Áqá Siyyid Muhammad (1863-1918) was a Bahá'í physician who practiced traditional Iranian medicine in the small town of Manshád near the city of Yazd in Central Iran. Yazd has always been and continues to be a place where religious minorities, Zoroastrian as well as Bahá'í, have experienced repeated attacks, pogroms, and confiscation of property provoked by a fanatical and rapacious Shiite clergy. A particularly cruel episode occurred in June 1903, when more than one hundred Bahá'ís were killed in the city and its outlying villages, including Manshád. Áqá Siyyid Muhammad left an account, rich in detail, of what he witnessed during those blood-soaked daysan account he supplemented with details from interviews with the survivors. Its value is enhanced by the specificity of information it offers: names of the martyrs, circumstances of their deaths, identities of the murderers. Subheads have been added to clarify places and dates. Some details have been moved to the footnotes to make the narrative flow better, and some passages have been omitted. Those familiar with the modern history of Iran will not be surprised to find among the persecutors Husayn Mírzá Jalálu'd-Dawlih, son of the infamous Mas`úd Mírzá Zillu's-Sultán, elder brother of Muzaffari'd-Dín Sháh. Both princes have left a trail of blood in the annals of their country. Áqá Siyyid Muhammad's account was published in its original Persian in Tehran circa 1975 under the title Sharh Shahádat Shuhadáy Manshád.
During that year, the renowned and much-esteemed Baha'í teacher, Jinab-i-Ibn-i-Abhar, traveled from Tehran to Yazd for the purpose of visiting and encouraging the believers. The Baha'ís of Manshad, learning of his sojourn to Yazd, invited this beloved soul to their town so that he might teach the Faith and meet the friends. Ibn-i-Abhar readily accepted this invitation and during the Ridvan festivities journeyed to Manshad. The news of his arrival brought much joy to the believers and cheered their spirit, all the while inflaming the jealousy and hatred of the fanatical populace of town.
Ibn-i-Abhar remained in Manshad for four days and on the fifth day, via the village of Taft, he returned to Yazd, where he stayed for a few more daysbefore going back to Tehran.
**Saturday 12 June
During this time, Mírza Ibrahím, the Imam-Jum'ih, returned to Yazd from a brief trip to Isfahan on Saturday, 12 June, 1903/16 Rabí'u'l-Avval, 1321 A.H. The people of Yazd wasted no time informing him of the activities of Baha'ís and of their new vigor and enthusiasm and their gatherings for the dawn-prayers. His overgrown ego and lust for leadership inflamed, he issued an order for an unprecedented pogrom against the Bahá'ís. The townspeople, having now received the Imam-Jum'ih's blessings to eliminate the Baha'ís, set out to implement their accursed and evil plot.
**Sunday 13 June
The next morning, some of these mischievous people gathered around the shop of Aqa-i-Muhammad 'Attar (son of Hajjí 'Azíz Khan) and stoned the front entrance. Then they captured this shopkeeper and took him to the Imam, requesting permission to kill him. A few individuals who were acquainted with Aqa Muhammad's goodly character, however, intervened and assisted with his release.
**Monday 14 June
On the third day, 14 June, three hours after sunrise, in the middle of Yazd's bazaar, one of the Bahá'ís, Hajjí Mírza-yí-Halabísaz, was stabbed and killed by the ax of Hasan Ibn-i-Rasúl, a great enemy of the Faith. Prince Husayn Mírza, the Jallalu-d-Dawlih (son of Prince Mas'úd Mírza, the Zillu's-Sultan), who was the governor of Yazd, quickly dispatched his aides on the receipt of this news to calm the people and stop further rioting and killings.
When the tragic news of Hajjí Mírza's martyrdom reached the Baha'ís of Manshad, they mourned his death and held a memorial service for that much-loved believer. The entire Baha'í community was present in that assemblage, engaged in prayer and supplications. The news of this gathering and the apparent sorrow of the friends further inflamed the hatred and jealousy of the people, who took every opportunity to threaten the friends and pour salt on the wounds of a brokenhearted community.
The believers of Manshad, apprehensive for their lives, informed the governor of their dire condition. In response, he dispatched ten soldiers headed by a man named Ísa Khan to Manshad with orders to protect the believers and prevent further upheaval. When Ísa Khan and his men arrived in Manshad, they stayed in the house of the town's chieftain, Muhammad-i-Kalantar (son of Hajjí 'Alí-Akbar-i-Manshadí), where they remained for four days.
**Friday 25 June
On Friday, 25 June, the last day of his stay, a Governor's messenger arrived late in the afternoon and presented a sealed package to Ísa Khan. This servant was present in that gathering when the official papers were handed to him. On reading the letter, he was much perturbed. I asked him about the contents of the papers, which had visibly disturbed him, but he did not reply, so deep was he in contemplation. Later that same night Ísa Khan asked my opinion: "Without a guide, would I be able to go to Yazd, via the village of Mihríjird, this very night?" I advised him that, since it was quite dark and he had never traveled through those country hills before, it would be an arduous journey. I also suggested he should take a guide with him. Accepting this, Ísa Khan, accompanied by a Manshadí guide and two of his soldiers, headed for Yazd.
**Saturday 26 June
The following morning, three hours after sunrise, I was home when Shatir-Hasan, the baker, and Aqa 'Alí-Akbar (sons of the late Aqa Mírza Ibrahím, the baker) came to me in a state of bewilderment. I asked them what was troubling them. They replied: "News is circulating in Manshad that the people of Yazd have caused much disturbance and have put to death several of the believers." I inquired if they knew who had brought this news and if there was any validity to it. They responded that this news was brought by one Muhammad-Sadiq Na'ím-Abadí and assured me that they would ascertain its truth.
When they left my house Aqa 'Alí-Akbar returned to his shop and Shatir-Hasan set out to investigate the matter. On his way, at the Manshad cemetery, he came upon the source of the news, Muhammad-Sadiq Na'ím-Abadí, whom he asked about the events in Yazd and who reported killings of Baha'ís. The wicked Muhammad-Sadiq, overcome with anger, severely struck Shatir-Hasan in the head, opening a wound from which a fountain of blood poured forth. Muhammad-Sadiq, not satisfied with this treacherous act, then cried out for the people to gather about the baker. When a large group had formed, he told them of the events in Yazd and incited his listeners to perpetuate the same in Manshad. Shatir-Hasan, his head and face bloody, left the crowd and returned to the company of his brother Aqa 'Alí-Akbar, to whom he recounted the events which had passedincluding the report of Muhammad-Sadiq inciting the populace with inflammatory cries. No sooner had the news reached the Baha'ís of the town that, in fear for their lives, a number retreated into hiding in neighboring villages and in the mountains.
