Youth in exile.
He was the third son of Napoleon I's brother Louis Bonaparte, who was king of Holland from 1806 to 1810, and his wife, Hortense de Beauharnais Bonaparte, stepdaughter of Napoleon I.
Louis-Napoléon's childhood and youth were spent largely in exile. His mother, like all the Bonapartes, was banished from France in 1815 after the fall of Napoleon I. Eventually, she found a new home in Switzerland, where, in 1817, she bought the castle of Arenenberg. Of romantic disposition herself, she inspired young Louis-Napoléon with a longing for his lost fatherland, as well as with enthusiastic admiration of the genius of Napoleon I. After attending a grammar school at Augsburg, Ger. (1821-23), her "sweet stubborn boy" was taught by private tutors. During visits to relatives in southern Germany and Italy, he became acquainted not only with other exiled victims of the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy but also with the life of a suppressed people, such as those Italians who were living under Austrian and papal rule. He was, above all, interested in history and inspired by the idea of national liberty. Accordingly, he took part in an unsuccessful plot against the papal government in Rome in 1830 and in the rebellion in central Italy in 1831, in which his beloved brother perished. He himself was saved from the Austrian troops only by his mother's bold intervention.
Claim to the throne.
After the death in 1832 of his cousin the Duke of Reichstadt (Napoleon I's only son), Louis-Napoléon considered himself his family's claimant to the French throne. To be better prepared for his task, he completed his military training and pursued his studies of economic and social problems. Soon after, he felt ready to publish his own writings on political and military subjects. In his pamphlet "Rêveries politiques" (1832), he asserted that only an emperor could give France both glory and liberty. He thus wanted to make his name known, propagate his ideas, and recruit adherents. Convinced that as Napoleon's nephew he would be popular with the French army, he vainly tried, on Oct. 30, 1836, to win over the Strasbourg garrison for a coup d'état. King Louis-Philippe exiled him to the United States, from which he was recalled early in 1837 by his mother's last illness. Expelled from Switzerland in 1838, he settled in England.
In 1839 he published "Des idées napoléoniennes." So far, Bonapartism had been nothing but a wistful reminiscing of former beneficiaries of the empire or a romantic legend created by those who were dissatisfied with the humdrum present. In his new booklet Louis-Napoléon tried to transform Bonapartism into a political ideology. In doing so, he obeyed mystical inspirations as well as rationalism. To him, ideology and politics were the result of rational reflection as well as of belief. The central exponent in history was, in his opinion, the great personality called by Providence and representing progress. Napoleon I had been such a man, even though he was not allowed to finish his work. But Napoleon, the "Messiah of the new ideas," was survived by the "Napoleonic idea," for the "political creed," like the religious creeds, had its martyrs and apostles. The Napoleonic idea was a "social and industrial one, humanitarian and encouraging trade," that would "reconcile order and freedom, the rights of the people and the principles of authority." Louis-Napoléon saw it as his task to accomplish this mission.
Landing with 56 followers, near Boulogne, Fr., on Aug. 6, 1840, he was again unsuccessful. The town's garrison did not join him. He was arrested, brought to trial, and sentenced to "permanent confinement in a fortress." At his "university of Ham" (the castle in which he was held) he spent his time studying to fit himself for his imperial role. He corresponded with members of the French opposition and published articles in some of their newspapers. He also wrote several brochures, among them "Extinction du paupérisme" (1844), which won him some supporters on the left. It was not until May 25, 1846, that he succeeded in escaping and fleeing to Great Britain, where he waited for another chance to seize power.
On hearing of the outbreak of the revolution, in February 1848, he travelled to Paris but was sent back by the provisional government. Some of his supporters, however, organized a small Bonapartist party and nominated him as their candidate for the Constituent Assembly. On June 4 he was elected in four départements but, awaiting more settled conditions, he refused to take his seat. Running again in September, he was elected in five départements, and after his arrival in Paris he lost no time in preparing to run for the presidency. He was supported by the newly founded Party of Order, which consisted of adherents of the Bourbons, Louis-Philippe, and Catholics. Lacking a suitable candidate, they regarded Louis-Napoléon not a skilled parliamentarian but a popular figure as a useful tool.
He used, now on a large scale, the kind of propaganda that had won him elections before. Because of his name and his descent, the Emperor's nephew captivated the voters. Evoking the Napoleonic legend with its memories of national glory, Louis-Napoléon promised to bring back those days in time of peace. He succeeded also in recommending himself to every group of the population by promising to safeguard their particular interests. He promised "order" and "prosperity" to the middle class and the farmers and assistance to the poor. In December 1848 he was the only candidate to obtain votes totalling 5,434,226 from among all classes of the population.
