145, 372
Yazid ibn MulAviya, xvii, 9, 125,
n. 1, 139, n. 3 225
Yezd, xliv, 24, 111,'113, 116, 117,
198, 200, 261, 371, 411
Young, Captain Arthur, li, 421

ZA, the (Zahrh, "the Bright"),
one of Kurratu'l- 'Ayn's titles,
438, 4~9, n. 1, 441 and n. 1
~abih, xxxiii, x1i, xlix, n. 1, 139,
k3 and n. 2, 216, 232, 378
and n. 3, 385-387,390, 391,
n. 1
Zaki, Mosque of Ak& (BArfurdsh),
Zanjhn, xxxiii, xlix, n. 1, li, 24,
135-169, 205, 219, 223, 224,
227, 234, 258, 291, n. 3, 292,
350, 351, 371-373, 380,410,
411, 413
Zarind, 293, n. 3
Zeynu'l-I.abidin, Mull&, 44
Zeynu'l-',kbidin Khhn, governor
of Niriz, 129
?ikr, Zikru'llhh ("the Reminder
oi God "), one of the BAb's
titles, 336 and n. 2, 359, 3749
376, 381, 382, 394
Zillu's-Sultin, 67
2iyhd, Ibn*. See Ubeydu'lldh
Zoroastrians, xxv: xxxiii, 60, 323,
Zotenberg, M., lii
~uhfir. See Theophanies, Doc-
trine of
Zu'l-FikAr (,Ali's sword), 97

I  I

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