Meanwhile the people who had gathered around Muhammad-Sadiq, numbering about three hundred, embraced the idea of vandalizing and confiscating all Baha'í belongings and putting to death a number of the members of the community. One influential believer, Haj 'Alí-Muhammad, was soon informed of this gathering and arrived to suppress the flame of hatred glowing in the hearts of the fanatical people. After much talking and persuasion, he was able to calm the crowd and disperse the gathering. Afterwards, he came directly to my house, happy that the group had had a change of heart. The crowd, however, remained quiet for only a short time before becoming agitated again, an agitation much louder than before. Once again, Haj 'Alí-Muhammad went out to calm the crowd, but his efforts were in vain this time and the mob's abusive cries grew worse.
In the midst of all this commotion, Aqa Ghulam-Rida, the son of Hajjí 'Alí-Naqí and a staunch believer, crossed paths with Siyyid Ibrahím, a shepherd and a son of Siyyid Abu'l-i-Manshadí. In a rage of anger, Siyyid Ibrahím decided right there and then to take Aqa Ghulam-Rida's life by beating him with his shepherd's rod. Luckily, Aqa Ghulam-Rida escaped from the hands of this barbarous man. The siyyid, seeing a distant group of rioters approaching, deceitfully lay motionless on the ground as if he had fatally fallen victim to the hands of a Baha'í. The angry crowd gathered around him, shouting "O people, shame has befallen Islam. Baha'ís have murdered the siyyid!" The people, who by now numbered in excess of three hundred, lifted the siyyid's supposedly lifeless body and carried him to the house of Muhammad-i-Kalantar, the town's chief. There they continued with their accusations and agitation that the Baha'ís had killed the siyyid!
The Kalantar sent a messenger to my house bearing the news that a Baha'í had beaten up a man, who remained unconscious in the chief's house, and asking me to examine him to determine if he was still alive. Confident of God's confirmations and putting my trust in His Hand, I headed to the Kalantar's home. On the way, I was constantly threatened by an angry mob who followed me the entire way. Several individuals attempted to take my life, but one of them barred the rest from injuring me. I finally passed through the crowd safely and reached the Kalantar's home. After examining the siyyid and checking his pulse, I knew for certain that no one had harmed this person, yet this news fell on nothing but deaf ears in the enraged crowd, which needed an excuse to continue its assault. Consequently, the crowd left the Kalantar's house shouting obscenities.
Of this group, twenty-seven men, agitated further by a certain Javad (son of Haj Muhammad-Husayn-i-Shírazí) and with the approval of Muhammad-i-Kalantar, left the gathering. Heavily armed and yelling loudly, they walked to the farm of Khajih-i-Hasan. When they reached their destination, about an hour before noon, Mulla 'Alí-Akbar, the brother of the renowned Mulla Muhammad-Rida, surnamed Rada'r-Rúh, was working in the field. As the wild mob approached, Hajjí (son of Ghulam-'Alí, the carpenter), threw a stone at Mulla 'Alí-Akbar, striking his head and covering his face and long, white beard with much blood. Unappeased by this act, another man, Ja'far (son of Ghulam), struck him in the head with a heavy rod, knocking his feeble frame to the ground. Despite the protests of his ten-year-old grandson, Muhammad-'Alí, who went so far as to throw himself on Mulla 'Alí-Akbar to protect him, the mob proceeded, using knives, sticks, and stones, to assault the body of Mulla 'Alí-Akbar until his spirit yielded. Perhaps only the hand of fate saved the young boy, who was rescued from the hands of the vicious men by an intervening citizen. Two individuals buried Mulla 'Alí-Akbar in the very spot where his body lay. Several days later, however, his body was removed from the temporary grave and properly buried in his own home in Manshad, in the neighborhood known as Mírzaha. Mulla 'Alí-Akbar was seventy years old at the time of his martyrdom.
Having taken the life of Mulla 'Alí-Akbar, the bloodthirsty mob quickly headed toward the house of Muhammad-Isma'íl, a Baha'í baker and a son of Mírza Ibrahím, the baker, who lived on the same farm. Ransacking his house and finding him on the second floor they stabbed him repeatedly before throwing him down from the balcony, after which his body was subjected to various sets of blows by those eagerly waiting outside. The body of that lover of truth was buried in the vicinity of his house. At time of his martyrdom, Aqa Muhammad-Isma'íl was sixty-seven years old.
After committing these two shameful acts of murder, the mob left the farm, returning to Manshad. As they entered, the remaining inhabitants of the town, numbering three hundred, joined them. By now it was noon. They marched towards the home of Ustad Husayn, a Baha'í shoemaker from Yazd who happened to be in Manshad during these events. When the mob entered his house Ustad Husayn retreated to his roof. Muhammad-Sadiq Na'ím-Abadí, who had incited the mob earlier in the day, followed him with the intent of killing him. Ustad Husayn, protecting himself with a shoemaking tool that he had in his hand, injured and successfully warded off Muhammad-Sadiq. No sooner had he fought off Muhammad-Sadiq than he was overtaken by several individuals, led by a certain Hajjí Muhammad, who climbed a tree to gain access to the roof. Ustad Husayn, defenseless and overpowered, was thrown from his roof to the ground where a ruthless mob set on him with knives, sticks and stones, martyring this noble soul.
In the midst of this, Muhammad-Sadiq's aged mother ran out of the house and threw herself on her son's lifeless body, weeping bitterly. The heartless mob, still stoning the dead body, brought much injury to this woman who was seventy year-old devoted. They so injured her, both in body and heart, that, only twenty days after the martyrdom of her son, she passed on to the Abha Kingdom and was buried in Manshad's cemetery. The mob took the dead body of Ustad Husayn to the Shahmírí River on the outskirts of the town and buried him in a spot there, which to this day remains his resting place. Ustad Husayn was fifty years old at the time of his martyrdom.
After this incident, the mob continued with its vicious attacks on the lives and property of Baha'ís. Arriving at a neighborhood known as Karchinar, they encountered three believersAqa Husayn (son of Muhammad-Kazim), Aqa Ghulam-'Alí (son of Hasan Ibn-i-Hajjí Rajab) and Aqa Ramadan (son of Javad Ibn-i-Hajjí Ali-Naqí)who were attempting to flee to the refuge of the mountains on the south side of Manshad known as Pusht-Baghnú and Mazra'ih-i-'Abbas. The mob followed them. Without any forewarning or provocation, 'Alí, the brother of the Kalantar, who was carrying a gun, fired and shot Aqa Husayn. As he fell, the mob opened fire on him, riddling his body with bullets. Not satisfied with this act, they stoned what remained of his mortal frame. Sixty-five years old at the time of his martyrdom, he was brought back to his own home and buried there.