He took office, determined to free himself from dependence on the Party of Order, which had also won the parliamentary elections of May 1849. The government sent a military expedition to help the Pope reconquer Rome. At home it deprived active Republicans of their government positions and restricted their liberties, but the President could rely on only about a dozen members of the National Assembly who were Bonapartists. Prudently expanding his power by using every right the constitution granted him, Louis-Napoléon soon obtained key positions in the administration and in the army for his adherents. On October 31, he succeeded for the first time in appointing a Cabinet consisting of men depending more on him than on the National Assembly. By travelling through the country he gained wide popularity. Moreover, he used the disfranchisement of 3,000,000 electors of the poorer classes by the National Assembly in 1850 and an economic recession in 1851 as a pretext for agitating against the parties and for advertising himself as the "strong man" against the danger of a nonexistent revolution.
The constitution forbade the reelection of the president after expiration of his four-year term, and when Louis-Napoléon realized that he could not obtain the three-fourths majority necessary for a revision of the constitution he carried out a coup d'état on December 2. Only the Republicans dared to resist him. On December 4 they were defeated in street fighting in Paris, just as they were in other towns and in some regions. Arrests and deportations numbered in the thousands. Louis-Napoléon dissolved the Legislative Assembly and decreed a new constitution, which among other provisions restored universal suffrage. A plebiscite approved the new constitution. Encouraged by his success, he held another plebiscite in November 1852 and was confirmed as emperor after the resolution of the Senate concerning the restitution of the empire. Failing to obtain the hand of a princess of equal birth, Napoleon III married the countess Eugénie de Montijo in January 1853.
Domestic policy as emperor.
Napoleon III intended to be always ahead of public opinion so as to be able to understand the requirements of his time and to create laws and institutions accordingly. Hence, he took the greatest pains to study the public opinion and to influence it by means of propaganda. Although promising "reasonable freedom," for the time being he considered it necessary to use the methods of a police state.
Willing "to take the initiative to do everything useful for the prosperity and the greatness of France," he promoted public works, the construction of railroads, the establishment of institutions of credit, and other means of furthering industry and agriculture. An enthusiastic promoter of great technical projects, he supported inventors and took a personal interest in the rebuilding of modern Paris.
He did not, however, disavow what he called his "love of the diligent and needy." He ensured a lower price for bread, furthered the construction of hygienic dwellings for workers, and established boards of arbitration. In his societies of mutual assistance, employers and employees were to learn to understand each other. He hoped that his social-welfare institutions, to the endowment of which he frequently contributed, would be imitated by the citizens. The middle class, however, looked upon him only as its protector against Socialism and regarded his social ideas as mere utopianism.
Foreign policy as emperor.
As in domestic policy, the Emperor immediately took the initiative in foreign affairs. "Louis-Philippe fell because he let France fall into disrepute. I must do something," he declared. He wanted to make France a great power once more by breaking up the European system created by the Congress of Vienna of 1815, which, incidentally, had imposed great humiliations on France. Convinced that in the present "epoch of civilization the successes of armies were only temporary" and that it was "public opinion which always gained the final victory," he planned "to march at the head of generous and noble ideas," among which the principle of nationality was the most important. In accordance with this principle he wanted an international congress to reconstruct "the European balance of power on more durable and just foundations." And "if other countries gain anything France must gain something also."
The Crimean War offered him a chance of realizing one of his favourite ideas: the conclusion of an alliance with Great Britain that would succeed in checking Russian expansion toward the Mediterranean. After the Paris conference, at which the peace terms were settled, Napoleon seemed to become Europe's arbitrator. Ironically, it was an attempt on his life by Felice Orsini, an Italian revolutionary (January 1858), that reminded him of his wish "to do something for Italy." Together with Piedmont-Sardinia, he went to war against Austria in order to expel it from Italy. A promoter of technical warfare, he witnessed the success of his modernized artillery and of the military use of the captive balloon. The fact that at the victorious Battle of Solferino in June 1859 he had been in command convinced him of his military genius. Yet, frightened by the possibility of intervention by the German Confederation, he suddenly made peace. Outmanoeuvred by Count Cavour, who confronted him with a unified Italy instead of the weak federation he had intended, he received Nice and Savoy as a reward. His activities in Italy displeased the British. Despite the conclusion of an Anglo-French commercial treaty in 1860, they remained suspicious and apprehensively watched his construction of armoured warships and his colonial and oriental policies.
Napoleon III dreamed of "opening new ways to commerce and new outlets to European products overseas," of accelerating "the progress of Christianity and civilization." He was therefore open to a colonial policy bent on furthering commercial interests and the establishment of bases. He intensified the extension of French power in Indochina and West Africa. In the Middle East the Emperor hoped that a better treatment of the Algerians would have a favourable influence on the Arabs from Tunisia to the Euphrates. He supported the construction of the Suez Canal. When the Roman Catholic Maronites who were under French protection in Lebanon were persecuted in 1860, he hoped to profit politically by dispatching an expeditionary force.