After the unjust and cold-blooded murder of Aqa Husayn, the murderous mob targeted Aqa Ghulam-'Alí; a certain 'Abdu'l-'Alí fired on him first, then the rest clubbed and stoned his young body until it lay motionless. Regrettably, Aqa Ramadan suffered the same fate as did his companions. He was found taking refuge behind a large rock on the hill and, after being stoned to death, both he and Aqa Ghulam-'Alí were buried on the same hill, a location which would remain their permanent grave sites. Aqa Ramadan was twenty-two and Aqa Ghulam-'Alí eighteen years old at the time of their martyrdom.
The mob, like a pack of wolves, remained near the hill until sunset, searching for any other Baha'ís who might have taken refuge there. They then headed back to Manshad, where on the way, passing through the Muhammad-Abad region, they came upon Siyyid Mírza, the son of Siyyid Ahmad. Having forsaken his home out of fear of the enemies, he had laid down to rest and had fallen asleep on the ground. Seeing him, two of the crazed citizens, Ghulam-'Alí (son of Hajjí Muhammad) and Ghulam-Husayn (son of Mírza 'Alí-Rida), picked up a massive rock and delivered a fatal blow to the head of the dormant and defenseless Siyyid Mírza. Carrying him to his own orchard, the men buried him in a hurriedly dug grave, which to this day remains his resting place. He was seventy-five years old on the day of his martyrdom.
In sum, on that first day of upheavals, from one hour before noon until sunset, seven believers were put to death in the most inhumane and reprehensible ways. No sound could be heard that day except the shouts of a maddened populace, the roar of gunfire, and the cry of the friends' anguish. Only God knows what befell us all during those tragic events. At times I was given the news of yet another dear friend being put to death or heard the mocking in the streets. At other times the foes would congratulate each other as if they had won a great victory by killing innocent people and destroying the properties of Baha'ís. All through this, I was constantly being threatened with death, yet I had no choice but to witness and remain patient in light of the horrendous events encircling the community.
**Sunday, 27 June
The next day, Sunday, 27 June, this servant was briefly visiting one of the friends, Haj 'Alí-Muhammad, at the hour of dawn. As I left his house, I saw ten gunmen6 entering the town. I asked someone on the street who these men were, and he responded that the men, all from the nearby villages, had heard about the killing and plundering of the possessions of the Baha'ís of Yazd and Manshad and had come to have their share in it too. When the news of their arrival reached the mob, they joined forces and headed towards the homes of the believers.
The first home and shop they came upon belonged to two previously mentioned brothers: Shatir-Hasan and Aqa 'Alí-Akbar. All their belongings were either destroyed or plunderedeven the grapevines in their garden were uprooted and smashed. The house and shop were then set afire.
Afterwards, about two hours before noon, the mob moved on to the house of Muhammad-Baqir (son of Hasan Ibn-i-Salih) who was one of the believers of Yazd visiting Manshad at the time. Another believer, Mulla Muhammad-i-Manshadí, had taken refuge on the second floor of the house as well. Three persons7 from the rioting gang entered the house and located Mulla Muhammad. One of the three men told the others that Mulla Muhammad had been a teacher of his and suggested that they leave him alone and spare his life. The other two, who would not consent to this, brought Mulla Muhammad downstairs and alerted the others to his presence. The mob and the ten gunmen circled around him. One of the gunmen, Ghulam-Rida Zardankí, fired a shot at his chest which was then followed by another shot by another gunman, a certain 'Alí-Akbar. Then the rest either opened fire on Mulla Muhammad or stoned and clubbed him. After killing him viciously, they tied a rope to his feet and dragged his body to the back of Aqa 'Alí-Akbar's house. Two of them, Zaynu'l-'Abidín and Hasan-'Alí, brought gasoline and another, 'Alí-yi 'Arab, poured it over the body and set it on fire. While the body was burning, the rest of the crazed mob continued to stone itso much so, that the charred remains were completely buried under the rocks and sticks. When the last signs of his body were covered, some poured water over the pile of rocks and left the scene. That evening, his son, Ustad Naqí, with the help of another believer, Hajjí 'Alí-Muhammad, took the body and buried it in a property belonging to Mulla Muhammad. His resting place remains at the same spot. He was fifty-eight years old at the time of his martyrdom.
On the first day of the troubles, a group of Baha'ís8 had taken refuge in the nearby mountains on the eastern side of the town. A certain Rajab-'Alí who previously frequented the Baha'í gatherings and on occasions expressed his allegiance to the Faith and had been friendly towards the believers, learned of their hiding place in the mountains. On Sunday night, he went to visit them and, as the believers trusted him, inquired about the events of recent days, asking further about the friends who had been murdered, their families and their own households and relatives who were left behind. Rajab-'Alí told the Baha'ís about the martyrdoms and the generally disastrous condition of the believers in town. When the group asked what was to come, Rajab-'Alí told them that on that day a group of gunmen had entered the town for the purpose of massacring the Baha'ís and plundering their possessions. He also mentioned that it was anticipated that the following day, a few hundred townspeople would circle this hill, killing all the Baha'ís who had taken refuge there.
On hearing this, since they trusted this man, the believers became greatly perturbed. The refugees decided that in the middle of the night, they would descend from the hill, and each travel in a separate direction. Little did they know that Rajab-'Alí was devoid of any spiritual qualities and was totally insincere. When they dispersed in the dead of the night, Aqa 'Alí-Akbar had a bad fall and broke his leg. Shatir-Hasan was also severely injured when a rock rolled over his foot. As a result, these two brothers were obliged to remain in the hills and could not disperse with the others. Meanwhile, Rajab-'Alí upon leaving the group, went directly to the home of the notorious Muhammad-i-Kalantar, and gave him a complete report of the plans of the Baha'ís and the condition of the two brothers.
**Monday 28 June
The next morning, on the third day of the massacres, Muhammad-i-Kalantar dispatched several gunmen to the hills with instructions to find and kill the two brothers. A very large number of bloodthirsty enemies of the Faith also accompanied these evil men. Meanwhile, Shatir-Hasan, in spite of his injuries, had came down the hill at dawn to fetch some water for his brother who was in great pain. He was by a small stream when spotted by the mob. Circling him, they ascertained the whereabouts of his brother. Shatir-Hasan was forced to tell the group that last night while running a rock had fallen on him and cut his foot, causing it to bleed badly, and, if they followed the blood trail, it would lead to his brother, Aqa 'Alí-Akbar.
A number remained with him to ensure that he would not go anywhere. The rest followed the blood trail until they reached the top of the hill and saw Aqa 'Alí-Akbar who was very weak and could not move. When he was spotted, one of the gunmen, Mulla Rabí', the son-in-law of the Kalantar, shot him, following which a certain Rida-i-Shikarí and then the other townspeople also launched a volley of bullets.