Attempts at reform
In 1860 Napoleon III believed his regime to be stable enough to grant certain freedoms. The commercial treaty with Great Britain was to be the beginning of a new economic policy based on free-trade principles, with the aim of increasing prosperity and decreasing the cost of living. Dissatisfied with the functioning of the legislature, the Emperor decided to give "the great bodies of the state a more direct part in the formation of the general policy of our government."
His hopes were not fulfilled to the extent he had expected. A deterioration in the economy caused dissatisfaction among the middle class and the working people, who joined the Catholics, angered by his anti-papal Italian policy, to become a steadily growing opposition. In the elections of 1857 only five members of the opposition had gained seats in the National Assembly; six years later there were 32.
At this very time, repeated bladder-stone attacks temporarily incapacitated the Emperor, who had been in poor health since 1856. He had always insisted on exercising control over all decisions of government; in his ministers he had seen nothing but tools. Now, he became dependent on persons in his entourage who formed groups and intrigued against each other. In 1863 the authoritarian Eug&egrav;ne Rouher, nicknamed the "Vice Emperor," became prime minister; on the other hand, Napoleon III took the advice of his half brother the Duke of Morny to continue his policy of liberalization. With the help of his uncle Jérôme Bonaparte, who preached a democratic Bonapartism, he tried to win over the workers. But his concessions (freedom of coalition in 1864, freedom of assembly in 1868, extension of the rights of members of parliament, and liberalization of the press laws) were restricted by too many reservations and came too late. He allowed Victor Duruy, his minister of education from 1863, to fight clerical influence in education, yet on the other hand he tried to reconcile French Catholics by working for a compromise settlement in disputes between the papacy and the new Italian kingdom.
In 1861, by proposing to make the Austrian archduke Maximilian emperor of Mexico and by negotiating with the president of Ecuador about a projected "Kingdom of the Andes," he had begun his Latin-American venture. He had expected material rewards for France and also hoped that the planned kingdom would check the growing influence of the United States in Latin America. Yet, as soon as the United States had concluded its Civil War it forced the French to withdraw. In Europe when the Polish insurrection broke out in 1863, he did not, in spite of his sympathy, dare to support Poland against Russia. Nevertheless, such sympathies led to an estrangement from Russia. Moreover, the great powers refused Napoleon's proposal of a conference for the reorganization of Europe. Regarding Otto von Bismarck's policy with a certain benevolence, he kept aloof when Prussia settled the Schleswig-Holstein question by a war on Denmark. He had always sympathized with Prussia and the idea of the extension of Prussia's power in North Germany. He did not, however, openly tell Bismarck what price he demanded for his help. When in 1866, after routing Denmark, Prussia turned on its former ally, Austria, and defeated it more quickly than Napoleon had expected, he refused any armed intervention in its favour and only acted as mediator. Bismarck, however, was not willing to pay for Napoleon's neutrality by the cession of German territories. The emperor's plans to obtain compensation in Belgium failed, as did his attempt to gain Luxembourg in 1867. The retreat of Prussian troops from the fortress Luxemburg was no satisfactory reward: "Bismarck tried to cheat me. A French emperor cannot be cheated," grumbled Napoleon III, not willing to allow the Prussians to cross the Main River line and extend their power into southern Germany, which was Bismarck's obvious aim.
The emperor's failures in foreign affairs strengthened the opposition. When in the 1869 elections the government received 4,438,000 votes against the opposition's 3,355,000, Napoleon recognized that a genuine change of the regime was inevitable. In January 1870 he appointed Olivier-Émile Ollivier, whom Morny had recommended as the most appropriate prime minister for a liberal empire. The new Cabinet informed Great Britain and Prussia that France was ready to disarm, but Bismarck refused to cooperate.
On July 2 it became known that a Hohenzollern prince, a relative of the king of Prussia, was a candidate for the Spanish throne. In Paris this was regarded as Prussian interference in a French sphere of interest and a threat to security. Using his favourite means of secret diplomacy, Napoleon played a major part in causing the Hohenzollern prince to renounce his candidature. But then the sick emperor, influenced by the advocates of a belligerent policy, set out to humiliate Prussia by demanding that the candidature of the Hohenzollern prince would never be revived. As a result, war broke out on July 19. At the Battle of Sedan the sick emperor tried in vain to meet his death in the midst of his troops, but on September 2 he surrendered. He was deposed, and on September 4 the Third Republic was proclaimed. (see also Index: Hohenzollern dynasty) Napoleon was released by the Germans and went to live in England. He studied technical and social problems, defended his politics in various publications, and even thought of landing in France to regain his throne. He died after undergoing an operation for the removal of bladder stones. (H.G.E.)