After killing him, they left the body and came back down to join the rest by the water. Shatir-Hasan had some sugar candy with him which he distributed among the mob and assassins. Then he took off his outer garments and divided them among the mob. Having thereby prepared himself for his martyrdom, he asked if he could drink some water before they killed him. After being granted permission, Shatir-Hasan said, "Though I know you won't allow me time to drink, I am resigned to the will of God." As soon as he had taken a few steps towards the stream, seventeen of the gunmen shot him in the back. This was followed by round after round. In all, three volleys of shots, with a total of fifty-one bullets, pierced his beloved body. After the martyrdom, his body was left there by the water. Later that evening, a few of the friends placed his body in a wooden coffin and, bringing it back to Manshad, hid the coffin in his own home for four months until it was safe to bury it in a nearby place. He was sixty years old at the time of martyrdom.
Forty days after the martyrdom of Aqa 'Alí-Akbar, nine of the believers9 returned quietly at night to the hills and located his body. They also placed his body in a casket and buried it at his own home in Manshad. He was fifty-six years old at the time of his martyrdom.
**Tuesday 29 June
On Tuesday, the mob learned of the hiding place of 'Alí-Akbar (son of Hasan Ibn-i-Hajjí Rajab), who had taken refuge in the house of his son-in-law, Ghulam-Rida. About one hour before noon, the mob rushed to the house, located Jinab-i-'Alí-Akbar, and dragged him outside to the streets. As everyone watched and cheered, one of the gunmen, Ghulam-Rida Ibn-i-Husayn, shot him. This was followed by a severe blow to the head with a heavy clubwhich Husayn-'Alí (son of Hajjí Muhammad) carried for this very purposerendering him unconscious. The rest of the crowd at that time set upon him, stoning, clubbing and firing at him. His body then was thrown off a nearby bridge into the river below, where it remained floating in the water until that evening when a few of the believers pulled his body out and buried him in one of his orchards. Jinab-i-'Alí-Akbar was fifty years old at the time of martyrdom.
**Wednesday 30 June
The next morning, the crowd learned of yet another Baha'í in hiding. This time it was Aqa Mírza Husayn (son of Sadiq Ibn-i-Hajjí Muhammad-'Alí), who had been hiding in the northern hills, known as mountains of Murghistan and Murad-'Alí. Around noontime, two men, Javad (son of Ghulam-'Alí, the carpenter) and Zaynu'l-Abidín-i-Yazdí (son of 'Alí-Akbar), went into the hills, located Aqa Mírza Husayn, and captured him. It was two hours before noon when he was brought back to Manshad and taken to the home of Muhammad-Rabí'. Aqa Mírza Husayn asked for water, in response to which the aforementioned Muhammad-Sadiq Na'ím-Abadí unsheathed a large knife, and, saying "Drink this," stabbed him. The man then turned to the mob and said, "O people, I had vowed to drink the blood of these Babís. Now watch me fulfill my vow." He then pulled the knife out of the body and licked all the blood off it. Then he signaled the mob to shoot Aqa Mírza Husayn, which the crazed gunmen were happy to do. Not being satisfied with that, the mob then circled his remains and stoned and clubbed him. After killing him in that fashion, they tied his feet with a rope and dragged him through the streets of Manshad until they reached the martyr's home, where they deposited his remains. That evening, his wife took the body and quietly buried it in a nearby garden belonging to Aqa Mírza Husayn, where it remains to this day. He was sixty years old at the time of martyrdom.
That same day, Muhammad-i-Kalantar sent some of his men to arrest Aqa Yadu'llah, who was a son of Aqa Mírza Husayn. The boy, who was no more than twelve years old, was taken to the home of the Kalantar so he might also be put to death. In the ensuing gathering at which this servant was also present, I told Muhammad-i-Kalantar that the boy is a minor and religious laws are not applicable to him. In order to ensure his freedom, I suggested to the Kalantar that he collect some money as a price for his liberty. He accepted my request, and the mother of the child was called. Upon collecting a sum, he allowed the boy to leave.
Again on that same day, the mob after killing Aqa Mírza Husayn, went to another neighborhood in the outskirts of Manshad known as Kuzh. At that time one of the believers, Aqa 'Alí-Muhammad (son of Hajjí Husayn Ibn-i-Hajjí 'Alí-Akbar-i-Turk), was hiding from the hands of the bloodthirsty crowd in the home of another Baha'í, Husayn Ibn-i-Hasan Ibn-i-Panah-'Alí. Four men10 entered the house, located Aqa 'Alí-Muhammad and took him outside. One of the gunmen, 'Alí-Akbar, aimed his gun at Aqa 'Alí-Muhammad's head and fired. He immediately fell to the ground at which time the rest of the crowd began stoning him. At that moment, while the severely injured Aqa 'Alí-Muhammad was breathing his last breaths, a man approached him. This heartless individual opened Aqa 'Alí-Muhammad's mouth, filled it with sand and soil, and then kicked him until he was dead. A rope was tied to his feet and he was dragged and paraded to the front door of Shatir-Hasan's home, the believer whom the same people had killed earlier. His body was left there until nighttime, when one of the believers gathered his remains and buried them in backyard of the same house, where they remain to this day. Aqa 'Alí-Muhammad was forty-five years old at the time of martyrdom.
**Thursday 1 July
The next day, Thursday, two hours before noon, four men11 entered the home of Khadíjih-Sultan, an elderly Baha'í woman and mother of the martyr Aqa Ghulam-Rida. They took her to the home of Muhammad-i-Kalantar and requested his permission to kill her. He instructed them to take her away, thereby signaling his consent. The men took her to the top of an Islamic school building in the town center and pushed her off the roof. The women of Manshad gathered around her body and first removed her chador and veil, after which her remains were stoned by men and women alike. Khadíjih-Sultan, who was later buried in her own home, was sixty-five years old at time of her death.
**Friday 2 July
Meanwhile, Aqa Siyyid Javad (son of Aqa Siyyid Taqí) had taken refuge in his home. The next day, one of the men from the killing mob by the name of Ghulam-Rida learned of his whereabouts and went to his house, captured Aqa Siyyid Javad, and brought him out. His three young daughters, who were only nine, seven, and five years old, began to weep and plead with the man to leave their father alone. They even begged to be killed in place of their father. The daughters, tears pouring from their eyes, circled the man and held tight to their dear father. Determined to take Aqa Javad's life, the man ignored all the children's pleas and cries and used his club and kicks to separate the daughters from their father and, violently slapping them, he forced them to let go of their father. By now, an eager crowd had gathered and was watching the whole incident. Aqa Siyyid Javad was dragged outside, tied with a rope, and with bare feet and head was taken to the home of Muhammad-i-Kalantar. At that moment, when they brought Aqa Siyyid Javad, I happened to be visiting the Kalantar. Aqa Javad's countenance seemed to glow with joy and extreme happiness and certitude. He was radiating a heavenly smile as he entered the room. He was not speaking to anyone and seemed immersed in the ecstasy of his imminent martyrdom and eternal union with his Beloved. The crowd told the Kalantar that they had captured this Baha'í and with the wave of his hand the Kalantar signaled his approval for him to be taken away and be killed. The mob paraded the siyyid to the town square. One of them, Ghulam-'Alí, the carpenter, fired a bullet, the immense pressure of which destroyed his head. Others12 joined in by firing their guns at him and engaging in their ritual stoning, cursing, and defaming of the body. Later, his remains were dropped into a pit used for preparation of charcoal, which serves to this day as his burial place. It was an hour before noon when Aqa Siyyid Javad drank the cup of martyrdom. He was forty years old.
**Saturday 3 July
On Saturday, Aqa 'Alí-Muhammad, the son of Hajjí Nasru'llah, had taken refuge in the house of his nephew, Aqa Mírza Ahmad, when six men13 entered the house to capture him. They tied a rope around his neck and two men, Muhammad and Ghulam-Rida, forcefully pulled each end. Such is how Aqa 'Alí-Muhammad was martyred two hours before sunset. After the killing, they stoned and clubbed his remains and left the body. That evening the believers took his remains to nearby property belonging to Aqa 'Alí-Muhammad himself and buried him. He was fifty years old.
**Sunday 4 July
The following day, Sunday, Aqa Ghulam-Rida, the son of Hajjí 'Alí-Naqí, who had also taken refuge at a home of a friend, Siyyid Rida, a son of Mírza Jamal, was discovered. Three hours after sunrise, four of the men14 who had committed many of the earlier killings, along with a large mob, came to the house and captured him. They tied his hands behind him, leading him through the streets and eventually to a neighborhood known as Pusht-i-Bagh. There, he was shot to death by two of the gunmen, Siyyid Husayn and Siyyid Ibrahím, and his body was stoned, clubbed, and then thrown into a well. Two months later his body was recovered from the well by fellow believers and was buried in his own home at a site near the grave of his mother, Khadíjih-Sultan, whom the same people had killed earlier. These two souls, the mother and son, are still buried next to each other. He was forty years old.
**Wednesday and Thursday 7 and 8 July
On the following Wednesday evening, Aqa Assadu'llah, another son of Mírza Ibrahím, the baker, and a brother of martyrs Shatir-Hasan and Aqa 'Alí-Akbar, decided to travel to Yazd, knowing that it would be better to leave Manshad for a time. Together with his traveling companion, Siyyid 'Alí, they took a route through the valleys outside of town, walking day and night. The next morning, while passing by a village named Mihríjird, they were recognized by a few of the villagers. The villagers immediately captured these two believers, taking them to a nearby farm known as Ibrahím-Abad. Each was given the opportunity to recant. Siyyid-'Alí, who was a Muslim, did so and was set free. Aqa Assadu'llah, however, held back and refused to recant.
The people sent a report of the day's event to the Imam-Jum'ih of Yazd, Mírza Ibrahím, who was visiting the nearby village of Tarzjan. When the messenger arrived to deliver the report, he was intercepted by one of the community leaders, Hajjí Mírza Muhammad-'Alí-yí-Tarzjaní, who took the report and read its content. Then, without consulting the religious leader, the Imam-Jum'ih, this prideful man dispatched six of his gunmen15 to the farm where Aqa Assadu'llah was held, instructing them to kill him. When the men came to the farm, about three hours into the afternoon, they took Aqa Assadu'llah to the rooftop of a building on the farm belonging to a certain Siyyid Muhammad and asked if he was a Baha'í. On hearing an affirmative response, one of the men, Siyyid Husayn-i-'Arab, stabbed him with a knife and the others mercilessly shot him. His body was thrown into the streets, where it lay untouched for only a short while.
Upon learning of Aqa Assadu'llah's arrest, ten men from Manshad rode to the Ibrahím-Abad farm. Arriving about an hour after Aqa Assadu'llah was executed, one of the men, 'Alí-Akbar (son of Ibrahím) approached the body and with his axe severed the head. The head, as if a prize, was brought back to Manshad and thrown on the grounds at the town square. It remained there for three hours, and then it was taken and hung from the door of Aqa Assadu'llah's own shop, where it became the target of the stoning, cursing, and even spitting of the passers-by. On seeing this spectacle, Mulla Muhammad-Husayn, a well-known Muslim soothsayer, cried out: "O people! In Karbala the infidels killed our beloved Imam Husayn and hung his head from the gates of the city, for which the people of Islam have cursed them for centuries. Today you have committed the same exact shameful act of the infidels!"
**Friday 9 July
Upon hearing this, the people stopped their assault on the severed head. A day later the head was taken down and carried to the home of the victim's brother, Husayn-Baba, next door to the same shop, and buried. Aqa Assadu'llah's headless body, still lying in the same field, was thrown in a well. Two months later, one of the believers, 'Alí-Rida, removed his body from the well and buried it at the same farm where Aqa Assadu'llah had been martyred. Four months later his head was also exhumed and taken to the farm known as Hujjat-Abad and buried. Aqa Assadu'llah was thirty-five years old.
On Friday morning, Aqa Mírza Muhammad, son of the martyred Aqa Mulla 'Alí-Akbar, who had taken refuge in a farm house belonging to another of the believers, Siyyid 'Alí-Akbar, fell prey to the enemy. It was two hours before noon when a mob numbering in excess of two hundred hastened to gather around the farm house. They went inside, captured Aqa Mírza Muhammad, and restrained him by tying his hands together behind him. As such they dragged him to the home of Aqa 'Alí-Akbar, who had been martyred days earlier. There, he was tied to a tree and executed with successive volleys of gun fire. His body was then untied, doused with kerosene, and set on fire, all the while being stoned and kicked by the murderers. Afterwards, one of the relatives of Aqa Mírza Muhammad, a certain Aqa Mírza Muhammad, took his remains and buried him in a property adjacent to his house. Aqa Mírza Muhammad was forty-three years old.
Aqa Siyyid Husayn (son of Aqa Siyyid Ahmad) was yet another Baha'í who had taken refuge at the home of a Muslim friend, Siyyid Aqa'yí. Two days prior to all the convulsions, his eldest son, Siyyid Javad, who was only fourteen years old, had fallen while working in the fields with his grandfather, breaking one leg and severely injuring the other. His injuries were so severe that he could not move and was bedridden. Every day I would visit the boy and tend to his wounds. On the first day of the massacre, Aqa Siyyid Husayn had taken his injured son and wife to the home of a Muslim friend, where he planned to stay during the impending period of unrest. Siyyid Husayn also had another younger son and daughter who were left alone. These two homeless young children roamed the streets during the day and at night, hungry, thirsty and desolate. They would hide in a field or a farm because they had no one to look after them.
On that Friday, which was now the fourteenth day of the troubles, the vicious mob was searching every household in Manshad in hope of finding more Baha'ís to kill. Aqa Siyyid Husayn's host informed him of the day's events, indicating to him that soon his house would be searched, and expressing his fear for their lives. Aqa Siyyid Husayn relayed the same to his wife and also told her that his death was near. He alone left the home which had been his family's refuge, bidding farewell to his wife and son, not knowing that the hand of fate would only allow them one more meeting. Taking the advice of his host, he dressed as a beggar, planning to take refuge behind the pulpit of a nearby mosque. His host asked him to remain there until the mob had finished searching his house and then he would be able to return.
Although the anticipated search of the house did not result in any findings, a number of women in the neighborhood reported having seen Siyyid Husayn entering the mosque. Siyyid Husayn, aware of his dire situation, had no choice but to leave the mosque, running a distance of two hundred yards and then climbing over a wall into a wheat field. He hid between two hay stacks, but was spotted by a woman who informed the search party of his whereabouts. Upon finding him, a member of the mob, a certain Ibrahím, immediately struck him with a wooden stick, while another, Husayn-'Alí (son of Hajjí Muhammad), fired at Siyyid Husayn's face. Ghulam-Rida Tazarjaní threw Siyyid Husayn, who was nearly dead, over the same wall he had earlier climbed, and then dragged him by the feet to the house of Mulla Baba'yí, a soon-to be martyr himself. Siyyid Husayn's wife and children, being informed of his condition, ran to the scene but were stopped and assaulted by the curses and obscenities shouted by the men. Withstanding the brutality and the verbal assault, they were allowed to go near Siyyid Husayn. Upon hearing the crying voices of his family, he opened his eyes and looked in the direction of his wife and children. The family threw themselves on his body and, his arms around them, he embraced them. While holding his loved ones, tears streaming from his broken and sorrow-filled eyes, Aqa Siyyid Husayn bid farewell to his earthly life. That evening his remains were taken to his home and buried. He was forty years old.
When he heard the news of his father's martyrdom, a bedridden and broken-hearted Siyyid Javad pleaded for one last opportunity to visit and bid farewell to his father. Alas, no one paid any attention to this poor boy, though he was only a short distance away from his fallen father. After Siyyid Husayn's death, the son, Siyyid Javad, was taken back to his own home. He was constantly heard saying and praying: "How I wish that the enemies had seen me and taken my life on that day too! If only they would come now and allow me to join that exalted soul!" Not a day went by that he did not wish for his own death and the opportunity to join his beloved father in the Abha Kingdom. His wailing and lamenting were destined to be as ephemeral as his fleeting life, for he was to outlive his father's brutal martyrdom by only fourteen days. Every night his mother would take the other two children, afraid that the neighbors would bring harm to them, and spend the night at friends' homes. Each night, Siyyid Javad would beg his mother not to leave him alone. He feared he would die alone. But the poor mother had no choice but to look after the other two young children and protect them too. One morning when she returned home, she found her son's lifeless body in his bed. After mourning for his death, Siyyid Javad was, according to his wishes, laid to rest next to Siyyid Husayn, where to this day both the father and son remaina union in both this world and the next.
On the same Friday that Siyyid Husayn was martyred, another young man by the name of Aqa Husayn-'Alí was also martyred. Fearing the bloodthirsty mob, this young man had gone to the Murghistan mountains, where he hid in a cave. When the mob was finished with Siyyid Husayn, some three hours before sunset, they went to the mountains in search for other believers. Upon locating Aqa Husayn-'Alí, they captured him with the intention of bringing him back to town. On the way he fell victim to countless beatings and stonings. In a final act of contempt, one of his attackers, 'Alí-Akbar, son of Ibrahím, fired at him, while Ghulam-Rida, son of 'Alí and Hashim Quchí, beat him to death with sticks and stones. He was buried on that spot, at the tender age of nineteen.
**Saturday 10 July
The following day, Aqa Ghulam-Husayn, a Baha'í from Yazd who had came to Manshad to escape the brutal pogrom unfolding there, along with another Baha'í named Aqa Siyyid Baqir, a brother of martyred Aqa Siyyid Husayn, were found hiding in one of the caves on the eastern mountains. Two hours after sunrise, the mob surrounded the cave, and called for the two believers to surrender. Acquiescing, they emerged, whereupon Aqa Ghulam-Husayn was killed instantly by a huge volley of gunfire and later beheaded. His headless body was left alone and later buried in the same spot. His head was taken to Muhammad-i-Kalantar who instructed one of his messengers, Mírza Muhammad-'Alí, to take it as a gift to Mírza Fathu'llah, the Mushiru'l-Mamalik, the governor of the province of Yazd. Aqa Ghulam-Husayn was sixty-three years old at the time of his martyrdom.
After Aqa Ghulam-Husayn was killed, the mob sought out Aqa Siyyid Baqir, who had escaped the fate of his companion and returned back to his own home some time earlier. When approached at the door of his home, Aqa Siyyid Baqir invited the men inside. They accepted his invitation and came in. After enjoying the refreshments and fruits which Aqa Siyyid Baqir offered them, they arrested him and, tying his hands, led him to the home of Muhammad-i-Kalantar, who then ordered his imprisonment.
On that same day, Siyyid 'Alí, out of fear, decided to leave Manshad and headed toward Yazd. On the way, while passing through the villages of Tazarjan and Taft, three men from that area16 saw and recognized him. Siyyid 'Alí was summarily arrested, his hands were tied behind him, and he was taken to Tazarjan where they sought the permission of Mírza Ibrahím, the Imam-Jum'ih of Yazd, to kill their prisoner. The Imam-Jum'ih replied that since he was not familiar with the character of the siyyid, it was not possible for him to issue such a warrant. He advised them instead to take the siyyid back to Manshad and inquire from the people of that town of him. Two hours before sunset the men entered the town of Manshad, bringing with them Siyyid 'Alí. They had already decided earlier to take him to Muhammad-i-Kalantar and let him pronounce the verdict.
When they came to the town square the siyyid escaped from the hands of his three captors and hid behind a palm tree. By now a group of townspeople had heard of their arrival and had come to see them. They circled the tree and surrounded the siyyid who was holding fast to it as a refuge. As the men prepared to take his life, a villager cried out that the tree that he had embraced was sacred and his life should be spared until he released the tree. They ignored the man and shot Siyyid 'Alí dead. Others continued to repeatedly fire at his motionless body.17 That evening, his wife removed her husband's remains from the scene and buried them in their home. He was thirty-five years old.
The three men who had arrested Siyyid 'Alí and instigated his murder decided before leaving town to shed the blood of this servant. With this intention in mind they headed towards my home. I was all alone when the three men entered my house. Since at the time I neither knew them nor was aware of their intentions, I greeted them warmly. A water pipe was offered and tea was served. Afterwards, I asked them where they were from and what business brought them to Manshad, upon which they related to me the story of Siyyid 'Alí's martyrdom. Upon hearing this, I was overwhelmed by sorrow and grief. Seeing my condition, the men immediately left my house. Outside, I heard one of them mention that, since I had been so extremely kind and hospitable, they did not have the heart to take my life.
That same afternoon, after the mob finished killing Siyyid 'Alí, they returned to the home of Muhammad-i-Kalantar, where Siyyid Baqir was being held from earlier that day pending enforcement of his order of imprisonment. It was late in the afternoon when they took him to a farm field known as the Turkish farm. There, he was martyred as a result of gunshot wounds.18 Later the believers took the remains and buried them next to the gravesite which contained the headless body of Aqa Ghulam-Husayn killed earlier in the dayhis companion and fellow martyr. Siyyid Baqir was fifty-one years old.
**Sunday 11 July
The following day, Sunday, Aqa Muhammad, a son of Mulla Baba'yí, had taken refuge in his home when around noontime I saw three men19 headed in that direction. I was grief-stricken, knowing their intent to commit yet another murder of some innocent Baha'ís but I didn't know where they were going. When the men reached the home of Aqa Muhammad, they entered it, brought him out, and took him to town square. Aqa Muhammad requested that they delay their perfidious act for an hour so that he might say farewell to his wife and young children and see them for one last time. The men, ignoring his plea, answering only by shooting him dead. They then tied a rope around his feet and dragged him back home, where later that evening his wife brought the body inside and laid it to rest. He was twenty-three years old.
**Wednesday 14 July
The following Wednesday, Mulla Baba'yí (a brother of the famous martyr Rada'r-Rúh and father of recently martyred Aqa Muhammad) found shelter in a friend's homea certain Hajjí Muhammad-Hasan. One of the neighborhood's women learned of his whereabouts and informed Manshad's populace. Soon a mob and many onlookers totaling over two hundred descended upon the house where Mulla Baba'yí had taken refuge. Several men entered the home and began searching the rooms. Ghulam-Rida (son of Husayn) came upon the room where Mulla Baba'yí and his son, Aqa Javad, were sitting in the dark corner. Ghulam-Rida cried out that Mulla Baba'yí must be shot right there, but, apprehensive of the harm that might befall his son, Mulla Baba'yí quickly surrendered instead.
Mulla Baba'yí's hands were tied behind his back and, bareheaded and barefoot, he and his son were led to the home of Hajjí Siyyid Husayn in the Mírzaha section of town to be killed. Mulla Baba'yí, who was in the thick of the crowd, could not see his son, so he asked Siyyid Husayn that if they have not yet killed his son to bring him near so he could see him one last time. Siyyid Husayn agreed and brought the son near. The mulla's eyes fell upon him, and his last spoken words were instructions to Aqa Javad that, should he survive, he should arrange for the payment of a debt to a certain individual. Bidding him farewell, Mulla Baba'yí left the boy to the care of Siyyid Husayn, expressing the wish that he not be obliged to speak again and remained silent.
Although the crowd wanted to kill the boy, Siyyid Husayn intervened, using his body to shield the boy from harm, and took him inside a home. It was around noon that the crowd moved Mulla Baba'yí once again towards the bazaar, near the shop of Zaynu'l-Abidín-i-'Attar. With his hands still firmly tied behind him, Mulla Baba'yí endured every manner of insult, injury and defamation. On the way, he was repeatedly stoned. A rock hurled at him by Mírza Husayn (a son of Hajjí Siyyid Mírza, the Imam Jama'at of Manshad), fractured his forehead, from which a fountain of blood gushed forth, covering his radiant countenance. Time after time he was assaulted, until his white beard was soaked by his blood. Paraded in this manner for a time in the bazaar, he was later taken behind the home of martyred Aqa 'Alí-Akbar. During this entire time, his gaze remained fixed in the direction of the Qiblih, the Sacred Threshold of his Beloved, as he whispered a quiet prayer. Not one word was uttered by him in the face of his ordeal, so poignantly did he exemplify the lesson of true faith and sacrifice.
In the midst of the chaos, Shatir-Hasan-i-Ardikaní retrieved a can of kerosene from a nearby shop, poured it over Mulla Baba'yí, and 'Alí-yí-'Arab set him ablaze. While Mulla Baba'yí burned, those who carried guns began to shoot him. Others were satisfied with clubbing and stoning him. Dragging him by his bound feet, he was taken to the home of a fellow believer, Siyyid Taqí, where he was later buried. Mulla Baba'yí, whose body and soul were radiant with the love of His Beauty, was sixty-five years old at the time of martyrdom.
June 26 Mulla 'Alí-Akbar 70 years old June 26 Muhammad-Isma'íl 67 June 26 Ustad Husayn 50 June 26 Aqa Husayn 65 June 26 Aqa Ghulam-'Alí 18 June 26 Aqa Ramadan 22 June 26 Siyyid Mírza 75 June 27 Mulla Muhammad-i-Manshadí 58 June 28 Aqa 'Alí-Akbar 56 June 28 Shatir-Hasan 60 June 29 Aqa 'Alí-Akbar Ibn-i-Hasan 50 June 30 Aqa Mírza Husayn 60 June 30 Aqa-'Alí-Muhammad 45 July 1 Khadíjih-Sultan 65 July 2 Aqa Siyyid Javad 40 July 3 Aqa 'Alí-Muhammad 50 July 4 Aqa Ghulam-Rida 40 July 8 Aqa Assadu'llah 35 July 9 Aqa Mírza Muhammad 43 July 9 Aqa Siyyid Husayn 40 July 9 Aqa Husayn-'Alí 19 July 10 Aqa Ghulam-Husayn 63 July 10 Siyyid 'Alí 35 July 10 Aqa Siyyid Baqir 51 July 11 Aqa Muhammad 23 July 11 mother of martyr Ustad Husayn 70 July 13 Siyyid Javad 14 July 14 Mulla Baba'yí 65 Baha'í martyrdoms in the nearby villages:21
Village of Gav-Afshad:
On the evening of Friday, 9 July, the annual memorial gathering in honor of the martyred Imam Husayn was held at the home of Hajjí Mulla Muhammad-'Alí in the village of Gav-Afshad where all the village men, including a Baha'í named Ustad Rida, were in attendance. Sometime during the event, a group of thugs from Manshad arrived at the gathering and on spotting Ustad Rida attempted to martyr him right there and then. However, some of the villagers became very agitated with such a rude behavior on part of Manshadís and argued fiercely that, in honor of Imam Husayn, killing was not permitted that night. After a period of heated confrontation the villagers managed to throw out the Manshadí mob. On the conclusion of the commemorations that night, Ustad Rida, apprehensive of his life, took refuge in house of Hasan (son of Muhammad-i-Gav-Afshad), his son-in-law. However, after only two days, this treacherous son-in-law notified the Manshadí mob of Ustad Rida's whereabouts. Thereupon the house was rushed by the thugs who quickly captured and removed Ustad Rida to another neighborhood of the village, known as Sarmúr-i-Gav-Afshad. Two of them, Muhammad-'Alí (son of Yadgar) and Siyyid Husayn Haddad, took steps to kill Ustad Rida, when Ustad turned to them and said, "As my Beloved has taught us to kiss the hand of our executioners, grant me this one last favor.22 On hearing this, the two men extended their hands to him which he kissed reverently. They then tied a rope around his neck, and then each held one end and pulled in such wise that he was suffocated quickly. His body was hung from a nearby tree until the next morning when it was lowered and buried. Ustad Rida was fifty-six years old at time of his martyrdom.
Village of Darrih:
Shatir-Hasan was a Baha'í from Yazd who, during this period of unrest, had moved to a nearby village of Tazarjan where he was continuing his profession of baking. When the people of the village learned of the disturbances in Yazd, they surrounded Shatir-Hasan with the intention of killing him, too. Shatir-Hasan was able to escape the crazed mob and quickly left the village heading to Manshad. Once in Manshad, he took refuge in the home of the martyred 'Alí Akbar.
Meanwhile, Mírza Ibrahím Tabíb-i-Khuramshahí, also a Baha'í of Yazd, escaping the wrath of the people there, made his way to Manshad. Upon entering the city, the people of Manshad attempted to kill him. However, as many did not know him, their aim was halted by others. On the first day of troubles, 26 June, some three hours before sunset, Shatir-Hasan and Mírza Ibrahím left Manshad and headed towards the village of Darrih. There, these two believers took a room in Khadíjih Darvísh's house. Soon the villagers become aware of the two newcomers and surrounded the house, and a few went inside and captured the two believers. As the villagers were not aware of the details associated with these two, they inquired of one another. Two of them, however, said to the crowd that: "We know these two; both are Baha'ís and have just escaped from Manshad."
The two believers were first undressed by the mob and then their hands were tied behind them. They were then asked to start walking, and the crowd followed behind them moving towards a nearby field used for slaughtering sheep. On the way, though, they were stoned so severely and repeatedly that they passed on to the Abha Kingdom before reaching their destination. Their bodies were thrown in an empty well and filled with dirt till they were no longer visible. Shatir-Hasan was thirty-five and Mírza Ibrahím-i-Tabíb sixty-five years old at the time of their martyrdoms.
1. The Baha'í World, vol. 18, page 26
2. The Baha'í World, vol. 18, page 26
3. Taríkh Shuhaday-i-Yazd, (History of the Yazd's Martyrs), Egypt, 1342H. Manshad episode begins on page 432.
4. Vafa Qa'im-Maqami's gracious assistance by reading through the translation and suggesting invaluable comments is affectionately acknowledged.
5. As it is customary with Middle Eastern narratives, the opening passage is devoted to praise and glorification of God and the Central Figures. This passage is omitted in translation.
6. The ten gunmen were from the surrounding villages of Khabarí, Zardankí and Char-Rahí and the author gives their names as: Ghulam-Husayn Khabarí and his three sons, Ahmad, Rida-Qulí and Hasan; Khayru'llah Char-Rahí; Hajjí, the son of Qurban-'Alí Khabarí; Ghulam-Rida Zardankí; Muhammad, the son of Husayn-i-Char-Rahí; Hasan Shah-Rida; and Iskandar Char-Rahí.
7. The author gives their names as: Hajjí Husayn, 'Alí-Akbar and Hajjí Husayn-'Alí son of Hajjí 'Alí-Akbar
8. 0n page 27-28 of the original text the following names are given: Shatir-Hasan, Aqa 'Alí-Akbar and Assadu'llah, the sons of Mírza Ibrahím; Aqa Hasan-'Alí; Javad; Aqa Siyyid Taqí; Aqa Siyyid Baqír; Siyyid Husayn; children of Aqa Siyyid Ahmad; Aqa Siyyid Muhammad (the son Siyyid Taqí); Aqa Mírza Muhammad Hadí; 'Abdu'l-Vahhab; 'Abdu'r-Rasúl; and Aqa Muhammad Ibn-i-Mihdí
9. Aqa 'Alí-Akbar (the son of Muhammad); Aqa Javad (the son of martyred Mulla Baba'yí); Aqa 'Alí-Akbar (the son of Hajjí 'Alí-Muhammad); Aqa 'Alí-Muhammad (the son of martyred Aqa Mírza Muhammad); Aqa Haydar; Aqa Mírza 'Alí, the well-digger; Aqa Ghulam-Husayn; Aqa Mírza 'Alí-Akbar; Aqa 'Abdu'l-Vahhab.
10. Hasan-'Alí (the son of Hajjí Muhammad); Javad (the son of Muhammad Hadí); 'Alí-Akbar (the son of Ibrahím); and 'Alí-Akbar (the son of Hajjí Husayn).
11. Ghulam-Rida (the son of Husayn); 'Alí (the son of Hajjí Akbar); Ahmad (the son of Hajjí Ghulam); and Ghulam-Rida Tazarjaní.
12. Ghulam-Rida (the son of Husayn); 'Alí-Akbar (the son of Hajjí Husayn); and Ghulam-Rida Tazarjaní.
13. Ghulam-Rida (the son of Husayn); Mírza 'Alí-Akbar; Mírza Javad; Siyyid Muhammad, the soothsayer; Siyyid Husayn (the son of Siyyid Ibrahím); and Muhammad (the son of Rida).
14. Muhammad-Sadiq Na'ím-Abadí; Mírza Rida (the son of Hajjí Siyyid Mírza, the prayer Imam); Siyyid Husayn (the son of Hajjí Siyyid Mahmud);
15. 'Abdu'l-Khaliq; Siyyid Mihdí; Hajjí 'Alí-Akbar-i-Syah; Akbar (the son of Ibrahím, the farmer); 'Abdu'l-Vahhab; and Siyyid Husayn-i-'Arab.
16. Siyyid Sadiq; Siyyid 'Alí-Akbar; and Mírza Muhammad-'Alí (the son of Mírza Siyyid Husayn).
17. Ghulam-Rida Tazarjaní fired the first shot to be followed with shots by Siyyid Sadiq Tarnjí and Mírza Muhammad-'Alí Taftí.
18. The perpetuators were: Mírza Muhammad-'Alí Taftí; Ghulam-Rida (the son of Husayn) and Muhammad-Sadiq Na'ím-Abadí.
19. Ghulam-Rida Tazarjaní; Husayn-'Alí (the son of Hajjí Muhammad); and Hashim-i-Tíúj.
20. This table was prepared by the translators for ease of reference.
21. In addition to the account of the above events in Manshad, the author narrates the heinous martyrdoms in the nearby villages. Due to the importance of these materials, these have been translated as well.
22. This comment echoes the exhortation of Bahá'u'lláh in the Lawh-i-Shikar Shikkan. For the text of the Tablet see the Baha'í World, vol. 18, p. 11.